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Dewey, Melvil 



Decimal classification and 
relative index... 17th ed. 



New York 



1965 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD TARGET 



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Dewey, Melvil, *d 1851-1931. H 

Decimal classification and relative index. 1 

17th ed. ... 1 

New York, *b Forest Press, +C 1965. f 

2 V. *c 25 cm. 1 

Representacao Tematica (Classif icacao) =»=2 larpcal 1 



19980607 
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GUIDE TO CONTENTS 



Dewey Decimal Classification 

1876-1979 



Reel No. 



Edition/Year 



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14th ed. 
15th ed. 
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16th ed. 



1932) - V. 1 Tables, v. 2 Index 

1942) - V. 1 Tables, v. 2 Index 

1951) - Standard (15th) Edition 

1958) - V. 1 Tables 

1958) - V. 2 Index 



GUIDE TO CONTENTS 



Dewey Decimal Classification 

1876-1979 



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1971) - V. 1 Introduction/Tables 

V. 2 Schedules 

1971) - V. 3 Index 



1979) - 



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V. 2 Schedules 



1979) - V. 3 Index 



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DEWEY 

Decimal Classification® 



DEWEY 



Decimal Classification 

and 
Relative Index 



Devised by 
MELVIL DEWEY 



Edition 1 7 



Volume 1 

Introduction 
General Tables 




FOREST PRESS, INC. 

OF 

LAKE PLACID CLUB EDUCATION FOUNDATION 

LAKE PLACID CLUB 
NEW YORK 12948 U.S.A. 

1965 



Copyright 1876, 1885, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1919* 

by Melvil Dewey 

Copyright 1888, 1891, 1894, 1899 

by Library Bureau 

Copyright 1922, 1927, 1932, 1942, 1952, © 1958 

by Lake Placid Club Education Foundation 

Copyright 1951, © 1965 

by Forest Press, Inc. 



Dewey, Melvfl, 1851-1931. 

Dewey decimal classification and relative index. Ed. 17. Lake 
Placid Club, N.Y., Forest Press, Inc. of Lake Placid Club Educa- 
tion Foundation, 1965. 

2 V, ( ix, 2153 p. ) 26 cm. 

Contents. — v. 1. Introduction. General tables. — v. 2. Auxiliary tables. 
Relative index. 



1. Classification, Decimal, i. Title. 
Z696 



025.43 



Library of Congress catalog card number: 65-10445 



THIS BOOK WAS COMPOSED, PRINTED AND BOUND 

IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
AT KINGSPORT PRESS, INC., KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



Contents 



Volume 1 



Publisher's Foreword 



Preface 

Editor's 

1. 

2. 

2.1 

2.2 

2.21 

2.22 

2.3 

2.4 

2.5 

3. 

3.1 

3.2 

3.3 

3.31 

3.32 

3.33 

3.34 

3.35 

3.351 

3.352 

3.353 

3.353 

3.353 

3.354 

3.355 

3.36 

3.37 

3.38 

3.4 

3.41 

3.42 



Introduction 

Book classification 

Dewey Decimal Classification 

History 
Basic plan 

Discipline 

Hierarchy 
Memory aids and synthesis of notation 
Versatility and flexibiUty 
Faults and virtues 
How to use DC 
Preliminaries 
Analysis of a book 
Selection of class number 

Approach 

Headings 

Definitions and scope notes 

Inclusion notes 
Instruction notes 

Optional provision 

Use of more than one in standard subdivisions 

Synthesis of notation 

1 Area notation 

2 Division 

Priorities of arrangement 

Relocations 
Cross references 
Standard subdivisions 
Subject not provided for 
Compound and complex subjects 
More than one subject 
More than one aspect 



5 

5 
7 
1 

8 

9 
11 
13 

15 

15 

18 

18 

19 

20 

20 

21 

21 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

23 

24 

26 

26 

27 

29 

29 

29 

30 



/ 



Decimal Classification 



3.43 Centered headings - ' \ 

3.44 Applications 

3.5 Reduction 

3.6 Index 

3.7 General suggestions 

' 4. Variations from recommended practice 

4. 1 Principle of usefulness 

4.2 OflBcially recognized variations 

4.21 Options 

4.22 Optional alphabetical arrangement 

4.23 Artificial digits 

4.3 UnoflBcial variations 

4.31 Attraction 

4.32 Expansion 

4.33 Alphabetical arrangement 

4.34 Relocations 

4.35 Standard subdivisions 

4.36 Dropping digits 

5. Features of Edition 17 

5.1 Subject integrity 

5.11 Structure 

5.12 Division by more than one principle 

5.13 Relocation 

5.2 Degree of expansion 

5.3 Standard subdivisions and area table 

5.4 Use outside United States 

5.5 Index 

5.6 Relation to Edition 16 and DC6- 

5.7 Spelling 

6. Toward Edition 18 

7. Acknowledgments 
■8. Conclusion 

Melvil Dewey's Introduction 

Description 
Orijin and growth 
Extent of use 
What is the sistem? 
Notation 
Best known decimal form 

vi 



31 

31 
31 
33 
36 
38 
38 
38 
38 
39 
40 
40 
40 
40 
41 
42 
42 
42 
43 
43 
44 
45 
45 
52 
54 
55 
56 
56 
57 
58 
59 
61 

63 
63 
63 
64 
65 
66 
66 



Contents 



: 



Relativ subject index 

What relativ index includes 

Tables 

Coordination 

New subjects 

Choice and arranjement of beds 

Sequence of allyd subjects 

Cachtitles 

Form distinctions 

Minute clasing 

Tentativ tables 

Nemonics 

Decimalism 

Relativ location 

Sizes on shelvs 

Catalogs 
Name catalog 
Shelflist 
Clast catalog 
Dictionary catalog 

Advantajes 
Shelvs 
Shelflist 
Accession book 
Pamflets 
Sale duphcates 
Charjing sistem 
Subject references 
Recataloging or reclasifying 
Adaptability 
Arabic numerals 

Endowment of special departments 
Summary 

Sugjestions to uzers 
Numeration 
Plan of book 

Familiarity with clasification 
Subject of a book 
Assyning clas numbers 
Number of figures uzed in clas number 

vii 



67 
69 
69 
71 
71 
71 
71 
72 
72 
73 
74 
74 
76 
77 
79 

79 
79 
79 
79 
80 

81 

81 

81 

81 

81 

81 

82 

82 

82 

82 

83 

83 

83 

84 
84 
84 
85 
85 
86 
88 



Decimal Classification 



Decimal Classification 



Bilding numbers 
Book numbers 

Variations practicabl 
Cautions 
Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions 

Fiction 

Juvenils 

Biografy 

Paralel libraries 

Combining languaj and literature 

Reference library 
Contractions for specialists 
Use of alfabet or cronolojy for final subdivisions 
Broken order 
Pro and con division of topics 

Bibliografic modifications 
Accretion syn + 
Cupling syn — 
Relation syn : 
Form syn (0) 
Universality syn oo 
Place syn (3)-(9) 
Languaj syn = 
Time syn " " 

Jeneral points of view syn 00 
AtoZ 
Sequence 

Other uses 
Bookstores 
Offis files 
Scrapbooks 
Index rerums 
Topical indexes 

Acknowlejments 
Future of D C 

Summaries 
General Tables 



89 
90 

91 
91 
93 
93 
94 
94 
95 
95 
95 
96 
97 
97 
98 

99 
100 
100 
100 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
102 
102 

102 
102 
102 
103 
103 
105 

105 
107 

109 
123 



Volume 2 



Table of Standard Subdivisions 
Area Table 
Synthesis of Notation 
Abbreviations Used in the Index 
Relative Index 



1255 
1263 
1505 
1519 
1521 



viii 



tx 



Publisher's Foreword 

Agreeably to the plan announst when the 16th edition appeared in 
1958, this 17th edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DC) is 
publisht on schedule in June 1965. In conformity with the same plans its 
preparation has respected "integrity of numbers" to the fullest extent 
compatible with "keeping pace with knowledge." More than its predeces- 
sors, too, it reflects not only the needs of libraries thruout the worlds 
but also the increasingly universal scope of American libraries. 

This is likewise the first edition of DC to reflect the consolidation of the 
editorial work in the same office with the application of the Classification 
to a large and important representation of current publications. The 4th 
to 6th, 11th and 12th editions were prepared in the New York State 
Library at Albany, where Melvil Dewey had gone in 1888 as State 
Librarian and whither he had transferred the library school from Columbia 
University, while the 7th to 10th editions were prepared at Lake Placid. 
But in 1927, in anticipation of an arrangement for printing DC numbers 
on Library of Congress catalog cards, the editorial office was moved to 
Washington and given space in the Library of Congress, with the motive, 
as expresst by Mr. Dewey of "extending stil further the [Library's] al- 
ready great servises to the cuntry at larj." 

The arrangement for printing DC numbers on the Library of Congress 
catalog cards became a reality in 1930 when the American Library As- 
sociation establisht at the Library of Congress its ALA Office for DC 
Numbers on LC Cards, at the head of which was Mr. David J. Haykin, 
who was later to become the first editor of the 16th edition of DC. This 
OflBce was so successful (in three and a quarter years it added DC 
numbers to 102,282 cards) that in 1933 the Library of Congress took 
over the work which it has continued ever since as a self-supporting 
operation, part of the catalog card distribution activity. 

Meanwhile the editorial work, pursued under the same roof tho still 
directed by the Lake Placid Club Education Foundation (a nonprofit 
body to which Mr. Dewey had entrusted the DC in 1924), produced the 
13th, 14th, 15th editions in 1932, 1942, 1951 respectively. 

In 1953 the Library of Congress, under a contractual arrangement 
with the Foundation, undertook the preparation of the 16th edition of 
DC, and for this purpose took over the staff and files of the Editorial 
Office. Tho carried on in separate offices, the editorial activity and 
the assignment of DC numbers to LC cards were thus united in tlie 
same organization. 



Decimal Classification 



But its own experience convinst the Library of Congress that these 
two operations could be most effectively executed by a single staff. Ac- 
cordingly, when the agreement between the Foundation and the Library 
was renewed in 1958 to cover the preparation of the 17th edition, it was 
planned that the Editorial Office and the DC Section of the Library's 
Subject Cataloging Division should be amalgamated. The consolidation, 
effected on November 24, 1958, gave birth to the present Decimal Classi- 
fication Office and was announst by the Library as expected to result 
in the assignment of DC numbers "to a progressively larger portion of 
the titles for which the Library of Congress prints cards, and to produce 
future editions of the classffication solidly rooted in daily experience in 
applying it to books." The 17th edition is the product of this new Office. 

Increasingly in recent years those concerned with the preparation and 
publication of the DC have needed first hand information regarding the 
manner in which it is used abroad and the wants of its users there. To 
supply this information a Field Survey of the Dewey Decimal Classi- 
fication Abroad was planned under the auspices of the American Library 
Association vidth assistance from the Asia Foundation, the Council on 
Library Resources and Forest Press. As reported in the Preface by Mr. 
Wright, the Siuvey became a reality in 1964. Its final report is now 
being written, and the major portion of its recommendations must await 
consideration in connection with the preparation of the 18th edition. 

Still another development, during the period covered by the prepara- 
tion of this edition, was intended to improve the responsiveness of the 
Classification to the needs of its users. In 1961 the Lake Placid Club 
Education Foundation delegated to its non-profit subsidiary, Forest Press 
(whose directors, serving without compensation, are drawn from activi- 
ties supporting library work) substantial autonomy with respect to the 
publication of the DC. 

The 17th edition reflects the collaborative work of many hands. In it 
the advisory contributions of the American Library Association, the 
(British) Library Association and the Catholic Library Association 
support the editorial activity of the Library of Congress and the pub- 
lishing activity of the Lake Placid Club Education Foundation thru For- 
est Press. In his Introduction the Editor has named a number of individ- 
uals to whom this edition is indebted. To all of these, and to still others 
not named, Melvil Dewey gave a task — and with it a reward. 



/«? April iq6s 



Preface 



In the preparation of this 17th edition of the Dewey Decimal Classi- 
fication the editorial criteria that were adopted for the 16th edition have 
been largely continued. A moderate amount of change, hopefully not 
more than will be found acceptable in tlie majority of libraries has been 
authorized to bring certain sections into line with modem thought A 
classification that does not keep reasonably abreast of current thmkmg 
must in time die, but one that imposes on its users the tremendous costs 
of reclassffication too recklessly will die also. The Decimal Classification 
Editorial Policy Committee hopes that this edition will be found to have 

avoided both extremes. 

The provision of the new area table, which divorces the geographical 
subdivision of all classes from the confining limits of history, is perhaps 
the most far-reaching change in this new edition; it is hoped that it will 
greatly simplify the process of number-building thruout the sched- 
ules The revision of the schedule of standard subdivisions both adds to 
the consistency of the schedule itself and provides an opportunity to 
make more consistent the application of these numbers under various 
subjects. Other changes made in the main schedules have served to 
update some of the more obsolescent classes. 

During the year 1964 Miss Sarah K. Vann, assisted by Miss Paulme A. 
Seely visited 23 countries thruout the world to discuss with librarians 
in the field the deficiencies of the Dewey Decimal Classification that 
have been discovered by users outside the United States. A number of 
the suggestions received from these sources had already been m- 
corporated into the new edition; most of them, because of the advanst 
state of the editorial work when the survey was undertaken, will have to 
await the preparation of the 18th edition. The Committee is deeply ap- 
preciative of the work of the two surveyors and the many librarians who 
gave liberally of their time and thought in making the classification a 
better instrument for libraries everywhere. 

Classification shares with other human productions the attribute ot 
imperfection. The Committee hopes that this edition will be found bet- 

3 



Decimal Classification 



ter than its predecessors. It also hopes that future editions will be 
better still. 

Members of the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee 
during the preparation of this edition have been EHzabeth C. Borden, 
Edwin B. Colburn, Godfrey Dewey, Virginia Drewry, Carlyle J, Frarey, 
Bertha M. Frick, Harriet D. MacPherson, Lucile M. Morsch, Esther J. 
Piercy, Joseph W. Rogers, Pauline A. Seely, Marietta Daniels Shepard, 
and Wyllis E. Wright. 

Wyllis E. Wright 

CHAIRMAN, DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION 
EDITORIAL POLICY COMMITTEE 

Williamstown, Massachusetts 
ij March ip6^ 



5 : 



Tip this sheet in Dewey Decimal Classification, Edition 17 y volume 1, 
facing page 5 



Use of Editor's Introduction with Revised Index 

All references in this introduction to the index are to the index in 
the original volume 2. Chief among these references are sections 3.31 
(p. 20-21), 3.6 (p. 33-36), and 5.5 (p. 56). For full information on the 
revised index the user should consult volume 2 revised, pages 1531-1535. 



Editor's Introduction 



1. Book classification 

A major objective of libraries is to see that optimum use is made of their 
collections, to bring the right reader to each book and the right book to 
each reader. As an aid to the achievement of this purpose, nearly all 
libraries find it helpful, indeed necessary, to impose upon their books and 
other materials one or more forms of subject control. 

One such form is classification. To classify a collection of objects or 
concepts is to place together in "classes" those objects or concepts which 
have certain characteristics in common and to separate from them the 
objects or concepts which do not have those characteristics. For instance, 
one might classify a collection of postage stamps according to countries of 
issue, each of which would be a separate class, e.g., stamps issued by 
Canada, by Italy, by Japan. Or one might choose another principle as the 
basis of division: color, size, shape, subject pictured, or for that matter any 
other characteristic that has significance for the utilization and enjoyment 
of a specific collection. If division were by country of issue, one might 
then classify the stamps of each country by monetary denomination, each 
of which would be a subclass, e.g., one-cent, two-cent, five-cent, one- 
dollar stamps issued by Canada; and each of these might then be further 
separated into subsubclasses according to date of issue. 

A system of "notation," while not an essential part of a classification 
system, is a major convenience, ( 1 ) in designating briefly the different 
classes and subclasses, especially if there are a great many of them in a 
complex pattern of relationships, (2) in identifying the objects that 
belong in the various classes, and (3) in determining, for some categories 
of objects, the slots, bins, envelopes, or shelves where they belong 
according to a desired and usually systematic sequence. 

Libraries classify their "books" or "works"— in this introduction, either 
term is used to mean all printed and written forms, sound recordings, 
films, slides, pictures, prints, globes, and other mediums of information 
and communication collected by Hbraries and related institutions— ac- 
cording to various kinds of characteristics. For example, because of 



Decimal Classification 



I 



differing problems of shelving, handling, and giving service, they usually 
separate recordings, films, atlases, newspapers, and the like from bound 
volumes of more or less conventional size; in this case the characteristic of 
division is physical form. Libraries of rare books often classify their works 
according to date and place of publication. Another common characteris- 
tic upon which division is based is specific kind of use, so that reference 
books, children's books, books in specific languages, books for popular 
reading collections, books of current interest may be set aside in separate 
groups. But most commonly, either overall or within such categories as 
those named above, libraries classify books according to subject. Such an 
arrangement is most useful for maximum retrieval of the kind of 
information wanted by the majority of patrons and the librarians serving 
them. 

Like the amateur stamp collector, the librarian may develop his own 
system of subject classification for the book collection for which he is 
responsible, catering to the special needs of its users. In the past a good 
many librarians did just this, and some, usually in special libraries, still do. 
(Numerous public libraries have recently organized their collections of 
current popular interest in somewhat heterogeneous groups according to a 
"reader-interest" arrangement, rearranging titles and developing new 
categories as interests of patrons shift. Practical as this has proved to be, 
it is not classification by subject,) However, the development of an 
integrated plan that will provide systematically for the tens and hundreds 
of thousands of subjects on which books are and may be written in this 
age of multiversity and specialization is no part-time occupation or 
avocation. It requires the intense efforts of specialists in librarianship, in 
subject classification, and in the countless disciplines of which the world 
of knowledge is composed, from religion to mathematics to musicology to 
pubHc administration to aeronautical engineering. For this reason, 
librarians have generally found it advantageous to follow, with local 
adaptations where necessary to meet local needs, one or another of the 
commonly used book classification systems, among the best known of 
which are BHss's Bibliographic Classification, Ranganathan s Colon Clas- 
sification, Dewey's Decimal Classification, Cutter's Expansive Classifica- 
tion, the Library of Congress Classification, Brown's Subject Classifica- 
tion, and the Universal Decimal Classification. 



2. Dewey Decimal Classification 

Of all these, Dewey's Decimal Classification— or, more commonly, the 
Dewey Decimal Classification, or merely the Decimal Classification, or 
the DDC or the DC; we shall call it all of these in this introduction— is the 
oldest and most widely used. In the United States it is the system followed 
by perhaps 90% of all libraries, including nearly all pubHc libraries, and 
school libraries virtually without exception; in other English-speaking 
countries and countries now or formerly part of the British Common- 
wealth it is followed by a majority of libraries; elsewhere, it has adherents 
in almost every nation on the globe. It has been translated, with or without 
abridgment, expansion, adaptation, into scores of languages, from Span- 
ish, Danish, and Turkish to Japanese, Sinhalese, and Portuguese. 

2.1 History Devised by Melvil Dewey for the Amherst College 
Librar>% it first appeared, anonymously, in 1876 as A Classification and 
Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of 
a Library. The second edition, "revised and greatly enlarged," appeared 
in 1885, carrying Dewey's name and the title Decimal Classification and 
Relativ Index. Between 1888 and 1959 came fourteen more full editions 
and eight abridgments. From the beginning DCs acceptance by the 
library profession and others was widespread and rapid, and, even today, 
for every library that abandons it for another system, many new ones 
adopt it and old ones turn to it. In 1930, because of popular demand, the 
Library of Congress, which uses its own classification system, nevertheless 
set up an office solely for the purpose of assigning centrally and printing 
on its widely distributed catalog cards DC numbers for the majority of 
titles that American libraries using the system might be expected to 
acquire. At present the system is used, in one form or another, by such 
varied current services as the American Library Association's Booklist; the 
H. W. Wilson Company's Standard Catalog Series, Book Review Digest, 
and catalog cards; the R. R. Bowker Company's Publishers Weekly, 
American Book Publishing Record, and Libros en Venta; the British 
National Bibliography and the Indian National Bibliography. Titles in 
thousands of reading lists, book guides, and bibliographies have been 
arranged or their subjects identified by the Dewey Decimal Classifica- 
tion. 

In 1895 the forerunner of todays International Federation for Docu- 
mentation (FID), by agreement with Melvil Dewey as to concordance 



Decimal Classification 



and bibliographic use, adopted the Decimal Classification as the basis for 
its international subject index; this grew into the Classification Decimale, 
otherwise known as the Brussels Classification or, now, as the Universal 
Decimal Classification (UDC), which has itself been translated into many 
languages. Differences between DDC and UDC have appeared in the 
intervening years, due in part to the more complex requirements of a 
bibliographic classification, but, even with the substantial revisions now 
under consideration for the UDC, the foundation of the two remains 
recognizably the same. 

2.2 Basic plan The Dewey Decimal Classification arranges all knowl- 
edge as represented by books within ten "classes" numbered 0, 1, 2, thru 
9. Class is used for works like general newspapers and encyclopedias 
that are on many subjects from many points of view, and also for certain 
specialized disciplines that deal with knowledge generally, such as 
information theory, library science, and journalism. Classes 1-9 consist 
each of a major discipline or group of related disciplines, and together 
with class they embrace the whole of human knowledge and intellectual 
endeavor. Thus, class 1 consists of philosophy and related disciplines, 
class 2 of religion, class 3 of the social sciences, class 5 of the pure sciences, 
class 6 of the applied sciences. The notation used to designate each class 
consists of 100 tliree-digit numbers, e.g., 000-099 for generalities, 300-399 
for social sciences, 600-699 for applied sciences. Each class is divided into 
ten subclasses, or "divisions," with the first division being devoted to 
general works on the entire class. Thus, 600-609 is given over to general 
works on the applied sciences, 610-619 to the medical sciences, 620-629 to 
engineering and allied operations, 630-639 to agriculture and agricultural 
industries, 640-649 to domestic arts and sciences. Again, each division is 
separated into ten subsubclasses, or "sections," with the first section 
devoted to general works on the entire division. Thus, 630 is assigned to 
agriculture and agricultural industries in general, 631 to farming activi- 
ties, 632 to plant diseases and pests and their control, 633 to production of 
field crops, 636 to livestock and domestic animals. The system permits 
further subdivision to any degree desired, with a continued decimal 
notation, which consists of the addition, following any set of three digits 
from 000 to 999, of a decimal point and as many more digits as may be 
required. Thus, 631 Farming is divided into 631.2 for farm structures, 
631.3 for farm tools, machinery, appliances, 631.5 for crop production, and 
others ; 63 1 . 5 is further divided into 63 1 . 5 1 for tillage, 63 1 . 53 for 
propagation methods, 631.55 for harvesting, and others. 



8 



Editors introduction 



No notation is ever less than three digits, zero (0) being used with its 
normal arithmetical value to fill vacant digital positions. Hence the 
notation for class 6 Applied sciences is 600. 

Preceding the full classification "tables" or "schedules" — this introduc- 
tion uses both terms — are three summaries, showing the ten classes, the 
100 divisions, and the almost 1000 sections. These start on page 109. 

Every book acquired by a library may be assigned to one of the classes, 
divisions, sections, or sub- (to whatever degree ) -sections provided by the 
tables of the DDC, and may be identified as belonging to its specific class 
by use of the appropriate notation. ( From this point forward, the word 
"class" will be used to refer to a subdivision of any degree; the 10 major 
classes will be called "major" or "main" classes.) The notation, or 
"number," designates the book's class; when written on the book and on 
the cards that describe the book, it provides a shorthand identification of 
the book's subject, and determines its relative position within the library's 
entire collection and within the appropriate discipline. 

This class number and the book number used by most libraries together 
constitute the call number, which is unique for each book and distin- 
guishes it from all others in the library. The book number usually is based 
on authorship, but may, as in biography, be based on alphabetical 
subarrangement of individual subjects within the class notation. For the 
use and construction of book numbers the reader should consult Bertha R. 
Barden's Book Numbers (Chicago, American Library Association, 1937). 
Most libraries follow the Cutter or Cutter-Sanbom alphabetic-order 
tables, or the Library of Congress author numbers. A special book number 
arrangement for works by and about William Shakespeare, which may be 
adapted for use with any specific author, appears in the DC tables that 
follow, under class 822.33. Other systems frequently used for arrangement 
within classes are by authors' surnames spelled out, by initials of authors' 
surnames, and by dates of publication. 

A class is not necessarily limited to a specific subject. Altho many 
subjects have their own numbers, e.g., representative democracy as a 
political entity 321.8, many other specific notations denote groups or 
collections of specific subjects, e.g., aristocracy, oligarchy, theocracy, 
plutocracy as poHtical entities all 321.5. The extent to which the system 
provides specific classes for specific subjects is explained in section 5.2 of 
this introduction. 

2.21 DISCIPLINE The concept of "discipline," or field of specializa- 
tion, is basic to an understanding of Dewey's system. The primary basis 

9 



Decimal Classification 



Editors introduction 



for DDC arrangement and development is by discipline, while subject, 
strictly speaking, is secondary. There is no one place for any subject in 
itself; a subject many appear in any or all of the disciplines. No class can 
be said to cover the scope of marriage, or water, or tomatoes, or Brazil; in 
common parlance, there is no single number for any of these concepts or 
subjects. A work on marriage belongs in 301 if it deals with the 
sociological aspects of the subject, in 155 if the psychological, in 173 if 
the ethical, in 234 or 265, depending on the aspect, if the sacramental 
(Christian), in 296 if Jewish and 297 if Islamic; in 390 if it deals with 
marriage customs, in 613 if hygiene; in 700 or 800 if it deals with marriage 
as a subject of art or literature (belles-lettres). Similarly, a work on water 
may fall in one of many disciplines: metaphysics, religion, economics, 
commerce, physics, chemistry, geology, oceanography, meteorology, 
history, and various others. Tomatoes may fall under economics, botany, 
horticulture, cookery, the art of painting, and elsewhere. Brazils geogra- 
phy goes in 918, its general history in 981, its social situation in 309, its 
political situation in 320; and Brazil may turn up as an area concept under 
any discipline, such as arts of Brazil, languages of Brazil, paleozoology of 
Brazil. 

No other feature of the DDC is more basic than this: that it splits 
subjects by discipline. This becomes quite obvious when one consults the 
index, which appears in volume 2. Here, under each subject, will be found 
the places to class it according to its "aspects," that is, the disciplines 
under which it may fall. Two examples will suffice here, one simple and 
one complex: 



Gambling 
customs 
ethics 

mathematics 
recreation 

Metals 
chemistry 
geology 

general works 
mineralogy 
industries 
extractive 
metallurgy 
economics 
technology 
mining 
economics 
technology 



394.3 
175.9 

519.1 
795.01 

546.3 

553.1 
549.23-.25 



338.47-f- 
669 

338.27-f- 
622.34 



lO 



manufacturing 
economics 


338.47+ 


technology 


671 


properties 
chemistry 


546.3 


engineering 
metallography 


620.16 
669.95 



2.22 HIERARCHY The system is hierarchical both as to disciplinary 
and subject relationships and, with certain minor exceptions, as to 

notation. 

2.221 Hierarchy in notation means that, for the most part, each 
successive division of the discipline or subject corresponds to a lengthen- 
ing of the significant notation by one digit, e.g., 



600 

630 

631 

631.5 

631.58 

631.587 

631.587 2 



Applied sciences 

Agriculture and agricultural industries 
Farming 

Crop production 

Special cultivation methods 
Irrigation farming 
By furrow system 



The reader will observe that "600" is main class 6 plus two zeroes to fill 
out the three-digit number, and "630" is division 63 plus one such zero. He 
will also observe the space between the sixth and seventh digits of the 
last number; this space is not a basic part of the notation, but, in this 
book for ease in reading, is left between each successive set of three digits 
after the decimal point. 

The digit is used to indicate a different basis for division of the 
discipline or subject represented by the digits preceding the 0, e.g.. 



500 

550 

551 

551.4 

551.46 

551.460 

551.460 1 

551.460 9 

551.461 

551.462 



Pure sciences 
Earth sciences 

Physical and dynamic geology 
Geomorphology 

Oceans and sea waters 

[Indicates special basis for division] 
Composition and properties of sea water 
Special oceanographic forms 
North Atlantic Ocean 
Mediterranean and Black Seas 

11 



I 



Decimal Classification 



Here the reader will observe that 551.460 1-.460 9 are used for topical (or 
"problem") subdivisions of the subject oceans and sea waters in general, 
and 551.461-.469 are used for specific oceans and seas. is never used as 
a terminating digit following the decimal point; 551.460 is not itself used 
and has no meaning. 

Sometimes, it will be found, there is a step in the successive divisions of 
the discipline or subject for which a position in the lengthening digital 
notation is not available. Such steps are shown in the tables by spans of 
numbers; these are called "centered headings." For example, 631-632 
deals with general principles of agriculture, 633-635 with production 
of specific crops, 636-638 with animal husbandry. Each of these ma- 
jor subdivisions of 630 is without the possibility of digital expression in 
the notation, and is shown in the tables, therefore, by a centered head- 
ing, e.g.: 



633 



.1 
.11 



633-635 Production of specific crops 
Field crops 
Cereal grains 
Wheat 



In a few instances the indention is "irregular," that is, the notation is not 
hierarchically expressive. For example, in 583-584 there are scores of 
botanical orders, all equal in subject value, represented by numbers 
varying in length from four to six digits. The tables show the equality of 
subject value by printing all the headings at the same indention. Similar 
situations exist among the books of the Bible in 222-229, among the 
counties under some U.S. states in the area table, and at a few other 

places. 

2.222 Hierarchy in disciplinary and subject relationships means, for 
example, that whatever appHes to or is true of 600 applies to or is true 
of all its subdivisions, what applies to 630 appHes to all its subdivisions, 
what applies to the span 631-632 applies to all its subdivisions, what 
applies to 631 applies to all its subdivisions, on to the finest subdivision. 
Hence the note under 631.2 Farm structmres, "Description, maintenance, 
use and place in farming," applies to each subdivision: to 631.21 
Farmhouses, to 631.23 Granaries, silos, elevators, to 631.27 Fences, 
walls, hedges, and all the others. Similarly, the instruction under 631-632 
General principles, "Class general principles applied to specific crops in 
633-635," applies to every part of 631-632; consequently, harvesting corn 

12 



Editors introduction 



should be placed not in 631.55 Harvesting but in 633.15 Corn, and 
damage to cherry trees from hail not in 632.14 but in 634.23. (By the 
principle of hierarchy, "in 634.23" means in that number or a subdivision 
thereof, as will be shown in section 2.33.) 

2.3 Memory aids and synthesis of notation We have said in section 1 
that notation is not an essential part of a classification system. However, 
arrangement and manipulation of a system without notation would be 
most difficult and awkward, and it is, in fact, Dewey's notation system 
rather than any theoretical excellence of his arrangement and develop- 
ment of the world of knowledge that has been largely responsible for the 
widespread acceptance and usage of his Decimal Classification. The 
notation is simple, consisting only of ten digits and a decimal point, is 
almost universally understood, and lends itself readily to subject synthesis 
with the benefit of numerous memory aids, or, as Dewey called them, 

mnemonics. 

2.31 Most notable memory aid is the constant repetition of a standard 
pattern of areal arrangement. In nearly all areal developments, the digits 
44, for instance, stand for France, 45 for Italy, 46 for Spain, 52 for Japan, 
73 for United States. General history is class 9 ( or 900 with two zeroes 
filling in the empty spaces ) , and it follows that 944 is general history of 
France, 945 of Italy, 946 of Spain, 952 of Japan, 973 of United States; 
general geography is division 91 (or 910 with the empty space filled), and 
it follows that (with a decimal point following the third digit) 914.4 is 
general geography of France, 914.5 of Italy, 917.3 of United States; 
international relations is 327, and 327.44 is international relations of 
France, 327.73 of United States, and even 327.440 73 international 
relations between France and United States; distribution of precipitation 
is 551.577 2, distribution of precipitation in France 551.577 244. The "area 
table" appears in volume 2 on page 1263. 

2.32 Another common repetition is that of the arrangement of 
languages in class 4. Instead of a more or less systematic sequence by 
location on the surface of the earth like the area table, this sequence 
emphasizes, by bringing forward and assigning short notation, those 
languages, races, cultures most likely, as it seemed to Dewey in 1876, to be 
emphasized in American libraries; in 1965, with many values changed, we 
may regret that it does less well by Russian (917) than by Proven9al (49), 
Latin (7), and Greek (8), but the classifier will find that it is not 
invariably followed to the hilt, so that in some sequences Russian does 
manage to fare better than it does under linguistics, e.g., general 

13 



Decimal Classification 



periodicals in Russian 057.1, in Proven9al 054,91, in Latin 059.7. The 
reader will observe a degree of repetition and memory pattern between 
the language sequence and that for European countries in the areal 
arrangement: 2 English (and Anglo-Saxon), 3 German (and Germanic), 
4 French (and related), 5 Italian (and related), 6 Spanish, 69 Portuguese, 
compared with 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 469 for England (and Wales), Germany 
(and other central European countries), France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, 
respectively. In most occurrences of the language sequence 1 is used for 
either United States or United States and Canadian. Thus, encyclopedias 
are 030 (03 plus a zero to fill in), and United States and Canadian 
English-language encyclopedias are 031, other English-language 032, 
Portuguese 036.9; literature (belles-lettres) is 800 (8 plus two zeroes), 
and American literature is 810 (81 plus one zero), other English- 
language 820, Portuguese 869. 

2.33 Many other patterns appear in full development at one place with 
repetition by analogy at other places. To name but a few, each book of 
the Bible is given the same development as the Bible as a whole ("divided 
like" 220.1-220.9); each language is given the same development as 
English ("divided like" 421—428); each agricultural crop is given the same 
development as the general principles in 631-632, so that damage to 
cherry trees from hail (cited in section 2.22) does, indeed, go not in 
634.23 itself but in a subdivision based on the division of 634.23 like 
632.14. In fact, some topics, among them bibliographies and catalogs of 
specific subjects in 016 and libraries devoted to specific subjects in 026, 
are given the same development as the whole classification, e.g., bibli- 
ography of applied sciences 016.6, of agriculture and agricultural indus- 
tries 016.63, of irrigation farming 016.631 587. 

2.34 Still another patterned repetition is that of the "standard 
subdivisions," the table of which appears on page 1255. Virtually any 
subject or discipline may be presented in various forms: as a synopsis or 
outline, as a periodical, as a collection of writings, in tables, in illus- 
trations. Similarly, most subjects may have certain modes of treatment in 
common: theory, technique, study and teaching, history. These common 
forms and modes are known collectively as the "standard subdivisions," 
and may be applied to any class to which they are appropriate. The 
notation consists of two or more digits, of which the first is zero, e.g., 05 
Serial publications, and may be added to any DC notation taken or 
derived from the main tables, e.g., serials on the applied sciences 605 
(class 6, without the two zeroes that fill empty spaces in 600, plus 

14 



Editors introduction 



standard subdivision 05), serials on agriculture and agricultural industries 
630.5 (division 63, without the zero that fills an empty space in 630, plus 
05, with a decimal point following the third digit), serials on farming 
631.05, on crop production 631.505, on harvesting 631.550 5. 

2.4 Versatility and flexibility A valuable feature of the DC notation, 
not shared by some of the other commonly used classification systems, is 
its adaptability to the needs of libraries of different sizes and natures. The 
DC can be used equally well for broad classification and for close. For 
example, a small library or a large one with only a few tides on the subject 
can class the production of field crops in 633 without subdivision. A 
somewhat larger library can class general works in 633, works on 
production of cereal crops in 633.1, of forage crops in 633.2, and so on. 
A library with a still larger collection can divide its books into such detail 
as it requires. As any library's collection increases in size, it can 
differentiate its books to a finer and finer degree of specificity simply by 
adding further digits to the notation. A work on damage to cherry trees 
from hail can be placed in 634, 634.2, 634.23, 634.239, 634.239 1, 
634.239 14, depending on the degree of closeness in classification re- 
quired. The full edition of the DDC may be used by general libraries of 
any size, from the largest, which may follow it in full detail at least in 
some subjects, to the smallest, which may reduce ("cut back") any or all 
schedules to the degree considered desirable. The abridged edition 
supplies reduction on a ready-made basis and is convenient for small 
libraries to use on that account, but, except at its own level, it does not 
allow for judicious decision on what schedules to reduce and how far to 
reduce them to meet specific local needs. 

2.5 Faults and virtues The faults inherent in the DDC are many. No 
serious student of classification since 1876 has failed to note them, and 
numerous critics have arisen to attack the system because of them. Among 
the more important are: ( 1 ) its weaknesses in overall arrangement of the 
world of knowledge, separating general history from social sciences, 
language from literature, political science from public administration and 
law, economics from commerce, and others; (2) its failure to assemble at 
one point all that a student or reader may want on a topic; (3) its 
preoccupation with decimal notation and its tailoring of subject relation- 
ships to the rule of ten. Brief comment on each of these criticisms 

follows. 
2.51 The overall arrangement does not necessarily follow theoretical or 

logical concepts, nor did Dewey intend it to do so. DDC's aim was and is 

^5 



II 



Decimal Classification 



to provide a practical system for storage and retrieval of books. Consist- 
ency it must have, but logic not necessarily; for example, class 3, 
comprising 300-399, must be consistent in containing only what its 
heading "The social sciences" says it contains, but the illogic of separating 
political science from law by the interposition of economics is of less 
consequence. As to language and literature, it may be argued that, while 
colleges teach them together, and no doubt professors would find it 
convenient to find the two together on library shelves, language has no 
theoretical aflBnity with literature, is in fact used by all disciplines, is a 
basic tool of communication, and therefore falls with a certain reasonable- 
ness between social and pure sciences. In any event, no library of any size 
arranges all classes in one grand sequence 000-999, not even the Library 
of Congress, which devised its own classification system to meet its own 
unique requirements. 

2.52 No system of classification can assemble at one point all that each 
student or reader may want on the topic of his current interest, because no 
two students or readers are alike. And no linear system of classification 
can arrange topics in a schedule or books on the shelves so as to display 
every point of view and all practical and theoretical relationships. 

2.53 If notation is one of the DCs weaknesses, it is also its greatest 
strength. Its flexibility and memorability have already been mentioned; 
means for coping with its occasionally extreme length will be dealt with in 
section 5.2. Dewey was never as fascinated by the number 10 as his critics 
would lead one to think: he was chiefly concerned with practicality; and 
his successors have devised ways that he did not require to work around 
the limitations of but ten different notational symbols. 

2.54 In short, the DDC has been criticized in large part for not being 
what it does not set out to be: a detailed fully logical system for classified 
catalogs and classified bibliographies, with specific separate provision for 
every minute topic on which books, if not also reports and articles, have 
been or are likely to be written. 

As W. C. B. Sayers says, in his A Manual of Classification for Librarians 
and Bibliographers (London, Grafton, 1959. p. 125) : 

No one now rushes to defend the D. C. on the grounds of the moder- 
nity of its order or the brevity of its notation. The curious fact remains 
that more and more libraries throughout the world continue to use it, 
many of them modifying it; somehow it works. We should fail in our 
appreciation of services rendered if we did not say that a scheme 
which has survived for eighty years in ever-growing currency in spite 

x6 



Editors introduction 



of merited criticism must have virtues which in practice outweigh 
our theoretical objections. These are its accessibility and the ease with 
which it may be applied in whole or in part to collections of books 
and other material of any size, and expanded as these collections 
grow. Even if the order of the main classes and of some divisions is 
unacceptable to many minds, there is in ordinary general library 
practice no obvious necessity for an optimum order, although such an 
order is in some way necessary to the ideal scheme, which should be 
one of logical classes in logical relations. 



^7 



Decimal Classification 



Editors introduction 



to provide a practical system for storage and retrieval of books. Consist- 
ency it must have, but logic not necessarily; for example, class 3, 
comprising 300-399, must be consistent in containing only what its 
heading "The social sciences" says it contains, but the illogic of separating 
political science from law by the interposition of economics is of less 
consequence. As to language and literature, it may be argued that, while 
colleges teach them together, and no doubt professors would find it 
convenient to find the two together on library shelves, language has no 
theoretical afiinity with literature, is in fact used by all disciplines, is a 
basic tool of communication, and therefore falls with a certain reasonable- 
ness between social and pure sciences. In any event, no library of any size 
arranges all classes in one grand sequence 000-999, not even the Library 
of Congress, which devised its own classification system to meet its own 
unique requirements. 

2.52 No system of classification can assemble at one point all that each 
student or reader may want on the topic of his current interest, because no 
two students or readers are alike. And no linear system of classification 
can arrange topics in a schedule or books on the shelves so as to display 
every point of view and all practical and theoretical relationships. 

2.53 If notation is one of the DCs weaknesses, it is also its greatest 
strength. Its flexibility and memorability have already been mentioned; 
means for coping with its occasionally extreme length will be dealt with in 
section 5.2. Dewey was never as fascinated by the number 10 as his critics 
would lead one to think: he was chiefly concerned with practicality; and 
his successors have devised ways that he did not require to work around 
the limitations of but ten different notational symbols. 

2.54 In short, the DDC has been criticized in large part for not being 
what it does not set out to be: a detailed fully logical system for classified 
catalogs and classified bibliographies, with specific separate provision for 
every minute topic on which books, if not also reports and articles, have 
been or are likely to be written. 

As W. C. B. Sayers says, in his A Manual of Classification for Librarians 

and Bibliographers (London, Grafton, 1959. p. 125) : 

No one now rushes to defend the D, C. on the grounds of the moder- 
nity of its order or the brevity of its notation. The curious fact remains 
that more and more libraries throughout the world continue to use it, 
many of them modifying it; somehow it works. We should fail in our 
appreciation of services rendered if we did not say that a scheme 

'' which has survived for eighty years in ever-growing currency in spite 

i6 



of merited criticism must have virtues which in practice outweigh 
our theoretical objections. These are its accessibility and the ease with 
which it may be applied in whole or in part to collections of books 
and other material of any size, and expanded as these collections 
grow. Even if the order of the main classes and of some divisions is 
unacceptable to many minds, there is in ordinary general library 
practice no obvious necessity for an optimum order, although such an 
order is in some way necessary to the ideal scheme, which should be 
one of logical classes in logical relations. 



i7 



3. How to use DC 

To the beginner, whether student or practitioner, a first view of the 
Dewey Decimal Classification may be somewhat intimidating; it is the 
purpose of this, the practical part of the introduction, to lay open DDC's 
fundamental simplicity by presenting advice on how to use it to class a 
book or classify a library. What follows is intentionally didactic in form. 

3.1 Preliminaries Before you try to use it, acquaint yourself with the 
system. Study the three main summaries preceding the general tables. 
Learn the ten main classes, and look thru the sequence of divisions and 
sections. Then leaf thru the tables. Observe the many summaries to 
specific schedules. Knowledge of the pattern will come rapidly with use, 
and especially so if the tables rather than the index are consulted first in 
classifying. Notice the effect of the principle of hierarchy: Each entry 
except the ten main classes is a part of and governed by every entry 
superior to it. To understand the full meaning and force of 631.587 2, you 
must view it as a part of 631.587, which, in turn, is a part of 631.58, which 
is a part of 631.5, which is a part of 631, which is a part of 631-632, which 
is a part of 630, which is a part of 600. ( This is known colloquially in the 
Decimal Classification Office as the "drip" principle: the quahties of each 
superior entry "drip" to those below it. ) 

Do not fail to look thru the special tables of standard subdivisions and 

areas, both in volume 2. 

Be sure also to observe the special nature of main classes 8 and 0. In 
class 8, subject is disregarded for works of belles-lettres, e.g., a play about 
Julius Caesar and Roman history, whether by Shakespeare or an amateur, 
is a piece of imaginative Hterature, good, bad, or indifferent, and belongs 
in the appropriate part of 800 instead of under history or biography. 
Arrangement of belles-lettres is first by the discipline belles-lettres, then 
by original language, then by form, then by period of composition (but 
note that literature itself may be a subject). In class 0, general encyclope- 
dias (030), periodicals (050), newspapers (071-079), collections and 
anthologies ( 080 ) , and general pubUcations of general societies 
(060-068) have no specific subject and form part of no one discipline; the 
most significant thing about them, after their generality, is their respective 
forms. Arrangement of generahties is first by form, then by language or 
place as the tables provide. In all other classes (including 000-029, 069, 
070.1-.9, 090) arrangement is first by most specific discipline and most 

i8 



Editors introduction 



specific subject under it, then by areal specification of the subject if the 
tables permit, then by temporal specification if the tables permit, then by 
' form of presentation. 

3.2 Analysis of a book Before you can fit a book into the system, or 
"class" it, you must know exactly what its subject is, and from what point 
of view and in what form that subject is treated. To discover this is not 
always easy: 

Sometimes the title indicates what the book is about; however, it is 
often misleading, and some further method should always be used as a 
check. 

The table of contents is usually an excellent guide. 

If there is no table of contents, chapter headings and marginal notes 
are likely to give a good indication of the contents. Clues may also be 
provided by bibliographies and lists of sources used by the author. 

It is always wise to scan the preface for the author's point of view, even 
if it merely verifies a decision already based on some other aid. 

If tlie sources named above prove unsatisfactory, a careful examination 
of the text may be necessary. 

If the subject is complex or unfamiliar to you, you may have to go 
to external sources. Information regarding the subject of the book may be 
obtained from bibliographies, catalogs, biographical dictionaries, histories 
of literature, encyclopedias, reviews, and otlier reference books. 

Subject experts should be consulted when all other methods fail, and 
sometimes for verification of a tentative decision. But do not let the 
subject experts who are not also book classification experts occupy your 
time telling you how to remake the classification tables; what you need 
from them is assistance in placing given books on difficult subjects within 
an existing scheme. 

Note well that many books are on two or three or many subjects, 
considered separately or in their interrelationships; and that many books 
are on two or more aspects of one or more subjects, that is, on a subject 
or subjects witliin two or several disciplines, e.g., on both the economics 
and the technology of the textile manufacturing industry, or on both 
nuclear physics and nuclear engineering, or on both architectural design 
and construction principles of dwelling houses, or on the sociological, 
ethical, religious aspects of divorce. Note, too, the current trend toward 
interdisciplinary studies in depth, particularly in the social sciences. To 
become a good classifier, it is most important that you analyze each book 
carefully, not only to ascertain its subject or subjects but also to determine 
to what extent it crosses traditional lines of study. 

^9 



Decimal Classification 



3.3 Selection of class number Before becoming involved in the appli- 
cation of the tables to such compound and complex subjects as those 
just mentioned, we shall consider the procedures for classing a book on 
one subject in one discipline. 

3.31 APPROACH Having determined the book's subject, and the 
point of view from which the subject is treated, you are ready to class it. 
There are two basic approaches to the classification tables: direct, and 
thru the index. Beginners will usually find the latter approach speedier, 
but it is not recommended because it delays the process of becoming fully 
acquainted with the system. Note that, whether you are beginner or 
expert, you must not and, in fact, you cannot class directly from the index. 
The index provides leads to tlie tables but is not exhaustive and can never 
be a substitute for them. In any event, if your approach in a given 
situation is thru the index, find first the subject and then look under it for 
the proper aspect. If, for example, your book is on metals, you will find 
under "Metals" various aspects, most with subaspects and subsubaspects. 
Finding the one that characterizes your book, you can then turn to the 
correct part of the tables and analyze the specific number that appears to 
fit. The better approach is to go direct to the tables, using the index if 
necessary to locate the proper discipline; only when you are lost in the 
tables is it recommended that you turn to the index for your initial sub- 
ject lead-in. For more detailed information on use of the index, see 
section 3.6. 

If your approach is direct, first determine into which of the ten major 
classes the book falls. If the subject is metals, is it the science of metals 
(class 5), the technology (class 6), the economics (class 3), artistic work 
in or on metals (class 7), or e\en metals in the Bible (class 2)? Having 
chosen the proper major class, then, as if there were no other, determine 
into which of its divisions the book falls. If the subject is metal tech- 
nology, is it metals as engineering materials (division 62), mining of 
metals (also 62), treatment (66), fabrication (67), metals in hardware 
(68), in building (69)? Then in the same way determine the proper 
section, subsection, and subsubsection, until you have come to the most 
specific head ( used by your library ) that will encompass the subject of 
the book. Even if that head is less specific than the subject of the book, 
you have arrived at the right place; possibly a future expansion will give 
you an even more detailed number; for example, a book on education of 
royalty belongs under 371.96, even tho the head encompasses other topics 

20 



Editors introduction 



as well. At each stop on the way look carefully at the notes and direc- 
tions, making certain that you have not followed a false trail. Do not 
depend solely on the main or any of the 240 special summaries; they 
exist only to speed you to tentative decisions and lack the fine distinc- 
tions that must be considered before any decision is final. 

If you know the tables well or if you come to them via the index, you 
may start at once with a specific number. In that case it is most important 
that you go up the ladder, testing at each level to see if the particular 
subject of your book belongs within the concept named and described. 
Whether you go up or down, analyze every step, including centered 
headings, which are readily spotted by the inch-long lines preceding them 
and the indicators adjacent to them. Read every heading, note, and cross 
reference carefully. 

3.32 HEADINGS Each heading consists of a word or phrase so 
inclusive that it covers all subordinate topics and entries. The actual 
wording may be incomplete, because the heading must be read as part of 
the larger group that includes it, e.g., in 440 "French, Provencal, Catalan" 
means those languages, but in 840 the same heading means those 
literatures; in 336.294 2 "On persons" means incidence (336.294) of 
taxation (336.2) on persons. 

3.33 DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE NOTES In some instances a 
heading requires, for complete understanding, the qualifications stated in 
the note following, e.g., 336.274 Licenses: "To engage in specific acts, 
businesses, professions." Others are followed by definitions, e.g., 330 
Economics: "The science that deals with production, distribution, con- 
sumption of wealth." ( Observe that this definition, and the one at 300 The 
social sciences, "The sciences that deal with social activities and institu- 
tions," rule out home economics as a subdivision of 330; the latter is, in 
fact, an applied science, is defined as "Care of household, family, person," 
and belongs in 640. ) When no definition is given, the term is understood 
to be used as delimited by its subdivisions, or as defined in Webster's 
Third New International Dictionary or in other general unabridged 
dictionaries of the English language. Still other headings are followed by 
notes enumerating specific qualifications applicable to the subject and its 
subdivisions, e.g., 631.2 Farm structures: "Description, maintenance, use 
and place in farming" of farmhouses (631.21 ), bams (631.22), and so on, 
as distinct from "design and construction" (725-728) of the same 
buildings (728.67, 728.9). Still others are followed by notes stating the 
"scope," that is, subordinate qualifications not obviously part of the 

21 



Decimal Classification 



heading that "drip" down thru the subdivisions, e.g., 362.2 welfare 
services'to the mentally ill, "Scope: psychiatric social work," a concept 
that applies to each subdivision of the number. 

3.34 INCLUSION NOTES Notes beginning "Including" do not 
"drip"; they are enumerations of subordinate topics not obviously part of 
the heading on which there is as yet insufficient literature to justify 
separate provision. For example, 301.428 Family disorganization, dissolu- 
tion adjustment is a subject with four named subdivisions: divorce and 
remarriage each with its own number, death and separation each given 
"standing room" in the general number. 

3.35 INSTRUCTION NOTES Notes of instruction are of various 

kinds. , , 

3.351 Optional provision If you desire for local reasons to place books 

in numbers other than those provided by the schedules, you will do so 
without official encouragement. However, a few official alternatives are 
provided but with the editors' preference, which will be followed by the 
printed catalog card service of the Library of Congress, always clearly 
shown For example, 229.24 deuterocanonical book of Judith: "If pre- 
ferred [i.e., if you prefer], class in 222.88"; 222.88: "(Optional; [the 
editors] prefer 229.24)." Again, 901.9 Civilization: "If preferred, class m 
909"; 909 World history : " ( Optional : civilization; prefer 90 1 .9 ) ." 

3.352 Use of more than one in standard subdivisions As stated in 
section 2.34, standard subdivisions, which generally consist of two or more 
digits the first being 0, may be used with any number at any level 
whenever they are appropriate. But in some places, for various reasons, 
notation beginning with is used for another purpose, in which case you 
are instructed (for example) to "Use 335.001-335.009 for standard 
subdivisions," or, sometimes, to "Use 361.001-361.008 for standard 
subdivisions" (the concept normally belonging in 09 being otherwise 
provided for ) . On occasion you are instructed to use three or even four s 
for standard subdivisions. This instruction does not "drip"; it applies only 

exactly as stated. 

3 353 Synthesis of notation Frequently the opportunity is presented to 
expand a given number synthetically without enumerating its subdivi- 

sions. , . 

3.353 1 Area notation When a given heading has particular geographic 
significance and there are numerous books dealing with the subject m a 
given continent, country, locality, or other area, provision is made to ex- 
pand the number for that heading by area. For example, under 331.29 

22 



Editors introduction 



Historical: and geographical treatment of wages, you will find the in- 
struction, "Add area notations 1-9 to 331.29." This means that a book on 
wages in Japan is to be placed in 331.295 2, that is, 331.29 plus the number 
52 for Japan from the area table on page 1263. Wages in Tokyo would fall 
in 331.295 213 5, wages in rural regions in general in 331.291 734. Observe 
that wages in rural regions of Japan does not belong in 331.291 734 
(because under area 1 appears the note, "Not limited by continent, 
country, locality"), but rather in 331.295 2; an optional note under the 
centered heading for areas 3-9 tells you that, "if desired," you may add 
009 to the number for Japan or any other continent, country or locality 
and divide like area notation 1. (Even where specific provision for adding 
area numbers is not stated, they may be added to standard subdivision 09, 
as shown in the table of standard subdivisions, e.g., special education in 
Japan 371.909 52. For full information see section 3.37, ) The instruction to 
add area notations does not "drip" to subdivisions of the number under 
which it appears; instead it is an instrument for authorizing the formation 
of those subdivisions without explicitly stating them. 

3.353 2 Division The same is true of the instruction to "divide like" an- 
other number or sequence. This is another important basis for synthesis of 
notation, or "number building." It may appear under a single number or a 
sequence of numbers, and it directs you to divide that number or 
sequence like a single number or like a sequence. Actually, in every case, 
one sequence, the primary one, is to be divided like another sequence, the 
secondary one. Many classifiers have found the procedure confusing, but 
it need not be so if one works methodically. First, determine and set down 
the full span of the secondary sequence. Second, set down the number 
from that sequence that is appropriate to the work in hand. Third, cancel 
the repeating digits of the secondary sequence, i.e., the digits that appear 
thruout its entire length without change. (There may be none.) Fourth, 
substitute for them the repeating digits of the primary sequence. Fifth, 
insert the decimal point appropriately and delete any terminal O's. For 
example, class infant baptism under 234.16, and "divide like 265.1- 
265.7": 



1. 265.1-265.7 

2. 265.12 

3. (265.) 12 

4. (234.16) 12 

5. 234.1612 



Full span of secondary sequence. 
Number in this span for infant baptism. 
Cancel all repeating digits of secondary sequence. 
Substitute repeating digits of primary sequence. 
Desired number. 

^3 



Decimal Classification 



Class crossbreeding in sheep under 636.308, and "divide like 636.08": 

1. 636.081-636.089 

2. 636.082 43 

3. (636.08) 2 43 

4. (636.308) 2 43 

5. 636.308 243 

Class adaptations of mammals to drought under 599.01-599.09, and 
"divide like 591.1-591.9": 

1. 591.1-591.9 

2. 591.542 

3. (591.) 542 

4. (599.0) 542 

5. 599.054 2 

Class bibliography of agriculture under 016, and "divide like 001-999," 
with no digits common to secondary sequence: 

1. 001-999 

2. 630 

3. 630 Nothing to cancel. 

4. (016) 630 Prefix 016. 

5. 016.63 

"Divide like" means to divide like the secondary sequence to the extent 
that is appropriate to the heading, definition, and scope governing the 
primary sequence. For example, area notation 174 Ethnic groups is to be 
divided like 420-490. In the sequence 420-490 appears 499.992 Esperanto. 
Since this is an artificial language, area notation 174 999 92 is not 
applicable to ethnic groups, and is, in fact, an absurdity. 

3.354 Priorities of arrangement As v^^e saw^ in section 1, many subjects 
may be divided according to more than one principle. We also saw (in 
section 2.221 ) that the digit is used to introduce a change in the basis of 
division. Two O's and three O's may be used to introduce still other bases of 
division, as, for an extreme example, 350.000 l-.OOO 9, 350,001-.009, 
350.01-.09, 350.1-.9, 351-359. A given book may divide its subject 
simultaneously according to two or more principles, e.g., composition and 
properties (551.4601) of the water of the North Atlantic Ocean 
(551.461). This raises a question of priority: by which characteristic 
should one class the book? With rare exceptions where the schedules 
themselves specify otherwise, such as at 808.89, subdivisions without 

take precedence in choice over those with one 0, those with one over 
those with two O's, those with two O's over those with three O's. 



H 



Editors introduction 



Consequently, the book goes in 551.461 not 551.460 1. But two or more 
principles of division may be provided for in numbers none of which have 
O's (or all of which have the same number of O's). Then the schedules 
themselves give instructions on priority of choice, so that the classifier may 
avoid the confusions of cross classification. You may have a book on labor 
by aged Negro women slaves; should you class it in 331.398, 331.4, 
331.582, or 331.639 6? The instruction under centered heading 331.3-331.6 
tells you, by a table of precedence, to use 331.398. Now, suppose your 
book is on night work by aged Negro women: 331.398 or 331.81? The first 
note under 331.3-331.6 specifies that work periods of special classes of 
workers belong there, but, if you happen to arrive first at 331.81, you will 
find at 331.8 an instruction to class the topics that follow in relation to 
special classes of workers in 331.3-331.6. Either way, die correct number 
is 331.398. 

We have not yet come to cross references, but it is appropriate to point 
out here that many cross references serve the same purpose of eliminating 
the dangers of cross classification by indicating the preferred basis of 
division, e.g., the cross reference from 331.2 to 331.3-331.6 tells you that 
books on wages of aged Negro women are to be placed in the latter 

span. 

In any case of cross classification where the bases of division include 
subject, place, form, the order of preference is as follows, regardless of 
the absence of instructions or cross references: (1) subject, (2) place, 
(3) form. Only the presence of explicit directions to the contrary and the 
rule that non-0 takes precedence over supersede this order of prece- 
dence. Examples: ( 1 ) The general principle tells you to class guaranteed- 
wage plans in the United States in 331.230 973 not in 331.297 3. (2) Ex- 
plicit directions to the contrary at 325.309 tell you to class colonization in 
Australia in 325.94 not in 325.309 94. (3) The rule of non-0 preceding 
tells you to class composition and properties of the water of the North 
Atlantic Ocean in 551.461 not in 551.460 1. (4) The general principle tells 
you to class a peroidical on science research methodology in 501.8 not in 
505, i.e., standard subdivisions of a substantive nature take precedence 
over those that are forms. 

Otherwise, the editors have tried to anticipate most situations where 
cross classification is likely to be a problem, and to provide specific 
guidance. Where they have not anticipated the need for a note, the 
following precedence formula is a generally reasonable and helpful one to 
follow, altho it may require modification in certain places: Class the 

^5 



Decimal Classification 



Editors introduction 



if 



H 



subject by (1) kinds, (2) parts, (3) materials, (4) properties, (5) 
processes within it, (6) operations upon it, (7) agents. (Observe that, 
while North Atlantic Ocean is a place, it is also a part of oceans and sea 
waters, so that classing composition of its waters in 551.461 reflects this 
formula by giving parts precedence over properties. ) 

3.355 Relocations A relocation is an adjustment in the tables resulting 
in the shifting of a topic from the number provided for it in Edition 16 to 
a number in the present edition that differs in respects other than length, 
e.g., the shift of astronautics from 629.138 8 to 629.4, whereby the original 
digits are not added to or cut off, but all following 629 is changed. If the 
relocation is total, i.e., the entire number formerly used is to be vacated, 
the number is enclosed in square brackets, and there is an instruction 
showing where the subject formerly in that number is now placed, e.g., 
[629.138 8] Astronautics: Class in 629.4. If the relocation is only partial, it 
is indicated in a note of instruction, e.g., 243 EvangeHstic writings: Class 
evangelistic sermons [formerly 243] in 252. Total relocations are not to be 
confused with entries and instructions showing that concepts normally 
belonging in standard subdivision notations are to be placed instead in 
other numbers, e.g., [331.209] Historical and geographical treatment: Do 
not use; class in 331.29. Relocation notes "drip." For example, the note 
under 336.2, "Class tax administration [formerly 336.2] in 350.724," 
applies to this subject thruout 336.2. In Edition 16 administration of 
specific kinds of taxes was provided for with other works on those taxes in 
336.2 1-.27, and general works on tax administration were provided for in 
336.292; this relocation note tells you to class all works on tax administra- 
tion, formerly in 336.2 and various of its subdivisions, in 350.724 and it^ 
subdivisions. 

3.36 CROSS REFERENCES These direct you from the stated or 
impUed totality of a given subject to component parts of that subject 
provided for elsewhere than in the number referred from or numbers 
subordinate to it, e.g., under 385 Railroad transportation: For local rail 
transit systems, see 388.4. Cross references are not used to lead from a 
subject in one discipline to the same or a related subject in another 
discipline. They lead only from the whole subject vdthin its discipline to 
parts of the subject within the same discipline located elsewhere. 
However, a few subjects from a single point of view are considered parts 
of two separate disciphnes, e.g., the scientific aspect of geomagnetism, 
which is equally part of physics and of earth sciences. This subject is 

26 



provided for in 538.7 under magnetism with a cross reference from 551.1 
Gross structure and properties of the earth. 

Cross references "drip." For example, the reference from 331.2 to 
331.3-331.6 means that any subdivision of 331.2 if applied to specific 
classes of workers belongs in 331.3-331.6, e.g., wages of women in specific 
occupations in 331.42 not in 331.28. 

On very rare occasions one reference may appear to cancel part of the 
eflPect of another; in such cases, the reference at the more specific level 
overrides the other. An example is 322-323: at 323 Relation of state to 
individuals and groups is a reference, '*For relation of state to organized 
groups, see 322," but under 322.4 Protest and pressure groups is an 
overriding reference, ''For relation of state to revolutionary and subver- 
Mve groups, see 323.2." This means that the relation of the state to 
revolutionary and subversive groups, even tho organized, is placed in 
323.2 in spite of the reference at 323 implying otherwise. 

3.37 STANDARD SUBDIVISIONS Having analyzed thru all the 
steps of the ladder the number chosen for the book in hand, and decided 
that it is the correct and most specific number, you are now ready to 
consider what further specification is desirable, i.e., whether any of the 
standard subdivisions are appHcable. If your book deals with technique 
and apparatus of the subject, you may add 028; if it consists of a collec- 
tion of articles on the subject, you may add 08; most common of all, if the 
book deals with the subject in the United States only (or in Marrakesh), 
you may add 097 3 (or 09646). See the table on page 1255. 

Observe here a very important limitation in the use of standard 
subdivisions: do not add them to the number chosen for a book that deals 
with a subject more specific than the content of the nmnber, i.e., if the 
subject of the book does not have its own specific number. For example, 
class a collection of writings on architecture of office buildings in 
725.230 8, but class a collection of writings on architecture of television 
towers in 725.23. The reason is that there is always the chance that in a 
later edition the subject will be subdivided and you will then face 
complications in adjustment; for example, perhaps in Edition 18 television 
towers will be provided for specifically in some such number as 725.237, 
and you can then use 725.237 08 for your book. 

It is their standard meanings that make these subdivisions "standard." 
Nevertheless, sometimes a given standard subdivision when applied to a 
given subject may logically be given one or more meanings that are 
extensions of and compatible with the basic meaning, and you will then 

27 



Decimal Classification 



find in the tables an entry or group of entries specifying the extension. A 
simple example is 720.223 Plans and detail drawings in architecture, an 
extension of standard subdivision 022 3 Plans. A more elaborate one is 
669.028 2-.028 4 for a special expansion, applicable only to metallurgy, of 
standard subdivision 028 Techniques, apparatus, equipment. 

Frequently standard subdivisions are to be placed in 001-009 or 
000 1-000 9; as we have seen in section 3.352, instruction notes tell you 
when. 

Sometimes, most often for 09, a concept ordinarily placed in a standard 
subdivision number is found instead with an irregular notation; most of 
these date from earlier editions of the DC that were prepared before the 
table of standard subdivisions became so detailed. These instances are all 
noted under the numbers where you would normally expect to find them. 
Examples: 
[730.28] Techniques, apparatus, equipment 

Do not use; class in 731.3-731.4 
[747.09] Historical and geographical treatment 

Do not use; class in 747.2 
328.309 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in modem 

world in 328.4-328.9 
(That is, use 328.309 01-328.309 04, 328.3091-328.309 3, but instead of 
328.309 4-328.309 9 use 328.4-328.9. ) 
602.7 Identification marks 

Class patents and inventions in 608.7 
(That is, use 602.75-602.78, but instead of 602.72 use 608.7.) It is obvious 
that you should not use a standard subdivision until you have made sure 
from the tables that its use is not irregular as to notation or meaning. The 
warning not to use standard subdivisions for a book that deals with less 
than the whole subject covered by the number applies equally to those 
situations where standard subdivision concepts, including areal and 
temporal specification, appear in irregular notation. 

When a standard subdivision or span of standard subdivisions is 
specifically named in the tables, it is understood that, unless there are 
contrary instructions, the usual subsubdivisions may be used, e.g., 
332.673 09 Historical and geographical treatment is to have area notations 
1-9 added to it just like any standard subdivision 09, 332.06 Organizations 
is to be divided into 332.061, .062 and so on just like any standard 
subdivision 06. 



a8 



Editors introduction 



3.38 SUBJECT NOT PROVIDED FOR In the world of today, 
knowledge grows so fast that any edition of the DDC is outdated before it 
appears. With little doubt, you will have books on subjects for which the 
tables and index have provided a place neither explicitly nor implicitly. 
Do not make up your own number for such a subject; as sure as you do, 
the next edition will place the subject in another number and use the 
number you chose for something else! The guiding principle is to follow 
exactly the same procedure outlined above: determine the correct main 
class, then the correct division, then the correct section, continuing until 
you have arrived at the most specific head that will contain the subject of 
your book. It may be that you cannot go beyond three digits; stop right 
there and give your book standing room, and wait for the editors to supply 
a more detailed number, which you may then use simply by adding digits 
to the number you have already chosen. Do this carefully, and you will 
rarely go wrong. An example for the future is a bit difficult to imagine, but 
two from the past may be illustrative. Edition 16 provided for astronauti- 
cal engineering in 629.138 8 (now relocated to 629.4) but for no other 
aspects of man in space. A classifier with a book on the physiology of man 
in space might have been tempted to class it in 629.138 8, but that would 
have been wrong; he should have used 612.01 or even just 612, which is 
now expanded to 612.014 5 for the precise subject. Edition 16 provided no 
place for transportation by overland air-cushion vehicles (hovercraft), 
but a classifier following the principles outlined here would have used 
388.3, and found his decision confirmed by the appearance of 388.35 in 
the present edition. 

3.4 Compound and complex subjects The foregoing rules and prin- 
ciples provide a basis for classing a book on one subject in one discipline. 
But, as we have seen, your analysis of the book may have shown that it 
deals with two or three or many subjects, considered separately or in their 
interrelationships; or with two or more aspects of one or more subjects. 
Assuming that you are using the DDC as a shelf classification, obviously 
you must choose one place and class the book there. Since most libraries 
employ other methods of subject control in addition to shelf classification, 
the chances are that the subject catalog, whether alphabetical or itself 
classified, will provide additional leads. Where, then, should you class the 
book? 

3.41 MORE THAN ONE SUBJECT ( 1 ) Class a book dealing with 
two or more interrelated subjects with the one that receives the chief 
emphasis. For example, class an analytical work dealing with Shake- 

29 



Decimal Classification 



speare's influence on Keats with Keats. The emphasis may be a reflection 
of the relative amount of space devoted to each subject, or of the author's 
purpose, or of both. The author's purpose in the work imagined above 
may be said to be an exposition of Keats's work. If the treatment of Keats 
occupies only a small portion of the book, say less than a third, and does 
not permeate the portion that deals specifically vdth Shakespeare, then the 
heavy preponderance of space devoted to Shakespeare should carry more 
weight than the author's purpose of explaining Keats, and the book should 
be placed with other works on Shakespeare. But if the author's purpose is 
pervasive thruout the book, even tho the treatment of Shakespeare 
actually occupies more space, then greater weight should be given to 
purpose, and the book should be placed with other works on Keats. Such 
decisions are sometimes very diflBcult to make. (2) Class a book dealing 
with two or more subjects, not particularly interrelated, e.g., a descriptive 
work on the beliefs and practices of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, with 
the one that preponderates. (3) If no emphasis or preponderance is 
apparent, (a) class a book on two subjects with the one coming first in 
the classification tables, or (b), optionally, class a book on two subjects 
tliat are both subdivisions of a broader subject with the broader one; and 
( c ) class a book on three or more subjects that are all subdivisions of a 
broader subject with the broader one. Examples: (a) class a book dealing 
with equal emphasis with Judaism (296) and Islam (297) in 296, or (b), 
optionally, in 290; (c) class a similar book dealing with Hinduism 
(294.5 ), Judaism, and Islam in 290. 

3.42 MORE THAN ONE ASPECT ( 1 ) Class a book dealing with a 
subject from two or more points of view or aspects, i.e., within two or 
more disciplines, with the aspect that receives the most emphasis. For 
example, class a book dealing with both the scientific and engineering 
principles of electrodynamics in 537.64 if the engineering aspects are 
introduced primarily for illustrative purposes, in 621.31 if the basic 
scientific theories are introduced primarily as a preliminary to the author's 
development of an exposition of engineering principles and practices, 
(See also section 3.44.) (2) Class a book dealing with a subject from two 
or more aspects but having no apparent emphasis with the one that 
preponderates. ( 3 ) If no emphasis or preponderance is apparent, class a 
book dealing with a subject from two or more aspects with the underlying 
or broader discipline, e.g., science underlies technology, art is broader 
than belles-lettres. (4) Lacking any other principle, class in the discipline 
that comes first in the schedules. 



30 



Editors introduction 



To class a book on two or more interrelated subjects considered from 
two or more aspects, you may have to apply a combination of all the 
foregoing rules. Do not overlook the possibilities of class 0, e.g., 

001.3-001.4,080. 

3.43 CENTERED HEADINGS As seen above in section 2.221, 
centered headings are steps in the successive divisions of a discipline or 
subject for which positions in the lengthening digital notation are not 
available. Since a given book can have but one class number, it is 
necessary to indicate how to class books dealing with concepts in centered 
headings. ( 1 ) If the span of entries directly subordinate to the centered 
heading is three or more, (a) class comprehensive works in the next 
higher number, e.g., classical physics (531-538) in 530, dental surgery 
(617.64-617.67) in 617.6, England (area 421-428) in area 42; but (b) 
always check to see if a general-special subdivision of the next higher 
number has been provided, i.e., a subdivision based on a 0-notation, e.g., 
tiansportation services (385-388) in 380.5, applied ethics (172-179) in 
170.202; and (c) class elsewhere only in the rare instances where you are 
so instructed in a note under the centered heading, e.g., Romance 
languages (440-460) in 479.1, metallurgy of nonferrous metals 
(669.2-669.7) in 669.7; but (d) note that when the centered heading 
covers "specific" parts of something, general works may be in a preceding 
specific number without notice at the centered heading, e.g., Old 
Testament (specific parts 222-224) in 221. (2) If the span of entries 
directly subordinate to the centered heading is only two, (a) class 
comprehensive works in the first of the two numbers, e.g., valves in 
electronic circuits (621.381 51-621.381 52) in 621.381 51; but (b) class 
elsewhere if you are so instructed, e.g., public revenues (336.1-336.2) in 
336.02, technology of food and drink (663-664) in 664. 

3.44 APPLICATIONS Class an application of a principle, concept, 
science, procedures, technique with application. For example, class 
general principles of radio communication engineering in 621.384 1; 
special developments of radio engineering, e.g., the circuitry and instru- 
ments used in space communication, in 621.384 19; but the application of 
space communication to astronautics in 629.437 and 629.457. 

3.5 Reduction We have indicated in section 2.4 that a valuable feature 
of the DC notation is its adaptability to both close and broad classifica- 
tion. How close or how broad the classification of a specific library should 
be is a matter of administrative determination. It is likely that only a very 
large general library or a hbrary with enormous collections in certain 

3^ 



Decimal Classification 



subjects will follow the present edition to its fully expanded detail, and 
none of those in every section. In short, every library using these tables 
will reduce them in some or many parts. The detail supplied herein is 
intended to be more rather than less than what most libraries will require, 
because it is easy to cut back, either from the tables themselves or from 
the numbers recommended by central classification services for specific 
titles, but not easy, or advisable, to expand beyond what is officially 
provided. According to the printed tables, a book on the fresh-water 
plants of Lake Pontchartrain would fall in 581.929 763 34, a number likely 
to be required only for a botanical library or a general library with a very 
large coUecrion in botany; most libraries will be adequately served by 
581.9, or at most 581.929. 

Do not cut notation to less than three digits, no matter how small your 
collection may be. A library specializing in science and technology may 
have half a dozen books on religion, and the classifier may be tempted to 
class them all just in 200. In the long run this is false economy; it is 
better to class the King James Bible in 220 (cut back from 220.520 3), the 
work on paleontology and religion in 215 (cut back from 215.6), the work 
on YMCA organization in 267 ( cut back from 267.33 ) . 

Do not cut a number so that it ends in a to the right of the decimal 
point. 

Cut at a reasonable spot, i.e., one that will bring about a useful 
grouping. This requires special care when applied to synthesized num- 
bers. For example, if you have a large collection on the subject, you may 
find it desirable to class a book on economic conditions in Oxfordshire in 
330.942 57. But if your collection is not of such a size as to justify a 
breakdown by counties, it is unlikely that you will consider 330.942 5 
(East Midlands) a very useful grouping; instead you will probably use 
330.942. On the other hand, a similar work covering Glamorgan can be 
quite satisfactorily assigned to 330.942 9 (Wales), because this is more 
likely to be a useful grouping. Many libraries consider geographic 
breakdown below country unnecessarily detailed except in 9+ for general 
history and 91+ for geography. Indeed, with a quite small collection you 
may consider 330.94 satisfactory for books on economic conditions in all 
parts or any part of Europe. For another example, you may find the detail 
of 331.287 721 necessary in a large collection for wages in the cotton 
textile industry, or you may find 331.287 7 (wages in the textile industry) 
or 331.287 (wages in manufacturing) or 331.28 (wages by occupation) 
useful groupings in smaller collections, but it is doubtful if 338.287 72 



3^ 



Editors introduction 



(wages in textile industries using seed-hair fibers) would prove very 

useful. 

Be sure that when you cut you do just that; do not change digits. For 
example, if your collection of books on birds is so small that you do not 
wish to take advantage even of the differentiation provided by 598.3, 
598.4 . . . 598.9, do not use 598.2 as a general gathering place for all 
books on birds, even tho it is headed "Aves (Birds)"; instead cut right 
down to 598. (You can still use 598.1 for books on reptiles.) If you use 
598.2, you will be obliged, if future growth requires that your books on 
birds be divided, to remove the "2" and substitute "3," "4". . ."9." 

Record in the schedules all decisions for reduction. Do not try to record 
decisions of this nature in the index; an index entry (like a cross reference, 
relocation, or other note of instruction) leading to a number that is cut 
back will then be understood to lead only to the most detailed number 
that has been retained. Thus, if the schedule 551 is cut back to four figures 
(i.e., to 551.1, 551.2, 551.8, etc.), the index entry for dikes leading to 
551.88 will be understood to lead only to 551.8, and the cross reference 
from 525.2 to 551.12 will be understood to lead only to 551.1. 

3.6 Index In the event that your initial lead-in to the classification is 
thru the index, which, as we saw in section 3.31, is not recommended 
except when a direct approach to the tables has proved fruitless, you 
should know how tlie index is constructed and how to use it. 

3.61 The index is relative (and is traditionally known as the "relative 
index"): rather than recapitulate the tables alphabetically, it reverses 
them, in that it brings together the various aspects of a subject to show 
their dispersion thruout the tables. For example, if you have a book on 
botanical drugs and look under that term, you will find several aspects 
and subaspects, including chemistry, general pharmacology, and veteri- 
nary pharmacology, each leading you to a number in the tables. This 
number may be the most precise and specific one available, as is the case 
with 547.72 for the chemical aspects. Or, it may be a general number of 
which a subdivision best fits your book, as is the case with 615.32 for the 
general pharmacological aspects; this index entry and number are set in 
boldface, which means that the topic is subdivided in the tables, either by 
stated subdivisions or by provision for number building. Finally, it may be 
an incomplete number which must be built onto thru synthesis in order to 
arrive at the number required, as is the case with 636.089+ for veterinary 
pharmacological aspects; the plus sign means that, when you turn to the 
table, you will find that 636.089 is to be divided like 61 1-619. The proper 

33 



Decimal Classification 






suffix is easy to establish without scanning the many pages of 611-619, 
because the analogous number in 611-619 is the general pharmacological 
aspects number 615.32, which, thru operation of the "divide-like" process, 
produces 636.089 532. (In this illustration 636.089+, i.e., 636.089 532, is 
set in boldface because, Uke 615.32, it is itself subject to further sub- 
division. ) 

It may be that your book deals with the botany or the agriculture of 
botanical drugs. These aspects are not enumerated under the entry 
"Botanical drugs," but you will find there a cross reference, "see also 
Medicinal plants." Looking under the latter heading, you will find the 
aspects botany and agriculture, as well as a reference from the aspect 
pharmacology back to Botanical drugs. Under the botanical aspect you 
will find a number for general works and a reference to see also specific 
plants. ( Of course, if your book is on the botany of a specific plant, say 
poppies, you would have consulted the index directly under that name, 
found the aspects agriculture and pharmacology and a reference to 
Rhoeadales, under which you would have found the aspect botany in 
583.12.) Under the agricultural aspect you will find two subaspects, 
economics 338.17+ and technology 633.88. The tables reveal that 338.17 
is divided like 633-638, so that 338.17+, using the analogy of 633.88, 
becomes 338.173 88. 

Having read this far, you vdll have observed that the index entries are 
closely interrelated and that the index cannot be used carelessly. 

3.62 The index is limited: only those aspects appearing most fre- 
quently in the literature are included. It is clear by now to the reader of 
this introduction that almost any subject can be treated within almost any 
discipline. Botanical drugs and medicinal plants may turn up not only in 
botany, chemistry, agriculture, and general and veterinary pharmacology, 
but also in bibliography, library science, psychology, ethics, Christian or 
other religion, sociology, political science, economics, and right on thru 
general history. (You are dubious about political science and general 
history? Consider the possibility of a title on the effect of drugs on a 
given statesman's personality and its results in history.) Obviously, the 
index cannot enumerate all these aspects; if your book deals with an 
unusual aspect of a subject, you must classify direct from the tables by 
successive narrowing of choices as suggested above in section 3.31. 

Aspects are often replaced by blanket references. For example, under 
Evils are the aspects ethics and religion; and under the religious aspect 
two subaspects are named and numbers shown for them, Christian 241.3 

94 



Editors introduction 



and general works 291.5, with a blanket reference, "see aho other spec, 
reir To find evils under Buddhism, you must first find Buddhism, note 
that it is in 294.3, and then scan the subdivisions of that number in the 
schedule. Since all religions other than Christian are arranged generally 
like 291.1-.9, it is not too difficult to locate the correct number 294.35. 

Generally speaking, under each subject entered in the index there 
appear from two to five aspects or references, but in a few cases only one; 
remember that in no case does this exhaust the aspects from which the 
subject may be treated and under which you may class it. Entries under 
geographical names lead only to the area table; as we have seen in section 
3.353 1, area numbers may be added, either directly or with standard sub- 
division 09, under any number in the general tables. 

Another form of limitation is the use of individual cross references 
leading from one heading to another. These may be from synonyms or 
near-synonyms, e.g., Vegetable-derived drugs see Botanical drugs, or 
from specffic topics to broader or related terms, e.g., Haggai see Minor 
prophets, Sabellianism see Heresies, Water liUes see Ranales. In the third 
example, the number for the botany of Ranales is used without further 
subdivision for all its parts, including water Ulies. But the number for the 
minor prophets in the Old Testament, 224.9, is set in boldface, and Haggai 
is, in fact, in 224.97, which may be found by surveying in the schedule the 
subdivisions of 224.9. Similarly, 273 for heresies in Christian church 
history is boldface, and Sabelhanism may be found, by inspection of the 

schedule, to be in 273.3. 

Still another form of Umitation is the deliberate omission of thousands 
of terms, obviously parts of broader concepts, the inclusion of which 
would make the index look more like an unabridged dictionary. If you 
have a book on how to pitch in baseball, you will find no index entry for 
pitching. It should require Uttle thought to send you next to Baseball, 
where you will find a reference to Bat games. Under the latter you will 
find 796.35, a single index entry covering nearly 50 schedule entries. With 
the help of the summary under 796.35 you wUl quickly find that the 
desired and precise number is 796.357 22. Similarly, with a handful of 
exceptions, the area numbers for cities and towns can be found only by 
looking for the countries, states, counties in which they are located. 

3.63 The index is coordinated with the tables: it is a guide to them but 
must not, in fact cannot, be used without them. Suppose your book were 
on the Old Testament book Hosea instead of Haggai: you would find the 
same reference in the index to Minor prophets, and would turn to Minor 

3S 



Decimal Classification 



prophets 224.9. But when you examine the schedule, you will find that 
Hosea is not even in a subdivision of 224.9, but, as the cross reference 
shows, has its own number 224.6; if you classified from the index alone, 
the number you chose would be not merely cut back, but actually wrong. 
As we have already demonstrated, you cannot find the Buddhist concept 
of evils without consulting the tables. Without observing all the 
instructions, definitions, references in the tables at the numbers to which 
the index has led you, you can never be sure that your work is correct; in 
fact, you must be guided not only by the information at the exact number 
and its subdivisions to which the index has led you, but also, in 
accordance with the suggestions made in section 3.31, you must test that 
number all the way up the hierarchical ladder. It is obvious that you must 
never classify from the index alone. 

If the subject you want is not found in the index, look for it under a 
sjTionym, under another word of the same root, under a related term (for 
example, if what is wanted is not found under "heart," try "cardi-"), 
or under a broader subject. 

3.64 Index entries are arranged alphabetically by word. Explanatory 
words in parentheses are not considered in alphabeting. When the same 
word appears in both geographic and subject senses, the geographic 
comes first. Hyphenated words are considered to be single words. 
Abbreviations are filed as if spelled out; a list of those used precedes the 
index. 

Most nouns are entered in the plural form; the singular form is more 
often employed for nouns used as adjectives. 

Names beginning with Mc and M' are arranged as if spelled Mac. 
Germanic modified vowels, such as a, o, ii, are arranged as a, o, u. 

Numbers preceded by "5.5.-" are to be found in the table of standard 
subdivisions, and may be added to class numbers as appropriate. 
Numbers preceded by "area-" are to be found in the area table, and may 
be added to class numbers as appropriate. Both these auxiliary tables 
appear in volume 2 preceding the index. 

A dagger (t) preceding a number indicates that one or more 
topics — not necessarily the topic named at that entry — have been 
relocated to the number from elsewhere in Edition 16. Details of 
relocation appear only in the tables. 

3.7 General suggestions Class translations, reviews, keys, and analyses 
of, indexes to, and other works about a specific work witli that work. 

36 



Editors introduction 



Save time by seeing if one of the centralized classification services has 
already assigned a number; even if you do not follow the same edition of 
DDC or the policies of the central service, or have made local adaptations 
of your own, the decision of experts will be helpful. Among the more 
important sources for DC numbers from the latest unabridged edition are 
Libraiy of Congress catalog cards, the ALA Booklist, Publishers' Weekly, 
and American Book Publishing Record; numbers from the latest abridged 
edition appear on H. W. Wilson Company catalog cards and in Book 
Review Digest and the various parts of the Standard Catalog Series, The 
British National Bibliography, altho it follows a combination of the latest 
and earlier unabridged editions, with numerous special detailed subdivi- 
sions (using letter notation) not officially authorized by the DDC editors, 
may be found useful for classification analysis. 

To promote consistency and future efficiency, make a record of all 
decisions. This should consist of a shelflist or record of each book in 
classffied order, and a record of decisions on specffic problems, which may 
be kept separately or written in the margins of the classification tables. 



37 



4. Variations from recommended practice 

4.1 Principle of usefulness Every library has its own unique clientele, 
and, in serving that clientele's special needs, may find it desirable to 
modify specific printed provisions in ways other than reduction. An 
important advantage of the DDC is that its notation provides a universal 
language that can be understood from one library to another and even 
from one country to another; for example, in the primary school, the 
metropolitan public library, and the university, in the U.S.A. and India, in 
Israel and Brazil, 623 always means military and naval engineering. This 
advantage, however, should not be permitted to outweigh a real and 
permanent local need. By "real" we mean that each variation should have 
a demonstrable reason that can be recorded and defended. By "perma- 
nent" we mean that a specific need of a temporary or short-term natiwe 
may be met by special displays and rearrangements; it should not be met 
by adjustment of class numbers. 

Record in the schedules every decision for variation. As with reduction 
(section 3.5 ), do not try to record decisions of this nature in the index. 

4.2 Officially recognized variations A number of important variations 
appear in the printed tables. They are officially recognized and recom- 
mended for use by libraries whose needs they will serve, but are not 
reflected in the practices of the Decimal Classification Office as printed 
on Library of Congress catalog cards, 

4.21 OPTIONS Certain topics are given two specific placements. One 
placement is considered to be preferred by the editors, and at it, in each 
case, appear^ a note, "If preferred [i.e., if you prefer], class [this subject 
at another location]"; the other placement is considered by the editors to 
be optional, and at it, in each case, appears a note, "(Optional; prefer [the 
location preferred by the editors])." There are 54 such options, and 
several examples follow. 

Most public libraries prefer to have their belles-lettres in each language 
divided by form, and this is the traditional DC arrangement, e.g., 820 
English literature, 821 Poetry, 822 Drama, 823 Fiction, 824 Essays. This 
procedure separates the poetry of, say, Matthew Arnold from his prose. 
However, most college and university libraries prefer to have all works of 
a given author together, and all authors writing in each language arranged 
either in one alphabetical sequence or in a temporal sequence. Conse- 
quently, under centered heading 821-828 Specffic forms, you will find a 

38 



Editors introduction 



note, "If preferred, class . . . single authors regardless of form in 828 
with or without period subdivision," and under 828, "(Optional: class 
here with or without period subdivision . . . single authors regardless of 
form; prefer 821-828)." If a library wants its authors arranged in this way, 
it may still choose to separate literary forms under a given author by use 
of appropriate book numbers, e.g., Victor Hugo 848.7 H9, Hugo's poetry 
848.7 H901, his drama 848.7 H902, his fiction 848.7 H903. 

Traditionally, DC has placed the various branches of geography under 
the specific topics that are areally considered, e.g., economic geography 
330.9, phytogeography 581.9, medical geography 614.42. However, with 
a growing academic and research interest in geography, numerous li- 
braries have in recent years come to prefer an arrangement that brings 
all geography together. This is supplied optionally at 910.1 Topical geog- 
raphy, which is divided by subject, e.g., economic geography 910.133, 
phytogeography 910.158, medical geography 910.161 4. 

Treatment of biography varies greatly from one librar)' to another. 
Many academic libraries prefer it arranged with pertinent subjects, e.g., 
biography of engineers with engineering, of statesmen with general 
history, of artists with art. Most popular libraries prefer all or most 
biography together, either subarranged by subject or (for individual 
biography) in one alphabet by biographee. Accordingly, while standard 
subdivision 092 with each subject is the editors' preferred treatment of 
biography, there appears a note under 092, "If preferred, class biography 
in 920.1-928.9," and under 092 4 Individual, "If preferred, class in 92 or 
B," the latter being traditional notations used widely for individual 
biography in one alphabetical span. 

General geography of specific continents, countries, localities is placed 
by editors' preference in 913-919, but, optionally, may be placed in 
930-990 with general history of these areas. 

The deuterocanonical books of the Bible fall by editors' preference in 
229 as apocrypha, but, optionally, may fall in 222-224 in the sequence 
provided for them by the Douay Bible. 

4.22 OPTIONAL ALPHABETICAL ARRANGEMENT In a rela- 
tively few places, e.g., at 598.8 and at area table 74-79, where a subject 
has many coordinate subdivisions with accepted names, the option is 
provided of alphabetical instead of systematic arrangement. It is assumed 
that alphabeting will be effected by use of the Cutter or Cutter- 
Sanbom alphabetic-order tables, or the Library of Congress author 
numbers. 

39 



Decimal Classification 



4.23 ARTIFICIAL DIGITS The decimal notation being limited to 
nine significant digits, Melvil Dewey usually assigned 1-8 to those places, 
races, languages, cultures, that were most significant to American librar- 
ies of 1876, grouping others as "minor" in 9. As a result, we now find 
places, races, languages, cultures on which there is considerable Uterature 
assigned notations that are very long, e.g., English language 42 but Urdu 
language 491.439, Christian doctrine 23 but Hindu doctrine 294.52. 
Consequently, libraries serving eastern and other cultures are likely to find 
their owti literature near the end of long sequences and denoted by long 
numbers. To correct this situation, the tables frequently suggest as an 
option that a letter or other symbol be used as an artificial digit to bring 
into prominence any desired lingual, ethnic, or cultural approach. For 
example, a note at 080 provides that general Urdu anthologies may be 
placed in 08U (or 08* or 08t ), instead of 089.914 39, and shelved before 
081; a note at 292-299 provides that Hinduism may be placed in 2H0 (or 
2*0 or 2t0), instead of 294.5, and shelved before 220, or, as another 
option, 29H may be used preceding 292. 

4.3 Unofficial variations Other variations may prove to be useful in 
specific situations even tho not recognized in the tables. 

4.31 ATTRACTION Because of special local interest or special 
collections of books, it may on occasion be desirable to class a given 
subject in the wrong discipline, e.g., all works on Jews, not just their 
religion, in 296, all works on automobiles, not just their engineering, in 
629.2. 

An extension of this practice is the complete reversal of DC order. For 
example, a library devoted to travel and area study might make an 
administrative decision to arrange its collections by place; if so, it could 
use the area notations for the basic classes, and divide each after by 
subject. Then everything on Japan would be placed in class 52: religion in 
520 2, economic situation in 520 33, art in 520 7. In such a system works 
not areally specified could be placed in notation followed by the regular 
DC notation, e.g., economic conditions of the whole world 033. Needless 
to say, this kind of use of DC, while thoroly practical, would also be 
purely local. 

4.32 EXPANSION The demands of an extraordinarily large collection 
in a given subject may appear to dictate the development of a home- 
made expansion. This is strongly discouraged. An institution needing an 
expansion should consult with the Decimal Classification Office, which, if 
the need appears to have general support, will undertake to prepare it. If 

40 



Editors introduction 



an expansion is not immediately available, the broad classification should 
be made to serve until the official expansion is ready. A good expansion 
takes a great amount of time for study, research, interviewing, and 
correspondence, and necessitates a broad and dispassionate overall 
approach. Such a project is generally of too great magnitude for the 
majority of librarians with their full quota of other duties. The librarian 
going ^ead on his own to make changes or expansions should remember 
that, once a change is made, whether good or bad, the library, because of 
the expense of reclassifying, is likely to have to live with it indefinitely, 
unable to make use of official expansions and improvements in subsequent 
editions. This warning applies also to the unauthorized synthesis of 
notation, including successive division by more than one principle. For 
example, there are excellent if not always immediately obvious reasons 
why, altho most subdivisions of 633-635 are divided like 631.5 and 632 
(as authorized under 633-635), some are not. It is best, if local additions 
must be made and cannot await editorial action, that letters or other 

artfficial digits be used. 

4.33 ALPHABETICAL ARRANGEMENT As an alternative to sys- 
tematic arrangement, or as a means for home-made expansion, alpha- 
betical arrangement (using the Cutter, Cutter-Sanborn, or Library of 
Congress tables) may serve specific local purposes. It is most useful when 
there is a very large number of specifics. When names of specifics are not 
precise and generally accepted, it should be used with great caution lest 
the same concept turn up under two or more terms, e.g., the use of names 
of specific occupations under various subdivisions of 331 might call 
welders metalworkers and shoemakers cobblers. 

Sometimes the editors are asked why a given subject should not be 
given alphabetical geographical arrangement, e.g., by U.S. states alpha- 
betically instead of by notation 74-79 and 969. It is true that the sequence 
Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California . -. . Wyoming is quite 
familiar and easy to understand. It is true also that under many subjects, 
e.g., statistics, such an arrangement is entirely satisfactory. But under 
others, e.g., fauna and flora, it is more satisfactory to find Virginia and 
West Virginia side by side rather than separated by Washington state. 
And a separate arrangement for cities, distinct from that for states, will 
bring close together treatment of churches (or any other subject you 
choose) in Baltimore and Boston, but only separate churches in Boston 
from those in Quincy, Newton, and Lynn. On the whole, it is best to follow 
the area table. 

4^ 



Decimal Classification 



4.34 RELOCATIONS Libraries that have followed the recommenda- 
tions of earlier editions may find it inconvenient to adopt the relocations in 
the present edition. A full review of the need for facing up to necessary 
relocations, and taking advantage of or compromising with them, follows 
in section 5.13. If you find that you must ignore any or all relocations, you 
will do so in full awareness that you may be blocking yourself from taking 
advantage of future editorial improvements. 

4.35 STANDARD SUBDIVISIONS Some libraries will prefer to keep 
their employment of standard subdivisions regular, always using regular 
notations instead of the irregular notations described in section 3.37. This 
is not likely to create future difiiculty, and may be effected by canceling 
the special instructions to use irregular notation under specific subjects. 

4.36 DROPPING DIGITS As described in section 5.2, some notations 
are inconveniently long, and may be replaced in part by letters. In some 
situations you may even be willing to forego the use of certain subdivi- 
sions in order to employ the notations oflBcially assigned to them for other 
more frequently used concepts for which the official notation is longer. 
For example, in main class 8 the notations for general period divisions 
under given literatures are very long, e.g.. United States literature 
810.900 1-.900 5, Armenian literature 891.992 090 01 -.992 090 05. The 
schedules provide 810.900 1+ and similar numbers for periods because 
810.91-.99 have other, tho perhaps less frequently used, meanings, and 
810.901-905 cannot be used because this would conflict with the 
provision in earher editions of 810.903-.904 based on standard subdivi- 
sions 090 1-090 4. (See section 5.134 on reuse of numbers. ) However, any 
library that has not previously used 810.903-.904 may drop one of the 
zeroes and class periods of U.S. literature in 810.901-905; and any library 
that is sure it will never have occasion to use the authorized meanings of 
810.91-99 may drop both zeroes and class periods of U.S. literature in 
810.91-95. Such decisions should be made with great caution. 



42 



5. Features of Edition 17 

This part of the introduction is directed primarily to librarians and 
teachers who are well acquainted with the Dewey Decimal system and its 
earlier editions, but it should not be ignored by the student or new 
practitioner. It points out the special features of the present edition. 

5.1 Subject integrity Other features of Edition 17, some of them 
described below, show up more obviously as new departures from 
preceding editions, but none is as fundamental as the new or renewed 
emphasis on subject integrity and subject relationships, on the fundamen- 
tal process of classification as distinct from what has been called 

"slot-ification." 

Encouraged by Melvil Dewey's notable preference for practicality over 
theory in all activities, misled by the common American view of 
classification as little more than a system for assigning each book a 
convenient address or "slot" at which it can be stored and from which it 
can be retrieved, influenst by the failure of earlier editions of the DDC to 
provide under every discipline an expansion as full as was warranted by 
the literature acquired by libraries, classifiers of the past many times 
unwittingly abandoned the most fundamental feature of the system (and 
of all other major systems except Brown s Subject Classification), that of 
arrangement of subjects by discipline, and tended more and more to 
"classify by attraction" new topics and topics not specifically provided for 
by name. For example, works on sociology of the Jews were at one 
time placed in 296 instead of 301, works on cultural anthropology in 572 
as well as 390, works on public administration in 342 as well as 350. These 
practices, in turn, crept gradually into the printed tables, reaching a 
climax in Edition 16, which gave its seal of approval to scores of such 
"attractions," thus affirming or reaffirming in print incompatibilities like 
the art of flower arrangement appearing as a subdivision of 635.9 
Floriculture (which, by successive steps, is a subdivision of technology), 
conservation of wildUfe appearing as a subdivision of 790 Recreation, 
choice of vocation appearing as a subdivision of 370 Education, the 
religious life appearing as a subdivision of 270 Christian church history, 
internal migration of peoples appearing as a subdivision of 320 Political 

science. 

The editors and the members of the Decimal Classification Editorial 
Policy Committee, perceiving that the ultimate consequence of such 

43 



Decimal Classification 



yielding to "attraction" would be complete chaos, wherein no "classifier" 
would know in what "slot" to place a book on a new or old subject not 
specifically named in the tables or index, determined for Edition 17 to 
return to a policy of integrity of subjects. 

5.11 STRUCTURE This edition emphasizes the hierarchical nature of 
true classification and restores the hierarchical feature of Dewey's 
notation. To this end, the editorial rules for this edition specify: ( 1 ) that 
each heading, definition, scope note, instruction, cross reference should 
consist of words or phrases so inclusive that they will cover or govern all 
the subordinate topics; (2) that inclusion notes should be Umited to topics 
subordinate to the heading on which there is as yet insuflScient Uterature 
to justify separate provision, that they should not contain large haphazard 
groupings of terms, and that they should not name concepts obviously 
part of the broader concept named in the heading; (3) that inverse 
subordination should be eliminated; (4) that cross references should be 
made only to direct the classifier from a subject as stated or implied in a 
heading to component parts of that subject in areas other than the number 
referred from or its direct subdivisions, and not to remotely related or 
unrelated areas (even if the terminology is similar) or to the same subject 
in another discipline, and not from a main heading or from a standard (or 
other 0) subdivision therof to one of its subdivisions or vice versa; and 
(5) that indention should be made "regular," i.e., that, so far as 
reasonably possible, notation should be made hierarchically expressive, by 
(a) leading from comprehensive concepts to subordinate topics in 
coordinate numbers by notes and references (as at 596-599 and 881-884), 
and (b) broadening main headings to cover all coordinate concepts 
falling in subdivisions of the appropriate numbers, and using centered 
headings to indicate the distribution of parts ( as at 797 ) . 

Centered headings and summaries within the tables are used vidth great 
frequency to make subject structure and relationships clear: there are 
11 22 of the former and 240 of the latter. 

This edition emphasizes the traditional DC principle of development 
from the general to the specific. For example. Edition 16 under 371 
advised, thru a cross reference, that the topics in 371 when apphed to a 
specific level of education were to be placed with education at that level, 
but contradicted itself by dividing 371.21, 371.732, 371.85 by levels, and 
by failing to supply appropriate means for topical division under each 
level; this edition clearly provides for all these topics treated generally in 
371, and treated by level vidth each level. Also, Edition 16* under 351 
advised that administration of specific central governments was to be 



Editors introduction 



placed in 353-354, but failed to provide at those places for the many 
specific topics enumerated under 351, and contrariwise, under 353.09, 
advised that those topics even when applied to the United States should 
go in 351 after all; this edition clearly and fully implements the 
distribution by country in 353-354 of all topics of central government 

administration. 

5.12 DIVISION BY MORE THAN ONE PRINCIPLE Division of a 
given subject in DC by more than one principle, or characteristic, is as 
old as the first edition, wherein the language class was divided both by 
individual languages (420-490) and by problems (411-418), and each 
language by problems (e.g., 421-428). The same was true of the literature 
class. Only the word "facet" is of recent origin; Dewey understood the 
concept. It is true that editions prior to the present one did not always 
recognize and make provision for division by more than one principle, 
even when the literature would seem to have warranted it; and when they 
did make such provision, they did not always clearly differentiate among 

the various principles. 

To clarify these issues and further to emphasize subject integrity, this 
edition makes many new provisions for division by more than one 
principle, as at 599.01-599.09; and it specifies clearly which of two 
principles of division is to be followed first, either by cross references or 
instruction notes, as at 331.18 and 631-632, or by tables of precedence, as 
at 331.3-331.6 and 641.5, or by directing generally that subdivisions in 
notations 1-9 take precedence over those in 01-09, those in 01-09 over 
those in 001-009, and so on. New provision for division by a principle not 
previously recognized is usually effected by using 01-09 and shifting the 
standard subdivisions to 001-009. Edition 17 also provides many new 
opportunities for synthesis of notation, so as to permit division by two or 
more principles in sequence, as at the majority of the subdivisions under 

633-635. 

5.13 RELOCATION Renewed attention to the integrity of subject 
relationships has not been achieved without numerous relocations. It is 
assumed that libraries can cope without undue difficulty with any number 
of reductions, e.g., of mowing, stacking, reaping crops from 631.552, 
631.553, and 631.554 respectively to 631.55, and of expansions, e.g., of 
specific systems of irrigation farming from 631.587 to 631.587 2-631.587.5; 
if this assumption is false, we might as well still be using the DC of 1876 
and classing steam locomotives, radar, rocket engines, chain hoists, and 
thermonuclear power plants all in 621 without further specification. On 
the other hand, such shifts as that of the cost of irrigation water from 

45 



Decimal Classification 



63175 (under applied sciences) to a subdivision of 338.2 (under 
economics), or that of astronautics from 629.138 8 to 629.4, raise the 
question of the degree to which the DC should adopt relocations and to 
which libraries can conveniently live with them; this has been a topic of 
long and sometimes vigorous debate. 

5.131 In the making and editing of any enumerative classification, two 
basic principles are constantly in conflict. One is the DC traditional policy 
of integrity of numbers, which enables its users to depend on each new 
edition to include few or no relocations of topics but to include expansions 
that are based on the tables in earlier editions, thereby achieving 
continuity and avoiding the cost of reclassification. The other principle is 
the philosophy of keeping pace with knowledge, which holds that any 
classification scheme, to retain its usefubess must, from time to time, 
restate or redefine and regroup or rearrange subjects according to the 
changed concepts of a new generation. The first principle, strongly urged 
by Melvil Dewey, governed largely the editorial policy of the first 14 
editions (tho there were more changes than most librarians realize); the 
second principle governed largely the editorial policy of Edition 15, 
resulting in 1015 relocations from its immediate predecessor. Edition 16, 
somewhat more conservative than 15, restored 528 of these back to the 
locations provided in Edition 14; on the other hand, it reajffirmed 487, and 
initiated 498 new ones of its own from Edition 14 as well as 90 from 
Edition 15. Unfortunately, as we have seen in section 5.1, Edition 16 also 
affirmed for the first time various practices that had grown up contrary to 
the consistent development of subjects by discipline. 

5.132 Numerous factors now lead the editors and the members of the 
Decimal Classification Editorial PoHcy Committee to the conclusion that a 
reasonable amount of continuing change thru relocation is not only 
desirable but inevitable. 

5.132 1 First, in a world where knowledge is growing and changing at 
a rate increasing by geometric progression, where as a result demands on 
libraries and information services become increasingly pressing and 
exacting, it is easy enough to see that a static and inflexible, "leave- 
well-enough-alone," system for the subject organization of book collec- 
tions will in a short time lose most and eventually virtually all its utility, 
except perhaps as a vestigial system of addresses or "slots," in which case 
arrangement of books by author or size would com.mend itself as equally if 
not more satisfactory. 

5.132 2 Second, classifiers following a system that lacks the subject 
integrity and consistency of which relocation is an unavoidable concomi- 

46 



Editors introduction 



tant cannot properly class titles on new or old subjects not specifically 
named in the tables or index, lest an arbitrary editor later prove their 
guesses to be wrong. In the past, the editors have been recipients of a 
constant flood of inquiries where to class specific topics. With proper and 
consistent development, the classification automatically becomes hospi- 
table to any topic whatever; classifiers need only identify the proper 
discipline, subdiscipline, and so on down to the most specific place 
available, there class the book in hand, and confidently await a future 
expansion that will provide a more specific number (if the amount of 
literature warrants it) but not a different number. By including a 
considerable amount of relocation in Edition 17 today, the editors 
anticipate better and more consistent classification tomorrow. 

5.132 3 Third, while the older and larger libraries using DDC have a 
vested interest in its stability, it is not reasonable that this interest give 
them the right or power to veto the benefits of modernity to the 
ever-growing number of new libraries at home and abroad. 

5.132 4 Fourth, it appears that a major deterrent in libraries to the 
acceptance of a relocation, or of the principle of relocation, is the feeling 
of responsibility to reclassify older books: the compulsion for consistency 
within the collection. However, the continuing phenomenal increase in 
the size of libraries makes it progressively less feasible for students and 
readers to browse comprehensively, even if all the books in the collection 
were present and available. Selection from the shelves becomes more and 
more a matter of accident. Leaving the catalog, manual or electronic, to 
serve its proper function of making total resources available, the librarian 
will surely be making a better and more effective use of his shelf collection 
a he abandons outmoded concepts in arrangement and permits the 
classification to reveal a profile of scholarship in a given era. Melvil 
Dewey's Yankee ingenuity would be outraged by the thought that 
librarians were unable to devise ways by which an outmoded past could 
be prevented from tyrannizing over the future. We ourselves have great 
faith in the adaptability of librarians and in their abihty to devise 

techniques by which to "cope." 

5.132 5 Fifth, even phenomenal growth has its present-day reaction 
in the burgeoning programs in college, university and research libraries 
to withdraw or retire into closed-shelf storage obsolescent and little-used 
books; popular and school libraries have always kept their collections 
live and active. This trend obviously reduces the pressure to reclassify 

for consistency's sake. 

5.132 6 Sixth, virtually every library using DDC deviates to a greater 

47 



Decimal Classification 



or lesser degree, for real or fancied local advantage, from even those 
printed schedules that have been unchanged for generations; in doing so, 
it annotates its schedules and ignores the recommendations of the various 
central classification services. Under the circumstances, it is at the least 
inconsistent to resist printed relocations on the grounds that these 
relocations will force libraries unable to accept them to annotate their 
schedules and forego the benefits of central classification. 

5.133 For all these reasons, the editorial rules for this edition specify: 
( 1 ) that, if headings cannot be broadened or limited to tolerate the 
location of a specific topic, and if cross references cannot be used to 
reconcile its location, then it should be relocated to a more hospitable 
position; (2) that, if the location of a topic in Edition 16 makes it 
impossible to provide for the hterature, it should be relocated; (3) that a 
topic should be relocated to eliminate dual provision, provided it really is 
dual provision and not another aspect of the same subject; and (4) that, if 
the known amount of material to be reclassified is of insignificant extent, a 
topic should be relocated to secure proper relationships and sequences, 
and uniformity in development. As a result of the application of these 
rules, the general tables of this edition contain 746 relocations of topics 
from the places provided for them in Edition 16. 378 are total, that is, they 
vacate an entire number and discontinue an entry; 368 are partial, that is, 
while some concepts in a number have been removed, others remain and 
keep the number in force as an entry. This compares with 1603 relocations 
in Edition 16 from provisions of Editions 14 and 15; of these 832 were 
total and 771 were partial. The number of relocations in each main class in 
both Editions 16 and 17 is as follows: 



Class 


Edition 16 


Edition 17 





29 


39 


1 


61 


11 


2 


38 


55 


3 


286 


189 


4 


31 


36 


5 


361 


72 


6 


489 


200 


7 


199 


86 


8 


18 


9 


9 


91 


49 


Total 


1,603 
48 


746 



Editors introduction 



Even the the total number of relo 'ations in this edition is less than half 
the number in Edition 16, the average effect of each is probably greater; 
some of these relocations are of topics on which there is a great deal of 

literature 

5.134 A special kind of relocation is the reuse with a new meaning of a 

notation devoted in an earlier edition— not necessarily the 16th— to a 

different meaning. This violation of what may most truly be called the 

"integrity of numbers" is potentially very disrupting, since it permits a 

given notation to have two different interpretations; it is as if the word 

"horse" yesterday meant an equine animal but today means a bovine one. 

Consequently the reuse of a given number is surrounded by safeguards: 

( 1 ) it must have been vacated and stood empty for at least 25 years, i.e., 

at the present time since Edition 13; (2) otherwise it must be speciHcally 

approved by the DC Editorial Policy Committee, which is incUned to 

grant permission only when two conditions are met, that the number's 

previous use has been slight and can be adequately met elsewhere, and 

that the proposed reuse is imperative to provide for the literature and no 

other satisfactory provision is possible. In this edition ten numbers have 

been reused in this way. These numbers are set in itahcs, and they are 

321.9, 363, 372.1, 373.11, 551.6, 576.1, 576.2, 576.4, standard subdivision 

017, area notation 549. 

5.135 Reuse of number on a rather broader scale appears in the 
"preferred" or completely remodeled schedule; such a schedule is 
approved by the Committee only when the provisions of earlier editions 
are entirely inadequate for classification of modem concepts, as was the 
case when a remodeled schedule 54^547 for inorganic and organic 
chemistry was approved for Edition 16. In Edition 17 a similar schedule is 
150 Psychology, which reuses 65 numbers, and relocates 27 topics. Two 
others have been authorized for future development and distribution: 340 
Law and 510 Mathematics. Each completely remodeled schedule is built 
on the same base number as the schedule it supersedes, but any other 
resemblance is Hkely to be incidental. Even so, new 150 is not as changed 
from former 150 as might have been feared, and all changes are shown in 

the schedule itself. 

5.136 Relocations in geographical or area concepts and in standard 
subdivisions constitute an even greater problem than ordinary relocations 
because they have such wide repercussions. Every heading in the entire 
classification may be subdivided geographically and may have standard 

49 



Decimal Classification 



subdivisions applied to it. For this reason Edition 15, for all its devotion to 
the "new look," made no relocations in these schedules, and Edition 16 
made only a few insignificant ones. In geography, it said explicitly 
(p. 15): "The editors have decided to follow the principle that position 
on the map rather than political ties should determine classification, so 
far as 'editors* preference* goes, but still to permit alternative arrange- 
ments for those libraries which require them." 

5.136 1 For the present edition, the enlarged emphasis on provisions to 
meet non-United States requirements (considered at more length in 
section 5.4), the greater liberality generally in relocating topics, and the 
recognition that, in a century of wars, growing nationalism, and a 
constantly shifting political situation, failure to recognize changes would 
doom the DDC to moribundity, all have led to a moderate amount of area 
relocation. In no case, be it noted, is subject integrity compromised: 
Hawaii is not part of North America, and, instead of being relocated to a 
heading under United States, is gathered in only by a cross reference. The 
same is true of the Bomean part of Malaysia, the European part of 
Turkey. On the other hand, Pakistan is not a subdivision of present- 
day India, and it is absurd, to say the least, that its whole and its parts 
should be placed in several nonconsecutive numbers, all of which are both 
preceded and followed by numbers for parts of India; the whole and the 
parts are, therefore, relocated and brought together in a sequence 
following the whole sequence for India. But both are still subdivisions of 
the broader concept of South Asia. There are 89 relocations in the area 
table, 71 total and 18 partial. 

It should be pointed out that relocations of area concepts are intended 
to cover books that deal with subjects in the period before as well as the 
period after a given political change, e.g., both before and after the 
partition of India and Pakistan in 1947. This means that a work on East 
Bengal ( or Dacca ) and one on West Bengal ( or Calcutta ) fall in widely 
separated numbers whether dated 1925 or 1965. Some librarians will not 
approve of this. They will say that scientific and technical subjects do not 
change because of politics, and that the botany of East Bengal in both 
1925 and 1965 is more nearly like that of West Bengal than it is like that 
of Sind. And they will say that, while social science subjects do diange 
with politics, they do not do so retroactively, that education and social 
conditions in East Bengal were in 1925 more hke those in West Bengal 
than those in Sind, but in 1965 tend to be more like those in Sind than 



50 



Editors introduction 



those in West Bengal. These librarians may, of course, feel free to relocate 
to the extent dictated by their own needs: (1) no relocation; (2) 
relocation only of publications that deal with the period following the 
political change; (3) relocation only of social science subjects; (4) a 
combination of ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) . 

5.136 2 As for the standard subdivisions (previously "form divisions"), 
they have, over many years, tended more and more to depart from the 
concept of subject integrity, especially in 02 and 08. Taking note of this, 
the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee directed the 
editors to revise the standard subdivisions, even to the extent of reusing 
one number with a new meaning. Most notable change is the abandon- 
ment of 04 for essays and lectures and the relocation of collected essays 
and lectures to 08, which is now reserved for collections and anthologies 
only. It is expected that a given Ubrary will probably make no effort to 
follow the new standard subdivisions under those headings with which it 
has aheady freely used the old ones, but that it will nevertheless benefit 
by using the new ones under headings being used or being divided by 
standard subdivisions for the first time. There are nine total relocations in 
the table of standard subdivisions. 

5.137 The inconvenience caused by the amount of relocation in this 
edition is ameliorated by two factors. In the first place. Edition 16, which 
clearly identifies previous relocations, will remain in print for the present. 
In the second, some relocations are noted as being only optional, 
e.g., the deuterocanonical book of Ecclesiasticus from 229.4 to 223.98, and 
a very few others retain their former locations as optional, e.g., biography 
of specific classes of persons from 920.1-928.9 to standard subdivision 092 

under each subject. 

5.138 Relocations are shown in the tables as indicated in section 3.355. 
In the index, every number to which any topic is relocated is preceded by 
a dagger (t), no matter whether the topic specified in the immediate 
entry is relocated or not. 

One kind of relocation and reuse of number is not shown as such, 
namely, relocation of standard subdivision concepts from single-0 nota- 
tion to double-0 or triple-O notation, and reuse of single-0 notation for 
other purposes. For example, in Edition 16 599.01-599.09 was used for the 
standard subdivisions of 599; in Edition 17 these numbers are used for 
general principles of mammalian biology, and the classifier is instructed to 
use 599.001-599.009 for standard subdivisions. 

5^ 



Decimal Classification 



5.14 In summary, it may be said that relocation, division by more than 
one principle, emphasis on hierarchical structure and notation, in fact the 
overall display of subject integrity, are designed to make the DDC easier 
to teach, to learn, to understand, and to use for both classification and 
retrieval. 

5.2 Degree of expansion Since this edition is intended for use in 
general Hbraries of any size, its fullness is based upon the number of titles 
that large general libraries may be expected to acquire in any given 
subject. The editors have tried to provide enough subdivisions but not too 
many, and have been guided by the principle tliat the existence in 
American libraries of more than ten to twenty titles on spc cific topics in a 
given general number raises a presumption in favor of subdivision. The 
detail varies from one part of the tables to another, depending on the 
number of books that have appeared and are likely to be acquired by 
libraries. Many new entries appear in the tables of Edition 17 and there 
are far more numerous opportunities for repetition of development by 
analogy, that is, for expansion thru "divide-like" notes. Some tables are 
fully revised and expanded for this edition, e.g., 350-354; others, e.g., 
100-199 exclusive of the 130's and 150's, await more detailed study at 
another time and have been expanded little or none from the provisions of 
Edition 16. In a very few cases, provisions have been reduced, not usually 
because the literatvu-e does not justify the amount of detail in the previous 
edition, but to clear out the dead brush of a poor development so that 
it may be superseded later with minimum disruption by an improved 
expansion, e.g., 301.2. Because there is not time from one edition to the 
next to revise all schedules with equal care, the minuteness of subdivision 
is greater in some classes than in others. 

A comparative table of number of entries in Editions 16 and 17 follows. 
Since a single entry may be expanded manyfold by a "divide-like" or an 
''add" note, the number of these is shown as "entries with built- 
in expansion." When one considers that every number may be enriched by 
all the wealth of the table of standard subdivisions, it is obvious that the 
DCs potential for detailed classification is a hundred- or a thousandfold 
greater than the existence of 17,132 general tables entries might lead one 
to expect. The reduction of 4650 entries in class 9 is offset by die new area 
table. 



52 



Editors introduction 





EDITION 16 


EDITION 17 


INCREASE 






Entries 




Entries 




Entries 






with 




with 




with 




Total 


built-in 


Total 


built-in 


Total 


built-in 


Class 


entries 


expansion 


entries 


expansion 


entries 


expansion 





333 


55 


341 


51 


8 


-4 


1 


499 


8 


641 


24 


142 


16 


2 


760 


80 


1,191 


225 


431 


145 


3 


1,703 


69 


2,545 


311 


842 


242 


4 


324 


52 


369 


135 


45 


83 


5 


2,083 


53 


2,603 


183 


520 


130 


6 


4,031 


115 


5,170 


789 


1,139 


674 


7 


1,407 


180 


1,785 


254 


378 


74 


8 


302 


72 


651 


231 


349 


159 


9 


6,486 


158 


1,836 


448 


-4,650 


290 


Total 














General 














Tables 


17,928 


842 


17,132 


2,651 


-796 


1,809 


Standard 














Subdivi- 














sions 


69 


9 


113 


15 


44 


6 


Areas 








5,110 


4 


5,110 


4 


Grand 










1 




Total 


17,997 


851 


22,355 


2,670 


4,358 


1,819 



We have referred in 2.53 to the occasionally extreme length of the DC 
notation. Without doubt, the apportionment is poor in the light of present 
knowledge (e.g., the schedule for 621 is longer than that for 000-099 or 
that for 400-499 and only 10% shorter than that for 100-199), and 
virtually impossible to repair in view of the traditional policy of reusing 
numbers only most sparingly; to reapportion the notation so that it would 
be equally hospitable to all disciplines and subjects held by libraries today 
would require the development of a wholly new system and would only 
establish a base for other inequities of a future that today cannot be 
imagined, just as much of the world of 1965 could not be imagined in 
1876. So long as DC continues to expand, its users will have to live with 
long numbers. However, suggestions appearing thruout this edition fpr 

53 



Decimal Classification 



the guidance of libraries specializing in or emphasizing certain disciplines 
and subjects may be applied in other contexts also: arbitrary signs can be 
used as substitutes for much-used long numbers, just as B has been used 
for many years in many libraries as a substitute for 920. For example, an 
engineering Ubrary can substitute letters of the alphabet for some of the 
larger engineering subdisciplines with long notations, such as E in lieu of 
621.3 or of 621.38, or X (or A) in Heu of 629.13. If this is not feasible, the 
diflBculties that are inherent in transcription and reading of long num- 
bers can be reduced by writing each long class number on two or three 
lines, e.g., 

574.929 



574 


574 


and even 574 


.929 7 


.929 747 


.929 747 
65 



Some few libraries shelve by numbers of limited length but give on 
catalog and shelflist cards and inside each book a complete number based 
on the full DC schedules, with the shelving digits in black and the 
non-shelving digits in red. 

5.3 Standard subdivisions and area table The table of "form divisions'* 

of earlier editions has not only been substantially revised, as noted in 

section 5.136 2, but retitled table of "standard subdivisions," a term that 

recognizes that at least half of these convenient subdivisions are modes of 

treatment rather than forms. If even one standard subdivision of a specific 

class appears in a double-0 or a triple-0 notation, then all, with the 

occasional exception of 09 Historical and geographical treatment, appear 

in that sequence; in this way each standard subdivision sequence is kept 

intact, e.g., no longer do we find 300.1, 302-309 for standard divisions of 

the social sciences, broken by the very substantial 301 schedule for 

sociology. This is the more important in this edition because of the much 

greater reUance on zero-divisions for special meanings, most frequently 

( 1 ) for subdivision by a second principle of division, e.g., 599.01-599.09, 

and (2) for standard subdivisions of a part of the complete heading, e.g., 

201-209 for standard subdivisions of Christianity, which has no other 

notation that can be so divided, and 200.1-200.9 for standard subdivisions 

of religion. 

The area table is perhaps the most obvious innovation of Edition 17. 
Geographic detail has been removed from the general history schedules 
930-990 and incorporated in a special table, leaving the history schedules 
for history. The new table, printed v^dthout the traditional digit 9, 

54 



Editor's introduction 



contributes to both theoretical understanding of the DDC and its 
practical application. On the theoretical level, it makes clear that the 
number for, say, France is not 944, which is for the general history of 
France and that only, but 44. On the practical level, it greatly simplifies 
number building for areas. No longer need the classifier be confused by 
"dividing like 940-999," or concern himself with elusive O's and 9's that 
disappear in one sense and stand pat in another; now he simply adds the 
area number, e.g., 94 Australia, to the base named, e.g., 027.4 (in the 
entry under 027.43-027.49). 

Almost equally useful will be the very considerable expansion of area 
1 (previously form division 091), providing for treatment of any subject 
by zonal, physiographic, and socioeconomic regions, by ethnic and 
rehgious groups, and even by hemispheres and space. Of special note, 
perhaps, is area 1712 Empires and political unions, a device that libraries 
can use to bring together, under selected subjects, those countries having 
poUtical ties but geographic diversity, e.g., constitutional law of United 
Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand together in 342.171242 instead of 
scattered in 342.42, 342.71, and 342.931 respectively. 

The standard subdivision and area tables both appear in volume 2, 

preceding the index. 

5.4 Use outside United States Altho the Dewey Decimal Classification 
is widely used outside the United States because of its numerous virtues, 
it has been much criticized for its historical bias toward a Protestant 
Anglo-Saxon culture. Some efforts were made in Edition 16 to reduce this 
bias, but tlie present edition represents the first full-scale attack upon it by 
the general editors. Without reducing the traditional emphasis on and 
featuring of things American, such as hterature in 810 and political parties 
in 329.1-.8, on things Western, such as languages in 420^80 and 
philosophy in 182-199, on things Christian, such as religion in 220-280, it 
introduces a whole series of devices thru the use of which classifiers who 
need to do so may feature other cultures. It suggests frequently, e.g., 
under area notations 4-9 and under 420^90, that a letter or other symbol 
may be used as an artificial eleventh digit to bring forward works on the 
desired place, language, literature, or other subject. (It is important that 
this symbol be understood to be an artificial digit: it can be a Latin, 
Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic, Tamil letter, a Chinese ideograph, an asterisk, 
dagger, arrow, or what you will, and has no meaning except digital.) It 
sometimes introduces the option of de-emphasizing United States concerns 
by arranging them geographically in the midst of others, e.g., in 354 

55 



il!: 



Decimal Classification 



Editors introduction 



instead of 353, in 329.9 instead of 329.1-.8. It provides history periods for 
nearly every country (but does not reduce those under 940 and 973 ), and 
for many literatures, including "colonial" literatures. As already noted, the 
area table recognizes current political alinements. Separate provision is 
made for important Oriental languages, e.g., Hindi and Urdu. There are 
expansions in 796 for cricket, soccer, and rugby, as well as for golf and 
tennis. Schedules for Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam are expanded 
and further specified, and instructions and references thruout, as well as 
index entries, make it clear that religion as a whole and Christianity in 
particular are not considered synonymous. Provision is made in 
181.04—181.09 for philosophy based on specific religions. For the benefit of 
American no less than foreign libraries the Protestant orientation of 200 
has been lessened by the addition of provision for numerous topics of 
chiefly Roman Catholic concern. 

The year 1964 saw the field work take place for the long-projected 
stu-vey of DDC use abroad. The present edition reflects the early results of 
this survey, and it is the editors' and publishers' earnest hope that the 
DDC of the future will be made continuously more and more useful for 
hbrarians of Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, as well as for those of 
America. 

The language of basic editions, of coxu'se, continues to be English. 

5*5 Index The index is completely new, and more tightly constructed 
than previous ones; it is, in fact, imique. As described in section 3.6, it 
is relative, in that it brings together the various aspects of a subject to 
show their dispersion thruout the tables; it is limited, because exhaustive- 
ness would be confusing and, if it could be kept up to date, would make 
the tables unnecessary; it is coordinated with the tables, serving as a guide 
to them, not a substitute for them. 

5.6 Relation to Edition 16 and DCir Even where the present edition 
does not vary substantively from Edition 16, observance of the editorial 
rules emphasizing subject integrity gives a quite different appearance to 
the schedules, with more centered headings, fewer cross references and 
notes of inclusion, a larger number of more comprehensive headings, more 
scope notes, asterisks used freely to remind classifiers of instructions that 
apply to many subdivisions of a heading, and other devices. The same is 
true of variations in Edition 17 from provisions disseminated thru 
the earlier issues of Decimal Classification Additions, Notes and Decisions. 

56 



5.7 Spelling As is well known, the founder of DC ( who was christened 
Melville Dewey, and for a time styled himself Melvil Dui) was deeply 
devoted to the cause of simplified spelling. The forms that it took may be 
seen in his introduction, which follows this one. The present edition, in 
observance of the Dewey spelling tradition, pursues the following 
practices: (1) it uses catalog, decalog, demagog, pedagog, prolog, 
program, tho, altho, thoro, thorofare, thru, thruout; ( 2 ) it follows, to the 
extent that the editors found them, the shortest or most phonetic spellings 
recognized by Webster's Third New International Dictionary, e.g., 
canceled, lacker, alinement; (3) except in the index and where the 
meaning might be misunderstood, it modifies the spelling to reflect the 
pronunciation of past tenses and past participles that have the hard "t" 
sound, e.g., pitcht, divorst, but not produst, bast. 



57 



6. Toward Edition 18 

Not all of Edition 17 has benefited equally from application of the 
renewed emphasis on subject integrity and the other principles described 
above. Within the editorial criteria, which are intended to safeguard 
the DDCs traditional virtues as well as to open the system up to a 
greater degree of modernization than in the past, we believe that most 
of 400-600, 800-900, and parts of the other classes will be generally 
fairly successful in meeting the needs and classifying the literature of 
the 1960's, but some of the other sections will be less so. Substantial 
development is required in 029, most of 100, parts of 200, 301, 330, 360, 
380, 390, 640, 780, and other schedules. A complete overhaul with 
reused notation is planned for 340 and 510. It may be expected that 
Edition 18 will reflect ( 1 ) review and study in many of these, (2) normal 
updating in science, technology, history, (3) fvuther refinement of the 
index, and (4) more detailed study of the residts of the 1964 survey of 
DC use abroad. 



58 



7. Acknowledgments 

It is my pleasant duty to give public thanks to those who have 
contributed materially to such success as this 17th edition may merit. 

Thanks, first, to DDCs users. To the scores of librarians who studied 
and criticized or reviewed Edition 16, some in print, some in correspond- 
ence, some face to face, and to the reviewers and critics of draft schedules 
of this edition, both at home and abroad; I name eight at random to 
represent them all: John Metcalfe of AustraHa, B. S. Kesavan of India, 
Curt Wormann of Israel, Anis Khurshid of Pakistan, Mahmud Sheniti of 
the United Arab RepubUc, E. J. Coates and W. H. Phillips representing 
very diflEerent points of view in the United Kingdom, Sarah K. Vann of the 
United States of America. To the hundreds of individuals who took time 
to answer questions posed in Decimal Classification Additions, Notes and 
Decisions. To interested groups in formal organizations, notably the 
Classification Committee and the Policy and Research Committee of the 
Cataloging and Classification Section of the Resources and Technical 
Services Division of the American Library Association, and the Dewey 
Decimal Classification Revision Sub-Committee of the Research Commit- 
tee of the (United Kingdom) Library Association. To the Reverend 
Timon Cook, O.F.M., who provided most able liaison with the Catholic 
Library Association by soliciting and synthesizing opinions on Roman 
Catholic Hbrary requirements thruout class 200, and interpreting them to 
the editors with full understanding of the criteria for DC development; if, 
as we hope, this edition provides valuable new assistance to Catholic 
librarians, the credit is largely Father Cook's. 

Thanks, second, to all those officially connected with the Dewey 
Decimal Classification. To the directors of Forest Press, Inc., scholars, 
gentlemen, keen businessmen all: Vemer W. Clapp, Deo B. Colbum, Jack 
Dalton, Walter A. Hafner, and Howard Haycraft. To the present members 
of the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee and to the 
former members who have served since 1960: Elizabeth C. Borden, 
Edwin B. Colbum, Godfrey Dewey, Virginia Drewry, Carlyle J. Frarey, 
Bertha M. Frick, Harriet D. MacPherson, Lucile M. Morsch, Esther J. 
Piercy, Joseph W. Rogers, Pauline A. Seely, Mrs. Marietta Daniels 
Shepard, and Wyllis E. Wright; to their statesmanship, foresight, and 
imaginative understanding of libraries' needs may be credited the basic 
principles, enduring and new, which underUe this edition. To my 

59 



Decimal Classification 



superiors in the Library of Congress for support and encouragement at all 
times: L. Quincy Mumford, Rutherford D. Rogers, John W. Cronin, Lewis 
C. Coffin, William J. Welsh. 

Thanks, third, to the staff of the Decimal Classification Office, who 
really did the grubbing. To the former members who contributed to this 
edition: Mrs. Dorothy F. Cover, Mrs. Peggy C. Kans, Alice M. Kenton, 
Mrs. Edith B. Moore, Julia C. Pressey, Mrs. Mary C. Schloeder, Mrs. 
Ruby Y. Weinbrecht, and Mrs. Elsie K. Yoder. To the present members: 
Harriet Helliwell, Elaine Hicks, and Edna E. Van Syoc. To the Editorial 
Reviser, Mrs. Emily K. Spears, for significant contributions to the format 
and style of the manuscript, and for its final preparation in impeccably 
neat and clean condition. To the Assistant Chief, Decimal Classffication 
Office, Elva L. Krogh, for numerous profitable suggestions based on her 
daily use of the DC to class books, notably the new and striking concept 
of the area table. To the Assistant Editor, Dewey Decimal Classification, 
Mrs. Marie M. Henshaw, for her uncompromising insistence that the 
editorial operations hew to the line of consistency, and for her brilliant 
development of many original ideas, including various new techniques for 
emphasizing subject integrity and relationships, and including also the 
new index, which is almost wholly hers in conception and mostly hers in 
execution. 



8. Conclusion 

The foreword to the 15th edition "eamestl/^ requested "all users to give 
us the benefit of their criticism in order that sometime our successors may 
actually bring out Ue perfect book.' " It appears unlikely that this or any 
other general classification will ever be "perfect,'' especially in view of the 
traditional dichotomy of demands for a system that will be both stable 
and up-to-date. Melvil Dewey recognized this in 1876, when he wrote, m 
"The Amherst classification" {Library Journal 3:231-232, Aug. 1878) : 
Long study of the subject makes it clear that a classification satis- 
factory in theory is, in the nature of things, an impossibility, and that 
a scheme can be satisfactory in use only to those who realize these 
inherent difficulties and are satisfied because of their knowledge that 
a plan free from annoying difficulties is wholly unattainable. 
Nevertheless, improvement is always possible and devoutly to be pur- 
sued. So, once again, we urge all who use the DC, whether students, 
teachers, or appliers, to continue to give us the "benefit of their 

criticism." u- -l • 

There follows Melvil Dewey's own introduction of 1926, which is 
reprinted, with a few minor changes, just as he wrote and spelled it. Some 
of its statements and examples are now obsolete, and it should be read in 
the context of its time. 



Benjamin A. Custer 

EDITOR 



Decimal Classification Office 
Processing Department 
The Library of Congress 
Washington, D.C. 20540 
28 February IQ65 



^ 



60 



61 



Melvil Dewey's Introduction 



Orijin and growth The plan of this Clasification and Index was de- 
velopt erly in 1873, the result of long study of library economy as found 
in hundreds of books and pamflets, and in over 50 personal visits to 
libraries. This study convinst me that usefulness of libraries myt be 
greatly increast without aded expense. Only a fraction of the servis 
posibl cud be got from them without clasification, catalogs, indexes and 
other aids, to tel librarians and readers what they containd on any givn 
subject; yet, by methods then uzed, this cud be dun satisfactorily only 
at a cost so great as to be prohibitiv to all but a few welthy libraries. 
With rare exceptions, libraries wer growing rapidly. Catalogs, made at 
great cost, soon became antiquated. Methods uzed involvd frequent re- 
arranjement, renumbering and remarking of books, and of necesity re- 
making of catalogs and indexes, as the only escape from a confuzion that 
seriusly cripld usefulness. In this costly repetition, work of previus H- 
brarians was larjly lost. The great need was a sistem which wud enable 
each to stand on the sholders of his predecessors, and fully utilize their 
labors; which vmd make work dun today permanent, insted of sumthing 
to be superseded in so few years as not to be worth doing in the best 
way; which wud supply the best applyances, insted of leaving yung li- 
brarians not only to lern how to work, but to make all their own tools. 

Practical use iEor 54 years proves that this sistem wil accomplish this 
result; for with its aid catalogs, shelflists, indexes and references, essential 
to this increast usefulness, can be made faster and cheaper than by any 
method not having its essential featiures, and, when dun, they ar better 
and vastly more permanent. Practical utility and economy ar its keynotes 
and no theoretic refinement has been allowd to modify the skeme, if it 
wud detract from usefulness or ad to cost. 

It was chiefly necesary to find a method that wud clas, arranje and 
index books and pamflets on shelvs, cards of a catalog, cUppings and notes 
in scrapbooks and index rerums, references to all these items, and indeed 
any literary material in any form, as redily as an ordinary index gyds to 
proper paje of a bound book. This diflBcult problem was solvd by uzing 

63 



Decimal Classification 



no reference marks except the simplest simbols known to the human 
mind, arabic numerals with their uzual arithmetic values, and by aiding 
their unequald simplicity by many practical nemonic [mnemonic] de- 
vices. 

Tho the importance of clasification was recognized, the filosofic sistems 
proposed wer so diflBcult fully to understand or apply that not 1 person 
in 1000 cud uze them practicaly. Decimal Clasification simplicity and 
even more its Relativ Index hav made this work 10-fold eazier. In recent 
years, use of the sistem has spred rapidly in all civilized cuntries, meet- 
ing success in thousands of different applications. In its simpl form a 
skoolboy can quikly master it and keep for instant reference not only his 
books but every note, clipping or pamflet. Almost every profession and 
occupation has lernd its wonderful laborsaving powers. It is in daily use 
by miriads of business and professional men who wud never even at- 
tempt to understand or uze the old sistems. 

By mere adition of figures, without chanjing this shorter form, this 
very simpl sistem is redily made to record the utmost refinements of 
specialists, and the Relativ Index, as simpl as a, b, c, sends the novis to 
the exact place where the expert has clasifyd the matter sought. Thus 
942 is history of England, and 942.99055 is history of County Pembroke 
in Wales, under Elizabeth, 5th of the Tudors. A colon between 2 num- 
bers to mean 'in relation to', and other combining simbols for time, 
languaj etc. make of the sistem a compact shorthand for each fact. But 
this brevity is les important than the eaz with which matter so markt can 
be arranjed ( giving figures and decimal point their common arithmetic 
value), stored as compactly as wisht and found again in the least posibl 
time. 

The sistem has been found equaly valuabl for cataloging, indexing, 
analyzing and summarizing, and for clasifying, numbering and arranjing 
books and pamflets on shelvs. 

The 1st edition, publisht in 1876, 12 pajes of tables containing 1000 
sections, was criticized as altogether too elaborate for even a larj library. 
As fast, however, as the Relativ Index with its remarkabl powers became 
known, the rapidly increasing uzers askt for further subdivisions, til 
Tables hav grown from 2600 entries in Index of 1876 to 43,000 in this 
edition 12, becauz it has been found so eazy to gain the admitted great 
advantajes of close clasification, and yet, by means of this Index, avoid 
the old diflBculties. 

Extent of use The rejister of libraries which hav actualy adopted it, 
tho growing rapidly, is incomplete. Libraries often uze the sistem for 

64 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



many years before we lern the fact. We rejister all byers of the Clasifica- 
tion. so far as known, but do not assume that a library has adopted the 
sistem becauz it has orderd the book. ALA Bulletin, Sep. 1926, p. 167, 
estimates a use by about 14,000 libraries. There is also an immense use 
(for which not even approximate statistics can be furnisht) by indi- 
viduals, with their private, business and professional colections of books, 
pamflets etc., and in their correspondence and notes files. The sistem has 
been adopted, not only thruout U S, but in other parts of North America, 
in South America, in many European cuntries, and, stil more distant, in 
Asia, Hawaii, Philippines, Java, Australia and Africa, and the Tables ar 
known to hav been translated, either wholy or in part, into French, Ger- 
man, Itahan, Spanish, Portuguese, Norwegian, Russian, Hungarian, Bo- 
hemian, Chinese and Japanese. 

The table below shows the growth of the editions. 

Number of pajes 



Edition 


Date 


Preface 


Tables 


Index 


Total 


Copies 


1 


1876 


12 


12 


18 


42 


1000 


2 


1885 


66 


162 


86 


314 


500 


3 


1888 


4 


227 


185 


416 


500 


4 


1891 


41 


234 


191 


466 


1000 


5 


1894 


t£ 


235 


m 


467 


2000 


6 


1899 


<C 


260 


210 


511 


7600 


7 


1911 


48 


420 


324 


792 


2000 


8 


1913 


M 


462 


340 


850 


2000 


9 


1915 


<* 


465 


342 


856 


3000 


10 


1919 


tc 


517 


374 


940 


4000 


11 


1922 


61 


551 


376 


988 


5000 


12 


1927 


67 


683 


491 


1243 


9340 


13 


1932 


75 


902 


670 


1647 


9750 


14 


1942 


80 


1048 


799 


1927 


15632 


15 


1951 


55 


469 


192 


716 


11200 


15 Rev. 


1952 


56 


€€ 


402 


927 


11045 


16 


1958 


121 


1314 


1004 


2439 


29138 



What is the Sistem? A Subject Clasification with a Relativ Index ^ so 

numberd or letterd that reference is compact, accurate and quik, is the 

1 Tho the author is interested only in the usefulness of the sistem, not in questions 
of priority of its invention, extended investigation by others fails to show that this 
most important feature of the sistem-the Relativ Index on which ^ " ^l^^ W^I 
had ever before been uzed as here to index by a smgl reference most diverse mate- 

65 



Decimal Classification 



essential feature; anything beyond this is merely applying this plan with 
varius helps and accessories. Any subject clasiiication with a relativ index 
in which the entry indexes a book in the ordinary way, and also indexes 
shelvs, cards, clippings or any other literary material, is a form of this 
sistem. 

Notation We devized and experimented with several notations by 
means of numbers, letters, and combined numbers and letters, with bases 
of 26, 35, 50, 100 and 150, yet none seemd good enuf to warrant publish- 
ing details, except that here printed, based on simpl arable numerals 
with their uzual decimal powers. International adoption of this sistem is 
larjly becauz no one ever complains that any clasification is too simpl, 
while there is constant complaint of complexity. Decimal simplicity has 
so commended itself that many think of it as the only form, tho obviusly 
it vvud be just as much a relativ index sistem' if the clasification wer 
wholy markt by letters or other simbols. 

The Subject Index is the simplest application of a, b, c, the simbols 
next in simplicity to 1, 2, 3. This use of the simplest 2 sets of simbols 
known, with their common meanings, has givn our notation its worldwide 
reputation as the simplest yet devized. 

Best known decimal form Decimal form means simply that heds ar 
groupt and numberd with common arithmetic figures uzed decimaly. 
This, the only decimal form thus far carefuly elaborated and publisht, is 
commonly spoken of as if it wer the only posibl form of our orijinal plan; 
tho obviusly an infinit variety of relativ index sistems' in decimal form 
cud be made by filling the outline with diflEerent heds, or with the same 
heds in different order. 

To make out new heds involvs labor and cost vastly beyond the dreams 
of any person who has not tryd exactly this work. Time actualy spent on 
tables here printed, by varius committees and individuals, totals hun- 
dreds of years and has cost an immense sum. Uniform and urjent advice 
of the experienst is to adopt a poorer skeme alredy made rather than un- 
dertake so herculean a labor. When dun, the maker may posibly be 



rial. Relativ location had been uzed, but not in the present combination with the 
subject index, which givs it most of its value. The Clasification Tables, while adopt- 
ing sugjestions from many sources, ar orijinal in their sistem of arranjement and no- 
tation, and in many minor features. The decimal form and many nemonic features 
hav not been found in erher use, tho since their invention in 1873 these as wel as 
the Subject Index and other features hav been very frequently copid, often with, but 
oftener without, aknowlejment of their source. But we ar glad to find this sistem, 
which has cost so much labor, doing good servis even for those who neglect to 
mention where they found so valuabl a laborsaving literary tool. 

66 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



better suited with it, but few if any others wil be. It is wizer for anyone 
whose time is of value, to uze it in sumthing more practicaly useful to 
himself and his library than in trying to construct a ^satisfactory' skeme 
of clasification. No one yet ever wholy suited himself or anyone else, and 
probably no one ever wil. By adopting this alredy workt out he saves 
much time and money, and gains the immense advantaj of uzing a 
sistem in common with thousands of others, so that he may utiUze their 
labors and investigations and share with them economies of cooperation. 
Relativ Subject Index This alfabetic Index, the most important fea- 
ture of the sistem, consists of hedings gatherd from a great variety of 
sources, as uzers of the sistem hav found them desirabl in 54 years ex- 
perience. After all these eflEorts, many new heds ar aded in each new 

edition. 

The Index gyds in both numbering and finding books. In assyning 
numbers, the most specific bed that wil contain the book having been 
determind, reference to that bed in Index givs proper clas number. Con- 
versely, in finding books on any givn subject, reference to Index givs 
number under which they ar found on shelvs, in shelflist, or in clast cata- 
log. When any new subject cums up, interline it and its sinonims in 
Index, with clas number decided on, so clasifyer may be uniform with 

himself in future work. 

The Index givs similar or sinonimus words, and the same words in 
different connections, so any inteUjent person wil surely get the ryt num- 
ber. A reader wishing to know sumthing of the tarif looks under T, and, 
at a glance, finds 337 as its number. This gyds him to shelvs, to all books 
and pamflets, to shelf catalog, to clast subject catalog on cards, to clast 
record of loans, and, in short, in simpl numeric order, thruout the whole 
hbrary to anything bearing on his subject. If he turns to Tables, he sees 
that it means clas 3, Sociolojy; division 3, Economics; section 7, Protec- 
tion and free trade; but the number alone is enuf to clas the book or find 
it, for either clasifyer or reader. If he had lookt under P for protection, 
or F for free trade, or D for duties, or C for customs, or under any other 
leading word relating to his subject, he wud hav been referd to 337, or 
sum one of its subdivisions. 

Had he lookt for railroad' he wud hav found after it 22 separate 
entries, each preceded by a word or fraze indicating the faze of the 
subject in the skeme. A book on railroads may treat of the desirability 
of government ownership, control etc. and then is clearly a question of 
social syence; or it may be a practical handbook for an employee, ex- 

67 



Decimal Classification 



plaining business methods of railroading, running trains, handling freight, 
etc. when it is as clearly one of the useful arts. The clasifyer knows to 
which of these heds his book belongs, and the reader knows in which of 
its fazes he wishes to examin the subject. Moreover, 3 and 6 beginning 
the numbers clearly indicate caracter of each clas. But even if signifi- 
cance of these figures is entirely disregarded, no confuzion results, for, 
on consulting the numbers in catalog, in skeme, or on shelvs the diflEer- 
ence is clearly seen. In other cases, it is more useful to keep books on 
the same subject together, tho treated from different standpoints. A 
glance at the Index tels either reader or clasifyer which plan has been 
adopted. 

All topics in blakface typ in Index ar further divided in Tables, where 
one may see the subheds. This saves reprinting all these subdivisions, 
which wud increase Index bulk many-fold; e.g. if one having a book on 
'prison labor' looks in the Index for 'Convict labor' or Trison contracts, 
he finds at once its special number 331.51; but if, on the other hand he 
thinks to look only for jeneral subject 'Labor', he finds in blakface typ 
the entry 'Labor, pohtical economy, 331', and turning to Tables he finds 
under 331 the subdivision '331.51, Convict labor', the exact topic in 

hand. 

The greatest objection to a clast catalog has always been the diflBculty 
in knowing just where to clas a book and just where to look for it when 
again wanted. Different librarians, or the same librarian at different 
times, clast the same or similar books in widely different places. Where 
one man did all the work for many years, there was a degree of uni- 
formity; but even then there was danjer of looking at the same book at 
different times from different viewpoints, thus cauzing confuzion. When 
the daily pres is ful of one faze of a subject, tendency is strong to clas 
all books on this subject from current viewpoint; and next year, if a 
different side of this same subject is before the public, there is same 
tendency to clas books from new viewpoint, thereby separating similar 
books and bringing together books on different fazes. But fortunately, 
practical usefulness does not require that the ideas of this or that one 
be foUowd, but only that books of same caracter be always put in same 
place, and that there be sum means of knowing redily what that place is. 
The Relativ Index, with its cachwords, was desynd and is found in use to 
meet both these requirements, for it insures that books on same faze of 
any subject cuming before the clasffyers shal be assynd to same place, 
and that any reader seeking these books shal be referd instantly to that 

68 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



place. If this is dun, all requirements of a good clasification ar fild. If it 
is not dun, the sistem is a failure; for the only real test of any skeme is 

its helpfulness to its uzers. 

Sum prominent opponents of clast catalogs admit that the RelatiA- 
Subject Index, in deciding where to clas a book at first and where to 
look for it ever afterwards, has removed their strongest objections. Cer- 
tainly it wud be imposibl to make an Index more compact or eazier of 

reference. 

This Index allows a great part of the work of clasifying to be dun in 
advance by experts in larj central libraries with ampl resources, thus se- 
curing, at a mere fraction of uzual cost, better and more uniform results 
than wud be posibl to the ordinary clasifyer and reducing labor to much 
narrower limits than ever before. 

To these thousands of subjects hav been carefuly assynd their indi- 
vidual numbers, many of them after long consideration and consultation 
with specialists. No one person is lerned enuf to clas wizely books on all 
subjects and syences; but botanists can assyn all botanic subjects to the 
ryt number, mathematicians all mathematical topics, and thus the Index 
wil in time becum as accurate as the best skolarship of the day can make 
it. Even if the decision reacht is not always wizest, all practical purposes 
ar servd, becauz, as each clasifyer copies the number from same Index, 
aU books on that subject ar together; and, as each reader get his number 
from this same Index, he goes directly to the book he seeks. 

What Relativ Index includes The Index, containing 43,000 entries 
and constantly being enlarjd by ading new subjects, aims to include all 
topics exprest or implyd in Tables, together with every corresponding 
sinonim Ukely to be sought, but does not include most names of cuntries, 
towns, animals, plants etc. except when mentiond in Tables; e.g. it can 
not enumerate all species of trilobites, but when clasifyer has found from 
proper reference books that Remopleurides is a trilobite, the Index sends 
him to 565.393, and he can clas his monograf on that subject. 

Tables The essential complement of the Subject Index is the Tables 
of Clasification, so mapt out as to show in 4 ways— i.e. by size of typ, 
face of typ, indention, and number of figures prefixt— each subject's rank 
in the Clasification. 

The field of knowlej is divided into 9 main clases, numberd I to 9, and 
cyclopedias, periodicals etc. so jeneral as to belong to none of these 
clases ar markt (naught) and form a 10th clas; e.g. clas 1 is library of 
Filosofy; clas 5, Ubrary of Syence; clas 9, History, etc. These special 

69 



Decimal Classification 



clases or libraries ar then considerd independently, and each is sepa- 
rated again into 9 special divisions of the main subject, numberd 1 to 9, 
as wer the clases, jeneral works belonging to no division having for 
their division number. Thus 59 is division 9 (Zoolojy) of clas 5 (Syence). 
A 3d division is then made by separating each of these divisions into 10 
sections, numberd in same way with and the 9 dijits; and this decimal 
subdivision is repeated, til it secures as many subsections as may be 
needed in any topic. Thus 513 is section 3 (Jeometry) of division 1 
(Mathematics) of clas 5 (Pure syence). This number, giving clas, divi- 
sion, section and subsection, if any, is cald the clas number, and is ap- 
plyd to every book and pamflet belonging to the hbrary. All jeometries ar 
thus numberd 513, all mineralojies 549, and so thruout the library all 
books on any givn subject bear the number of that subject in this skeme. 
Where occurs before the decimal point in a clas number, it has its 
normal zero value. Thus a book numberd 510 is clas 5, division 1, but 
no section; i.e. treats of division 51 (Mathematics) in jeneral, and is 
limited to no 1 section, as is jeometry, markt 513. 500 indicates a treatis 
on syence in jeneral, limited to no division. occurring in the 1st place 
wud in the same way show that the book was limited to no clas; e.g. a 
jeneral cyclopedia which treats of all 9 clases. 

With the same 'jeneral' sense, is often uzed to indicate chanje in 
caracter of subdivision, meaning in this case *basis of subdivision chanjes 
at this point', i.e. figure ( or figures ) following apply to what precedes 
in jeneral, e.g. 505 indicates syence in jeneral treated in the form of a 
periodical. In history, clasification is by cuntries (i.e. jeografic) and as 
minute jeografic divisions ar needed for travels, gyd books, and varius 
other uses, the figures 1-9 ar jeneraly uzed for jeografic subdivisions and 
again for further jeografic subdivisions, as far as needed, and foUowd 
by another figure for time division, i.e. the figures before the indicate 
the locality as a whole, while figures after the indicate the special time 
at which the history of the locality is being considerd; e.g. 942.06, con- 
sisting of 942 {jeografic division) and 06 {time division), means history 
of England in jeneral in time of the Stuarts, while 942.6 and 942.67 mean 
respectivly history of eastern England and history of Essex co., to which 
the same time division may be aded, giving 942.606 and 942.6706 as the 
history of those localities under the Stuarts. As any subdivision may, by 
ading figures 1-9, be givn 9 further subdivisions, any desired degree of 
minuteness may be secured in clasing special subjects. 

First subdivision under many rubrics is used for General and theoretic 

70 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



questions to provide for such specific topics as ar common to all or most 
of the principal subdivisions of a relativly broad subject. 

Coordination Theoreticly division of every subject into just 9 parts is 
absurd. Practicaly it is desirabl to clas as minutely as posibl, without use 
of aded figures; and decimals, on which our skeme hinjes, allow 9 divi- 
sions as redily as fewer. This has proved wholy satisfactory in practis, 
tho apparently destroying proper coordination in sum places. 

Where more than 9 divisions ar needed the difficulty is commonly ob- 
viated by grouping on singl numbers the subjects most closely allyd, or 
by assyning 1-8 specificly to most important subjects and grouping minor 
subjects on 9 as ^Other.' Since any of these groups may be further sub- 
divided for specific topics as needed, provision is thus made for an un- 
limited number of subjects. 

As in every skeme, many minor subjects ar under jeneral beds to which 
they do not strictly belong. In sum cases, these beds ar printed in dis- 
tinctly typ; e.g. 829 Anglo-Saxon, under English literature. The rule has 
been to assyn these subjects to the most nearly allyd beds, or where it 
was tho't they wud be most useful. The only alternativ was to omit them 
altogether. If any such omission occurs, it wil be supplyd as soon as dis- 
coverd, for we intend to provide in the Tables a place for every known 

topic. 

New subjects A new topic is always closely related to sum existing 
bed. If there is no blank number availabl it is combined with the bed 
nearest allyd, and, when important enuf, distinct provision for the new 
cumr is made by ading another decimal. The sistem is thus capabl of un- 
limited expansion, and can never break down for lak of room for growth. 

Choice and arranjement of heds Detaild explanation of selection and 
arranjement of the many thousand heds wud be tedius; but everywhere 
filosofic theory and accuracy hav yielded to practical usefulness. The im- 
posibility of making a satisfactory clasification of all knowlej as preservd 
in books, has been appreciated from the first, and theoretic harmony and 
exactness hav been repeatedly sacrificed to practical requirements. 

Sequence of allyd subjects Wherever practicabl, heds hav been so 
arranjed that each subject is preceded and foUowd by most nearly allyd 
subjects, and thus aded convenience is secured both in clast catalogs and 
on shelvs; e.g. Bilding (690) follows Mekanic trades (680) at end of 
Useful arts, and Arkitecture follows at beginning of Fine arts. 

Students of Biolojy (570) find fossil life or Paleontolojy (560) before, 
and vejetabl life or Botany (580) after, this foUowd in turn by animal 

7^ 



Decimal Classification'^ 



life or Zoolojy (590), ending with Mammals (599); while Useful arts 
(600) begin with human Anatomy (611) under Medicin, thus giving a 
regular growth from fossil plant thru vejetabl and animal kingdoms to 
living man. 

Caehtitles In naming hedings, strict accuracy has often been sacri- 
ficed to brevity, for short familiar titles ar more important than that 
terms chosen shud express fully and exactly caracter of all books clast 
under them. Many subjects, apparently omitted, wil be found in the 
Index, assynd, with allyd subjects, to a hed which bears the name of the 
most important only. Reference to the Index wil decide at once most 
doutful points. 

Form distinctions The clasification is mainly by subject or content 
regardless of form but an aded form distinction for jeneral treatises is 
found practicaly useful. 

Thus, in Syence there ar many compends, dictionaries, essays, periodi- 
cals and socyeties, treating of Syence in jeneral, and so having for the 
division figure, but treating it under different forms, and therefore di- 
vided into sections according to this form: 501 for filosofy or theories of 
Syence, 502 for compends, 503 for dictionaries, etc. This treatment is as 
nearly as practicabl, uniform in all clases. Creasy's *15 decisiv battles' is 
904, the 1st figure being 9, becauz the book is clearly history; the 2d 
figure 0, becauz hmited to no division of clas 9; and the 3d figure 4, 
becauz the book is a colection of essays. 

The 10 main clases ar regularly divided by form, e.g. 809, history of 
literature in jeneral. For divisions, sections or subsections having enuf 
jeneral material to make such division advizabl, form numbers, preceded 
by 0, may be uzed (e.g. 820.9, history of English hteratture; 821.09, his- 
tory of English poetry), except when and the following number hav 
been otherwize assynd, e.g. 821.04 English liric poetry, not essays on 
English poetry; 942.05 England in time of the Tudors, not a periodical 
on English history. A history of English literature is 820.9, not 809, be- 
cauz every book belongs to the most specific hed that wil contain it; so 
809 is hmited to histories of literature in jeneral. Books treating of many 
clases, such as jeneral cyclopedias or periodicals, go in clas and ar then 
divided by form into cyclopedias, periodicals, socyeties or newspapers. 

Do not confuze form number 07, meaning methods of study or teach- 
ing', with number for same subject under 375, which is for its value as a 
means of education, or for its curiculum place. 

These form distinctions ar introduced at the beginning of the clas be- 

7» 



MelvU Dewey's introduction 



cauz the number of jeneral works is larj, and these 1st numerals wud 
otherwize be unuzed. 

Form divisions always hav the same set of numbers, preceded by 0, 
i.e. 1 filosofy, theories etc.; 2 compends, outlines; 3 dictionaries, cyclo- 
pedias; 4 essays, lectures, letters etc.; 5 periodicals, magazines etc.; 6 so- 
cyeties, associations, transactions, reports etc.; 7 education, study, teach- 
ing, training etc.; 8 poligrafy, colections etc.; 9 history. Thus a periodical 
on a subject has the subject number foUowd by 05; e.g. a periodical on 

public helth, 614.05. 

But if the number alredy ends in 0, is not repeated before form- 
division figures; e.g. a zoolojic magazine is 590.5, not 590.05. 

Minute clasing On first publication in 1876, a common criticizm was 
that 1000 beds cud never be successfuly uzed, however desirabl so close 
clasification myt be. As soon, however, as actual experience proved it as 
eazy to uze 1000 beds in the new sistem as 100 in the old, the obviusly 
great practical value of close clasing led one uzer after another to xirj 
strongly pubhcation of more subdivisions. Minute as ar many now givn 
there ar none that sum hav not askt for and almost none that others hav 
not declared needless. Subdivisions ar made in such a way that one may 
uze all, or any part and ignore the rest without diflBculty or confuzion, 
thus allowing each to uze minute subdivisions where he wishes or needs 
them, without being forst into refinements in subjects where he has few 
books or litl interest. Since the degree to which any skeme shal be applyd 
is optional with each clasifyer and close analisis is useful to everyone in 
defining content or in clarifying differences between related subjects, 
even elaborate skemes ar printed in ful ff no essential objection has been 
bro't against them by the best qualffyd critics. The 1st 3 figures only may 
be uzed when preferd, and the rest show the scope of the subject. On 
many topics minute subsections ar printed simply for this purpose, and 
for use in indexing periodicals and socyety transactions, and in keeping 
notes. Note typ is uzed for topics clearly useful only to specialists or as 
showing scope. Many others probably belonging in same category, if 
doutful ar in regular typ of their grade. 

The advantaj of close clasing is unquestiond, ff the uzer knows just 
what it is. With this plan it is not only practicabl, but comparativly eazy. 
If there ar only 10 books on a givn topic, it is useful to hav them in 
groups amung themselvs, for otherwize they wud hav only accidental 
order, which is of servis to no one. A reader wishing a specific book shud 
go, not to shelvs, but to catalog, where he can find its place quickest. If 

73 



Decimal Classification 



he wishes a specific subject, he is sent instantly to its exact place by the 
Subject Index. If he wishes to study the library's resources at the shelvs, 
he wil be greatly helpt by minute clasing. A teacher showing his pupil 
the material on any subject wud, if there wer only 20 books, surely put 
together those covering same points, even if there wer only 2. Much 
more shud librarians group closely their greater colections, that readers 
may gain sumthing of the advantajes of an experienst gyd. 

Thus every specialist has his own special library. If a student of syence 
in jeneral, he is sent to clas 5; if his department is zoolojy, his library is 
59; if his specialty is shels, he finds all works and references on that 
subject in library 594. Whether a specialist needs it or not, every sub- 
ject, being a library by itself, shows resources and wants as no catalog 
can. A catalog can not be made to take satisfactorily the place of han- 
dling books theniselvs. This advantaj weighs most in a colej or socyety 
hbrary, where many go to the shelvs; but even if only librarians ar ad- 
mitted, close clasing is worth its cost becauz of aded power givn. 

Tentativ tables More and more minute subdivisions hav been specialy 
cald for til the 1000 heds of 1873, with 2600 index entries in edition 1, 
hav increast til they command 43,000 index entries, in edition 12. After 
getting many sugjestions, sumtimes hundreds, for aditions or further sub- 
divisions of sum subject, we draft a skeme and test it on a sampl colec- 
tion. To get larjer cooperation in perfecting it we sumtimes print the new 
draft in Tables without including its new words in Index, so every uzer 
wil see what is proposed and if interested may test it on his own work 
and submit sugjestions for improvement. Then in the next edition, with 
this great help, needed revisions can be made and all new words in- 
serted in Index. 

As result of agreement between Institut International de Bibliographic 
and ourselvs we hav included in edition 12 many I I B expansions, while 
sum other expansions recently prepared by us hav not yet, for lak of 
time, been submitted to I I B and must therefore, strictly speaking, be 
regarded as tentativ til accepted by that body, but as these expansions 
wer developt with view to such acceptance we look for litl chanje, and 
their larj number has made it impractical to designate them. 

Nemonics [mnemonics] Heds hav sumtimes been arranjed to secure 
nemonic aid in numbering and finding books without the Index; thus 
China has always number 1. In Ancient history, it has the 1st section, 
931; in Modern history, under Asia, it has 951. Similarly the Indian num- 
ber is 4; EngUsh, 2; German, 3; French, 4; Itahan, 5; Spanish, 6; Russian, 

74 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



7; European, 4; Asian, 5; African, 6; North American, 7; South Ameri- 
can, 8; and so for all divisions by languajes or cuntries. ItaUan 5, for in- 
stance', is in 035, 055, 065, 450, 850, 945, and other many others. This 
nemonic principl is specialy prominent in Filolojy and Literature, and 
their divisions, and in form distinctions uzed in the 1st 9 sections of each 
clas. Filosofy, methods or theory, occurring as a hed, is always 1; diction- 
aries and cyclopedias ar 3; essays, 4; periodicals, 5; associations, socyeties 
and institutions, 6; education, 7; pohgrafy or colections, 8; history, 9. In 
numerus cases several minor heds ar groupt together as Other, uzualy 

numberd 9. 

While Italian is always 5, 5 is by no means always Italian. Grammar 
is 5, Periodicals ar 5, Asia is 5, Oratory is 5, etc. Even wer it posibl, to 
limit 5 to Itahan wud waste numbering material, and results wud not 
justify cost. The purpose is to giv practical aid, not to follow fanciful 
theory. A clasifyer marking a French grammar, remembers that all Filol- 
ojy begins with 4, and, as French is always 4 and grammar 5, he 
knows the number must be 445. Italian (5), poetry (1), is plainly 851 
with no danjer of being mistaken for poetry of grammar' or 'theory of 
Asia,' becauz the numbers also hav those meanings. This feature is an 
aid, not regular method, and in all doutful cases one refers at once to 
Index or Tables. Sugjested difficulties ar uzualy creations of injenius 
theorists and not outgrowth of practical experience. 

Wherever practical, this nemonic principl is uzed in subdividing sec- 
tions. 558, Jeolojy of South America, is subdivided by ading the sections 
of 980, History of South America. Jeolojy of Brazil then must be 558.1: 
nemonicly, the 1st 5 is Syence; 2d 5, Jeolojy; 8, South America; and 1, 
Brazil. Any library attendant or regular uzer of the skeme recognizes 
558.1 at a glance as Jeolojy of Brazil. This nemonic feature occurs in 
several hundred places, and is of great practical utility in numbering 
and finding books without catalog or index, and in determining caracter 
of any book simply from its call number. Extent of use is shown in 5 
tables appended to main Index, giving alfabetic hsts of (1) subjects, 
with clas number of each, which may be subdivided jeograficly; 

(2) form divisions, with figures to be aded in making such division; 

(3) languajes, with their clas numbers, which may be further subdivided 
filolojicly by ading figures givn in Index table 4; (4) filolojic divisions, 
with figures to be aded in subdividing any languaj in Index table 3; 
(5) literatures, with their clas numbers, which may be further subdi- 
vided by ading form divisions from Enghsh literature. 

75 



\ 



Decimal Classification 



Melvil Dewey s introduction 



As in close subdivision, wish for nemonic correspondence has never 
outv^eighd any claim of greater usefulness. In many cases choice be- 
tween numbers was hardly perceptibl: e.g. whether in filolojy order shud 
be French, Spanish, Italian, or French, Italian, Spanish. In such cases 
nemonic numbers wer givn preference, and 54 years use has proved this 
wizest. Great gain, beside eaz of remembering, results from this uniform 
use of same numbers with same meaning whenever similar division is 
made. Wherever division by languajes or cuntries is made, it follows 
filolojy or history numbers, and in Tables, the note 'Divided like 900' 
fully takes the place of reprinting all history subdivisions. This saving 
justifys use of these numbers in sum cases, even where a sumwhat dif- 
ferent order myt seem more nearly fitted to the special case; e.g. in 342, 
constitutional history of Canada (342.71) and Australia (342.94) next 
that of England (342.42) wud be better than our order, which separates 
them both from England and from each other. Stil by following the 
uzual Procrustean numbers, many topics can be subdivided minutely 
without further study, by simply applying history or languaj subdivi- 
sions. A singl ilustration of the astonishing power this principl givs wil 
suflBce, tho thousands myt be givn: 016 is 'BibUografy of special subjects, 
divided like main clasification, therefore by aid of tables under 581, 
016.581974742 redily translates itself to all uzers into 'Bibliografy of 
flora of Albany co., N Y'. While these 12 figures myt never be uzed, if a 
specialist wishes minute division, it is redy to his hand, conforms to In- 
dex, and wil be clearly understood by anyone famihar with our plan. A 
speciahst wud in such cases probably adopt a contraction for his long 
number, and uze in ful only the minute divisions. 

Decimalism Utility has not been sacrificed in order to force subjects 
on the 'decimal procrustean bed'. Decimals hav been uzed as servants, 
not as masters. When subjects ar combined or separated into just 10 
heds, it has been from no necesity of the skeme, but becauz it seemd 
most useful, all things considerd. In many cases there wer orijinaly only 
3 to 7 heds insted of 10; but uzualy, during years of testing before pub- 
lication, it proved advizabl to divide sum of these heds, as it took no 
aded space or labor. On the other hand, there wer cases where more 
than 10 heds seemd more natural; and, as any number up to 100 is pro- 
vided for by ading one decimal, this was dun in most cases. As only 
1000 sections wer first printed, it was often necesary to put 2 or more 
closely allyd topics together under the same number, as must stil be dun 
whenever a library limits number of figures uzed to 3; but during 54 

76 



years use subdivisions hav multiplyd, til now nearly every topic has its 
own special number. The skeme givs us for each topic, as it wer, a case 
of 9 pijeonholes, with a larj space at the top; and we uze them as every 
practical business man uzes such pijeonholes about his desk. If, as in 
220, there ar les than 9 main topics, it is often convenient to uze the 
extra spaces for subdivisions. Thus we keep separate, under Old Testa- 
ment, historic, poetic, and profetic books; and under New Testament, 
the Gospels, Epistls and Apocalips. Spaces ar there, and it is convenient 
to uze them for jeneral works on those groups— a reason that experience 
proves a good anser to the charj of lak of coordination, tho indention 
and typ in Tables make that charj baseless. Then in 280, having more 
than 9 topics, if we ar uzing only 3 figures we put Congregational in 
same space with Presbyterian, and small denominations together in the 
last box, just as a business man puts his papers in his pijeonholes. If he 
insisted on having a different case made to order for each use, it vmd 
cost over twice as much; he cud not group them together or interchanje 
them, and they wud not fit ofiBs shelvs. 

There has been perverse misapprehension of this feature, and critics 
oftenest stumbl over 'procrustean 10'. In fact, this is an element of use- 
fulness. A railroad also has the fault that it is procrustean in its path and 
in its times. It can not cum to yur door nor wait yur convenience, as does 
the automobile; it can not go to the fields for its loads of produce; it can 
not turn out for obstacls; but becauz it is procrustean it can do its larj- 
scale work much better and quicker and cheaper. The paralel cud be 
fairly extended to many other cases, but any tho'tful mind wil recognize 
that the economy and eaz of working the Decimal sistem ar larjly de- 
pendent on its being procrustean. To this we owe much of the great 
simplicity of the Relativ Index, many nemonic correspondences, and the 
useful to indicate form and period divisions. Our intersecting lines of 
space and time in History, etc., of languaj and form in Filolojy and Lit- 
eratm-e, and scores of similar advantajes, depend wholy on procrustean 
10*, or else on sum other number equaly procrustean, but lacking the 
advantajes of exact correspondence to our arithmetic. 

Relativ location Economy and simplicity cald not only for the Sub- 
ject Index, but also for sum plan of consolidating the 2 sets of marks 
previusly uzed; one teling what subject a book treated, the other where 
the book was shelvd. By relativ location and decimal clas numbers we 
make our simpl arable numerals tel of each book and pamflet, both what 
it is, and where it is. 

77 



Decimal Classification 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



r 



hi 



In fixt relation, to find book, pamflet, clipping or note is like finding a 
man when yu know his town, street, hous and room. 

In relativ location it is like finding a soldier if yu know his army, divi- 
sion, rejiment and cumpany. If John Smith is 3d man in 2d row of Com- 
pany B, rejiment 69, 4th division, whether the rejiment is in camp, on 
parade or on march, his place is not determind by the bit of ground on 
which he stands, but by his relation to the rest of the army. If soldiers 
ar ded and in the cemetery they ar as eazily found by fixt as by relativ 
location. But if the army is ahve and militant, as every library or private 
working colection o't to be, its resoiu-ces shud be findabl whether in 
camp, on march or in action. 

In arranjing books on shelvs, the formerly common absolute or fixt lo- 
cation by shelf and book number is wholy abandond, relativ location by 
clas and book number being our chief feature. Accumpanying clas num- 
ber is the book number, which prevents confuzion of different books on 
the same subject. In finding books, numbers markt on baks ar foUowd, 
the upper being the clas and the lower the book number. Clas is found 
in its numeric order amung clases, just as shelf is found in fixt sistems. 
Shelvs ar not numbrd, as increasing different departments, opening new 
rooms, and any arranjing of clases to bring books most circulated nearest 
delivery desk, wil at different times bring different clas numbers on any 
givn shelf. New books, as recievd, ar numberd and put in place, in same 
way that new titles ar aded to card catalog. 

Thus all books on any givn subject stand together, and no aditions or 
chanjes ever separate them. Not only ar found together all books on sub- 
ject sought, but most nearly allyd subjects precede and follow, they in 
turn being preceded and foUowd by other allyd subjects as far as prac- 
ticabl. Readers not having access to shelvs find short titles arranjed in 
same order in shelflist, and ful titles, imprints, aded subject entries, ref- 
erences, notes etc. in clast catalog. 

Parts of sets, and books on same or allyd subjects, ar never separated 
as they ar sure to be, sooner or later, in a library arranjed on fixt plan, 
unless it be frequently rearranjed and recatalogd, a procedure too ex- 
pensiv even for very welthy libraries. Relativ sistem clas and book 
numbers remain unchanjed thru all chanjes of shelving, bildings or order 

of clases. 

Amung hundreds of points raizd by librarians as to its practical work- 
ings and usefulness, the only one in which it was not shown to be equal 

78 



or superior to erlier sistems was that in this relativ location a book which 
this year stands, e.g. at the end of a certain shelf, may not be on that 
shelf at all another year, becauz of uneven growth of parts of the library. 
This slyt objection, however, inheres in any sistem where books ar ar- 
ranjed by subjects, rather than by shelvs, windows, doors, and similar 
non-intelectual distinctions. 

Sizes on shelvs Most libraries hav abandond close distinction of sizes. 
It is true that this distinction saves a litl space, but at far too great a 
cost; for every distinction of sizes makes a paralel clasification. If books 
ar groupt in 5 sizes, one must look in 5 places before he can be sure of 
having seen them all. 

It is better to shelv octavos and all smaller books together in 1 series, 
and arranje in paralel libraries only quartos and folios, which ar too larj 
to stand on regular shelvs, showing series in which any oversize book is 
put by a size letter prefixt to the book or clas number; e.g. 749 qA or 
q749 A shows that book A on Artistic furniture is too larj for regular 
shelvs, and so is placed in q or quarto series. Or uze a wood or paste- 
board dummy to show location of a book not in its regular place. But, 
however solvd, size problems ar no more trublsum with Decimal tlian 
with any other clasification. 

Catalogs 

Any sistem of catalogs may be uzed with this skeme, but the 2 es- 
sentials of even the simplest sistem ar name or author catalog and shelf- 
list. The chief uses of this sistem for catalogs ar for shelflists and for 
clast catalogs on cards. 

Name catalog In this, arranjed strictly by names of authors and of 
persons or places MTitn about, the clas number holds a subordinate 
place, yet is constantly useful. If printed, it appears in a singl colum as 
in the Relativ Index, and where there is no subject catalog one can rap- 
idly pik out books on any topic by glancing down colum for clas number 

wanted. 

Shelflist Here clas number is again hyly important, as it makes this 
list the most useful form of brief subject catalog, giving author's name 
and brief title of every book on specific subject bearing that clas num- 
ber. 

Clast catalog In the clast card catalog the clasification is mapt out 

79 



I- 



P 
b' 



Decimal Classification 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



abuv the cards by projecting gyds, making reference almost instanta- 
neus. Subjects ar arranjed in 1, 2, 3 order of their decimal subject num- 
bers exactly as in clas tables, and cards of each subject ar then subar- 
ranjed alfabeticly by authors (or, in sum cases, e.g. biografy or local 
history, by subjects) or cronolojicly, or by book numbers. 

The printed subject catalog on this plan is also most compact and sat- 
isfactory in use. Under each clas number ar givn the Hbrary s resources 
on that subject, the heding giving, for convenience, name as wel as num- 
ber of subject; e.g. '513 Jeometry. Jeneral notes ar printed in finer typ 
under jeneral beds, and a relativ index at the end shows just where to 
open the book to find any topic. As clas numbers ar put in place of paje 
numbers, this index servs for any catalog, hst or library arranjed on this 

plan. 

Dictionary catalog The dictionary catalog is as eazily uzed with this 
sistem as with any other, and is at present on the crest of its wave of 
popularity. Its failure to meet skolars' requirements has often been 
pointed out. While far the best for an index, it stil leavs much need of a 
good clast catalog. But diflBculties both of making and of uzing a clast 
catalog wer formerly so great that there was a conviction amung many 
librarians that notwithstanding its great advantajes, the idea must be 
abandond as impracticabl, tho other eminent authorities ably argued 
that the poorest clast catalog was better than one unclast, and that any 
use of such a catalog was in itself a lesson in bibUografy. Now that the 
serius diflBculties of making a good clast catalog hav been so larjly re- 
moved by the simpl arable numerals and Relativ Index of this decimal 
plan, the merits of clast over the more common dictionary sistems ar 

dubly prominent. 

The Subject Index of this sistem is a skeleton dictionary catalog, cov- 
ering everything not fully coverd by the name catalog'. Insted of giving 
book titles under each hed, the mmiber refers to all those titles simply 
and directly. The index may be made on any of the varius dictionary 
plans, with all the advantajes it may possess. To us, simplest seemd best. 
We giv only short beds with brief indication in doutful cases of view- 
point taken in assyning clas numbers. 

We therefore unite advantajes of dictionary and clast catalogs, not by 
mingling them and so losing much of simphcity of one and as much of 
excelence of the other, but by realy uzing both, each with its own merits. 
Only one set of titles is needed, for our clas numbers make this availabl 
for both catalogs. 

8o 



Advantajes 

Shelvs The sistem on the shelvs is the simplest form of relativ loca- 
tion. Many libraries hav adopted it for shelf arranjement, where catalogs 
recently printed, or larj investment in another plan, made it too expensiv 
to chanje anything else. 

Shelflist By simply printing the shelflist at any time an admirabl sub- 
ject clas list is made for any topic on which there may be present inter- 
est; e.g. if a tovra contemplates a new water supply, interest is greatly 
stimulated, and everything about waterworks is wanted. The librarian 
has only to open his shelflist to 628.1 and 352.6 and print it. This great 
advantaj is gaind with but slyt variation from the form found best in its 
regular use as a shelflist for examination of shelvs to detect losses and 
misplacements. 

Accession book Where shelf mark colums ar uzed, tables of number 
of books aded on each subject ar redily made. A glance shows caracter, 
by subjects, of books aded during any givn period; for, wherever this 
clas number occurs, it tels not only where the book is shelvd but also 
what it is about. 

Pamflets These clas numbers applyd to pamflets, whether catalogd 
or uncatalogd, hav proved specialy satisfactory. Number is writn on up- 
per left corner, and pamflets ar shelvd in pamflet boxes, side by side 
with books on same subject, or they may be kept in vertical files or on 
special shelvs divided every 10 cm by perpendicular partitions, or, if 
preferd, each pamflet may be put in exact place as if bound. Litl ex- 
pense is incurd, and yet entire pamflet resources of the hbrary on any 
subject can be produced almost instantly. The immense advantajes of 
this clast arranjement, both in economy and usefuhiess, wil be appre- 
ciated by every keeper of a pamflet colection. A name or author catalog 
is made on slips if time allows. The pamflets themselvs ar the best sub- 
ject catalog. Placing all material under its clas number on regular shelvs, 
has the great advantaj of enabling anyone examining a subject to see all 
resources in 1 place, so far as posibl. 

Sale duplicates The same arranjement is admirabl here. Duphcates ar 
so constantly chanjing that a catalog can hardly be afforded, and a sub- 
ject arranjement on any other plan that this is diflBcult to maintain, Stil, 
it is very important that there be sum means of knowing what duphcates 
there ar on any givn subject. By simply penciling clas numbers on books 

8i 






I ' r 



Decimal Classification 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



\f 



(I 



h 
I 



U 



and arranjing these numericly, it is posibl to giv the information more 
quikly, cheaply and satisfactorily than in any other way. 

Charjing sistem Clas numbers may be uzed for charjing with the 
following advantajes: Minutest statistics of circulation can be made by 
simply counting charjes and entering the number for each clas on a re- 
port sheet. If filing is dun by call numbers, as either a primary or a sec- 
ondary consideration, whereabouts of any book lent or amount of use of 
any subject is quikly found; file givs an up-to-date record of all books 
lent in any subject; e.g. cards filed under 52 show for Astronomy or those 
under 822 for Enghsh drama just how many and what books ar out and 
who hav them. Such a circulation table, always at hand, and with no 
extra expense or labor, since it is a natural part of the sistem, is hyly 
prized by all interested in caracter of jeneral use of the library, while it 
can by trifling labor be converted into a permanent record by entering 
on a report sheet. If a reader's card is uzed, caracter of the individual's 
reading is here shown and never before has so much attention as now 
been givn to educating readers' tastes. 

Subject references For these it has pecuHar advantajes. Many uzers 
ar undertaking analises and cros references to an extent hitherto tho't 
wholy or almost imposibl. These few figures tel as clearly as a long hed- 
ing exactly what the reference is, while gain in eaz of use is even greater 
than in time and space saved in recording. The clearness and directness 
of the method aid wonderfuly in this work. References to transactions, 
or chapters in essays, may be made in the most compact and uzabl form. 
Recataloging or reclasifying When Amherst College in 1873 first 
adopted this plan and began to recatalog its library, it was found ( as in 
hundreds of cases since) entirely practicabl to chanje to the new sistem 
gradualy, as means allowd, without interfering in any appreciabl degree 
with circulation. Methods employd for thus chanjing without interrupt- 
ing use must vary according to different conditions. The essential feature 
is enuf distinction between old and new call numbers to be eazily recog- 
nized by attendants. If old call ntunbers consist wholy of figiures, the 
initial letter of the Cutter author numbers furnishes this requisit. All 
numbers of figures only ar then recognized as old, and all numbers con- 
taining a letter as in the new sistem. 

Adaptability The sistem is so flexibl that it adapts itself to almost any 
circumstances. It may be uzed with proportionate results in almost any 
one of its applications without the others. It may be applyd to pamflets 
alone, bringing order out of caos, and solving this vext and vexing prob- 

82 



lem; or it may be uzed for catalogs, leaving shelf arranjement as before; 
or it may be applyd to shelvs, while the catalog is dictionaiy or any 

other typ. 

Arabic numerals Arabic numerals can be writn and found quicker 
and with les danjer of confuzion or mistake than any other simbols. 
Therefore roman numerals, capitals and small letters, and similar simbols 
found in most clasification sistems ar entirely discarded, and by exclusiv 
use of arabic numerals thruout shelvs, and indexes, catalogs and other 
records, there is secured the greatest accuracy, economy and conven- 
ience. This advantaj is specialy prominent in comparison witli sistems 
where author's name or the title must be writn, in calling for or charjing 
books and in making references. 

Endowment of special departments Another great advantaj is pecul- 
iar adaptability to special endowments. One specialy interested in any 
subject can often be induced to endow that subject, thus providing for 
bying each year all the best publications. 

If John Doe is specialy interested in opera, the library says: 'Giv us 
$1000 as endowment of 782, and we wil call it the 'Doe Library of Dra- 
matic Music'. There wil be found every book, pamflet, newspaper clip- 
ping, or manuscript that the hbrary has or can get on this subject. Gifts 
from others wil be placed in the Doe Library, the donor's name being 
givn on the bookplate, and for jenerations to cum every person inter- 
ested in opera wil be grateful for yur foundation'. In this way 782 is 
assynd to John Doe, and his pride is stimulated in developing it. If an- 
other man with larjer means and interest wal endow the whole subject 
of music 780, there is no diflSculty or impropryety in including 782, the 
Doe Dramatic Music Library, as the 2d section of 780, the Roe Music 

Library. 

This is one of the most promising fields for development, for almost 
every library has amung its readers sum specialy interested, who if prop- 
erly approacht wud endow sum topic, even if a small one, and this rel- 
ativ location, with its definit number expressing just the ground coverd, 
may be of great servis in working up these special endowments. 

Summary To sum up its claims: It is by far most inexpensiv; eazily 
understood, rememberd and uzed; practical rather than theoretic; brief 
and familiar in nomenclature; susceptibl of partial and gradual adoption 
without confuzion; convenient for arranjing pamflets, sale duplicates, 
and notes, and for indexing, and in keeping statistics and cheks for books 
off shelvs; a satisfactory adaptation of card catalog principl to shelvs. It 

83 



\t^. 



:i 



'is 



Decimal Classification 



shelvs books compactly; uzes simpl and few simbols; can be expanded, 
without limit and without confuzion or wasted labor, both in catalogs 
and on shelvs or in catalogs alone; cheks thuroly and conveniently 
against mistakes; admits redily numerus cros references; is unchanjeabl 
in its call numbers, and so givs them in all places where needed; in its 
Index aflFords an anser to the greatest objection to clast catalogs, and 
was the 1st satisfactory union of the advantajes of clast and dictionary 
sistems. 



Sugjestions to uzers 

Hold book in ryt hand and turn with left, then both clas numbers and 
index beds show most plainly on left marjins and reference is quicker 
when eye follows left pajes only. 

Numeration In thinking or speaking of clas numbers, to avoid con- 
fuzion always divide at the decimal point, and name it; e.g. read 942.27 
*nine forty-two, point twenty-seven', never 'ninety-four two twenty- 
seven*. If point' wer omitted, the ear myt redily interpret 270.2 (two 
seventy, two) as 272, while *two seventy, point two' can never be mis- 
understood. 

Flan of book 

Tables First paje shows 10 clases into which all topics ar divided. 
Next paje shows 9 divisions of each of these 10 clases, in a birdseye view 
of the whole skeme on a singl paje. Then follows a sinoptic view of 10 
pajes, one for each clas, showing the 9 sections of each division of each 

clas. 

Following these sinopses is the complete clasification, which repeats in 
proper order, clases, divisions and sections, with all subsections. For 
convenience of uzers, who thus get fuller and clearer ideas of the field 
which each number covers, sinonimus terms, exampls, brief notes, dates 
and varius cachwords ar often aded to main beds. Therefore all refer- 
ences to numbers shud be lookt up in the ful tables of subsections, uzing 
summaries only when a merely sinoptic view is wisht. 

Index Next an alfabetic index of all beds refers by clas number to 
exact place of each in Tables. This Index includes also, as far as found, 
all sinonims or alternativ names for beds, and any other entries likely to 
help a reader find his subject more redily. Even a uzer who knows just 

84 



I 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



where to turn to his subject in the Tables, may, by consulting the Index, 
be put on the trak of valuabl allyd matter which he myt otherwize over- 
look. 

Use of Tables and Index 

Familiarity with Clasification Get a jeneral knowlej of the skeme by 

lerning the 10 main clases [yu wil soon know the 100 divisions also with- 
out special study], so that yu can tel to what subject a givn number be- 
longs from its 1st figure, without referring to Tables. Specific knowlej 
of minute divisions wil cum gradualy, but rapidly, from use. Assyn num- 
bers by uzing Tables alone, and then always verify yur result by the 
Index. Tlius yu wdl more rapidly acquire knowlej of the Clasification 
and facility in its use. To do this, decide first to which of the 10 clases 
the subject belongs; next, take that clas as if there wer no other, and 
decide to which of its 10 divisions the subject belongs; then, in the same 
way, select section and subsection, thus running down yur topic in its 
groovs, which becum 10-fold narrower at each step. As a chek against 
error, even tho familiar with the skeme, uze Index freely. 
Subject of a book To find this out, consult: 

1 Title, since it is jeneraly chosen to show what the book is about, but 
as many titles ar vague or misleading, never clas from title alone but 

always examin also 

2 Contents table, which is best gyd to true subject. If there is no con- 
tents table read 

3 Hedings of chapters, or marjinal topics 

4 Preface Unless ahedy certain, glance thru this to each author's 
viewpoint and verify impressions gaind from title and contents 

5 Reference books If preceding means fail, consult relyabl bibliog- 
rafies, clast and annotated catalogs, biografic dictionaries, histories of 
literature, cyclopedias, reviews etc. for information about caracter of 

book. 

6 Subject matter If 5 shorter methods abuv fail, examin subject mat- 
ter of book itself, and if stil in dout, to avoid mistakes, put aside on an 
under consideration shelf til yu can examin more thuroly or consult 

7 Specialists Experts ar uzualy glad to examin any new books in 
their departments, enuf to clas them, i.e. to define their true subject and 
relations. Old ones they know where to put alredy. 

Be specialy careful when dealing with flexibl terms, e.g. child welfare, 

8S 



■11 



Decimal Classification 



to make sure of the caracter of its application in that individual book. 

After deciding what the book is about, find this subject in Tables, 
either thru Index or by uzing Tables directly, which for beginners is a 
longer process, seldom to be trusted without subsequent reference to 
Index; e.g. Pollock's Land laws myt naturaly be clast from Tables alone 
as '333, Land: ownership; ryts; rent*, which seems exactly to fit this book. 
Index, however, shows 2 numbers, both referring to land laws, but from 
diflFerent viewpoints; i.e. 347.2, legal, and 333, economic. The object of 
this book, as seen in the preface, is to giv a popular presentation of 
English statutes pertaining to landholding, not to discuss history and 
theory of land laws from economist's viewpoint. It should be clast *347.2, 
Realty', which myt hav been overlookt but for Index. 

Assyning clas numbers 1 Practical usefulness controls. Put each book 
under the subject to the student of which it is most useful, unless local 
reazons 'attract' it to a place stil more useful in yiu* library. 

2 Content or real subject of which a book treats, and not form or ac- 
cidental wording of title, determins its place. Following this rule, put a 
filosofy of art with Art, not with Filosofy; a history of mathematics with 
Mathematics, not with History; for filosofy or history is simply the form 
which these books hav taken. Their true content or subject is Art or 
Mathematics, and to the student of these subjects they ar most useful. 

3 Always remember that the question is not Vhere wil one probably 
look for a certain book', but under what subject is the book of greatest 
value'; e.g. it is of litl consequence whether 'one wnd be apt to look' 
under 595.16 for Darwin's Formation of vegetable mould, but of much 
consequence that one studying erthworms shud find that book in 595.16 
Erthworms, since it is chiefly valuabl as a study of erthworms' habits. 
Anyone wanting that special book shud look for it in catalog under 
Darwin. 

4 Giv every book most specific number which wil contain it. This 
varies in different libraries according to number of figures uzed, e.g. 
specific number for 'compulsory vaccination' is 614.4738; but in a library 
uzing only 3 figures, most specific' number posibl is 614, which must 
take everything on Public helth, 

Sumtimes a library unwizely puts aU books of a division together, if 
but few; e.g. all mathematical works ar markt 510. It takes just as many 
figures and in most cases just as much labor and if a man wants the 1 
calculus in the whole library he has to serch thru perhaps 100 volumes 
in 510, when other wize he wud instantly find it standing alone as 517. 

86 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



5 'Predominant tendency' or obvius purpose of a book uzualy decides 
its number at once. Stil a book often treats of 2 or more subjects. In such 
cases put it where it wil be most useful, and make aded entries for all 
subordinate subjects. For a clast catalog giv the aded entry numbers on 
both bookplate and main subject card as wel as on aded entry cards. 

It is a markt advantaj that these aded entries, notes etc. may be made 
from time to time at convenience. It is necesary at first to determin only 
predominant tendency of book in order to clas it; aded entries ar made 
whenever found desirabl. 

Supply these numbers indicating more closely caracter of book as rap- 
idly as posibl, and invite all specialists, in connection with their reading, 
to call attention to every desirabl aded topic notist. The numbers take 
litl room, ar eazily aded, and in most cases ar very valuabl. 

6 If 2 subjects hav distinct paje limits, jeneraly clas under 1st and 
make analitic entry under 2d; but if 2d is decidedly more important or 
much greater in bulk, clas under that, with analitic entry under 1st. 
Always put a book under 1st subject, unless there is good reazon for 
entering it under another. 

7 Consider not only scope and tendency of each book, but also nature 
and specialties of each library. 

Any subject of which a library makes a specialty natm"aly 'attracts' 
allyd subjects. This influence is strongest in minute clasing. To admit 
this variation, many subjects hav in this skeme 2 or more places, accord- 
ing to these different sides; e.g. a book on 'skool hyjiene', which a medi- 
cal library puts under 613, has also a place in 371.7, where education 
specialists require it. 

8 If a book treats of a majority of the sections of any division, giv it 
division number, insted of most important section number with aded 
entries. Unless siun one section is so prominently treated as to warrant 
placing the book in it, clas a book covering 4 or more sections under 
division number; e.g. clas a volume on lyt, heat and sound, under hed 
most fully discust, with aded entries for the others; but if it treats also 
of mekanics, hydrostatics and neumatics, clas as 530, or jeneral fizics, 
tho no mention be made of electricity, magnetism or molecular fizics. 

9 When a book deals with 2 consecutiv and closely allyd subjects, 
jeneraly clas with 1st and regard this as including 2d, but if 2d is de- 
cidedly predominant, clas with this and either disregard 1st or make 
aded entry, according to importance of that portion, 

10 To secure uniformity, make for futmre reference ful notes of all 

«7 



Decimal Classification 



diflBculties and decisions, for it is more important to put books on same 
subject together than to put them in a more nearly absolutely correct 
place. These notes shud be writn on broad marjins of the Clas Tables or 
in an interleavd copy or on P slips arranjed by clas numbers like a clast 
catalog. 

11 Keep colected works, libraries etc. together, and assyn, like indi- 
vidual books, to most specific hed that wil contain them; or assyn to 
most prominent of varius subjects treated, with aded entries for others; 
or, better, separate and clas parts as independent works. 

This last practis constantly grows in favor, and many librarians now 
larjly disregard uniform bindings and 'series' lettering, and, unless con- 
tents of volumes ar so connected that they can not be separated, clas 
each under most specific hed that wil contain it. 

12 Clas translations, reviews, keys, analises, ansers and other books 
about specific books with orijinal book, as being there most useful. 

Number of figures uzed in clas number Decide this according to cir- 
cumstances in each library. Small libraries often uze minute subsections 
beyond 3 figures only in certain divisions like Travel, 913-919, where 
closer jeografic division is specialy needed, and in 400 and 800, when a 
4th figure is needed to separate different languajes. 

In very small colections 2 figures myt do til growth required further 
division; but it is economy, and saves handling books again, to uze at 
least 3 figures at first, even in smallest colections. In larjer or rapidly 
growing libraries all subdivisions may be uzed for same reazon, tho 
number of books may not then seem to justify it. Whether there ar 1 or 
1000 books on any topic, they take no more shelf space if clast minutely, 
and work is dun once for all. When larj accessions cimi, even if a century 
later, this number wil not hav to be alterd. A library having but 20 books 
on Education myt think it unwize to uze the ful skeme, but the whole 
20 wud go on a singl shelf, and take no more room, and the Index wud 
refer more exactly to what was wanted. Number of books yu hav on any 
subject has in this sistem no special weight. In relativ location, any num- 
ber of consecutiv topics without a book wastes no space on shelvs or in 
catalogs. Numbers ar merely skipt. This not only does no harm, but has 
great negativ value, as looking for a number and finding it blank or skipt 
shows that yu hav nothing on that subject — information 2d in value only 
to finding sumthing, for one need no longer serch. 

The practical objection to close clasing is that it givs a longer number, 
when this is uzed to charj by in a lending library. In a reference library 

88 



Melvil Dewetfs introduction 



ful subsections shud always be uzed. Where short numbers ar imperativ, 
giv ful clas number on another part of the bookplate, not to be uzed in 
charjing, but as a gyd to contents. Thus when a clasifyer has once ex- 
amind a book and found out just what it is about, he records it to ben- 
efit others. 



Bilding numbers 

Jeografic divisions In dividing by cuntries according to note 'Divided 
like 930-999', found so often in Tables, ad only the number following 
initial 9, for this 9 means not locality but simply clas 9, History; e.g. 942, 
history of England, analyzd is 9 history, 42 England (4 Europe, 2 Eng- 
land). If jeolojy of England is wanted, ad to 55 (jeolojy number) 42 
(number for England) and yu hav 554.2. History of N Y state is 974.7, 
of which 747 is locality number; 353.9747, number for N Y state admin- 
istration, is bilt by ading to number for state administration, 353.9, num- 
ber for N Y state, 747. 

Languaj and literature In 890, where directed to 'divide like 490', 
note that 890, Minor literatures, and 490, Minor languajes, correspond 
exactly, so that only figtires following 49 ar to be aded to 89 to bild a 
minor literature number; e.g. Polish languaj is 491.85; ading 185 to 89, 
Minor literatures, givs 891.85 Polish literature. In brief, to form literature 
from filolojy numbers substitute 8 for 1st figure, 4; e.g. Sanskrit languaj 
491.2, Sanskrit literature 891.2. Under 490, the filolojic divisions (dic- 
tionaries, grammar etc.), and under 890 the form divisions (poetry, 
drama etc.) shud be uzed only when clas number represents a specific 
languaj or literature, e.g. 491.7 Russian, but not 497 North American, 
awaiting further division by languaj. 

If directed to 'divide like main clasification , as in 016, number for re- 
quired subject is aded exactly as it stands in Tables; e.g. bibliografy of 
Polish poetry, 016.891851. 

Combining numbers in a way not printed in Tables must be dun with 
great care, or confuzion results. Many uzers, fascinated with the posi- 
bilities of the sistem, make combinations more injenius than useful; e.g. 
'The horse's foot and how to shoe it' was once markt 636.1682, i.e. blak- 
smithing number, 682, aded to horse number, 636.1. Horseshoeing is now 
in Tables as 682.1, while 636.168 means American ponies. 

Often a clasifyer ads a figure to show sum distinction. It seems short 
and desirabl, but later he may find he has shut himself off from uzing 

89 



Decimal Classification 



sum other division greatly preferd. For his personal aditions, letters or 
other simbols not numbers shud be uzed. Every aded simbol must be 
clearly writn in Tables and Index. Never trust memory for decisions. 



Book numbers 

The call number of a book (number by which it is cald for) jeneraly 
consists of both clas and book numbers. The same clas number applys 
to all books on same subject; the book number distinguishes each indi- 
vidual work from all others in that clas, and is the same for all volumes 
or copies of same work. When a specific volume is wanted the number 
for that volume must be aded to clas and book numbers to complete the 
call number. Most important methods of assyning book numbers ar: 

Author numbers Invention of translation sistems by which a name is 
represented by its initial, with remaining letters translated into numbers, 
e.g. Freeman, F85, has led most libraries to arranje books under each 
clas number alfabeticly by authors, or in local history by towns, or in 
individual biografy and bibliografy by biografees and bibliografees. This 
keeps together all works by same author or on same town or same biog- 
rafee, etc. and even in larj clases enables one to find any book redily 
without consulting catalogs. One great advantaj is that same author has 
same book number in every subject; i.e. figures ar 'significant' like our 
clas numbers, and translate themselvs into names. Great practical ne- 
monic convenience results from this form of book number. Most widely 
uzed of these translation sistems is C. A. Cutter s, known as *Cutter num- 
bers', publisht by Library Bureau. 

Special author tables A 2d method, for authors having special nmn- 
bers, e.g. Shakspere, 822.33, or Milton, 821.47, is uniform use for such 
authors, of book numbers A-N, with O-Z assynd on basis of their individ- 
ual works, as ilustrated under 'Special author tables', on pajes following 
Relativ Index. 

Time numbers A 3d arranjement of books under clas numbers is 
cronolojic by date of 1st pubhcation. Its advantaj is in presenting historic 
development of subject, the book writn erliest being on the left, the lat- 
est work on the ryt, and then of any givn book it is evident that all those 
on the left wer writn before it, all those on the ryt after it. In syence 
and useful arts this has special value, while in literature author arranje- 
ment is better. W. S. Biscoe's translation sistem of dates givs a more 
compact and satisfactory mark for year than date writn in ful. (For ful 

90 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



explanations and table see 'Biscoe time numbers', on pajes following 

Relativ Index) 1 1 - 

Accession order A 4th arranjement, simpler but otherwize les desu:- 
abl, is in accession order; 1st book put in a clas being numbrd 1, and 

2d 2, the 3d 3. 

It is entirely practicabl to uze 2, 3 or aU 4 of these methods at same 
time in same library, one peculiarity of the sistem being the eaz widi 
which it may be adapted to almost any special circumstances. The ad- 
vantajes of the cronolojic numbering ar most markt in syence and useful 
arts; the alfabetic is best in clases where names of authors or subjects 
outrank dates; and special author numbers in cases where clas number 
ahedy indicates author, so corresponding indication in book number 
wud be useless duplication; while the old accession-order plan is good 
in special colections which must be kept separate and ar no longer aded 
to, since here the extreme simplicity of 1, 2, 3 order is secured with no 
sacrifice. It is std better, if this last method is uzed, to adopt A, B, C, 
insted of 1, 2, 3, as 26 insted of 9 books may be markt with 1 caracter, 
and chiefly becauz it is hyly desirabl that each book number begin with 
a letter, which can not be mistaken for end of clas number if writn on 
same line; e.g. 1st book under 513, if numberd 1, myt be so writn as to 
confuze with subsection 513.1, but 513A cud not be misinterpreted. If 
figures ar uzed, take care to write them as a fraction or with separating 
dash; e.g. 513 or 513-1. 
1 



Variations practicabl in adjusting to special local requirements 

Sum uzers assume that adopting Decimal Clasification and Relativ 
Index carries with it other parts of the sistem uzed by the author at 
Amherst, Wellesley or Columbia colejes or in New York State Library. 
In fact, the plan in each differd sumwhat from all the others, and many 
of the' thousands of public and private libraries now uzing it hav 
adopted stil other variations; for special constituency, circumstances and 
resources of each library must be considerd in deciding what is best for 
it. This decision shud be made by one familiar, not only with the library 
and its needs, but also with all methods of any merit and with compar- 
ativ eaz and cost of introducing them into any givn library. 

Cautions Having decided to adopt this sistem in its decinml form as 
workt out and printed, determin whether to adopt certain variations, 

9^ 



Decimal Classification 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



noted in 1-5 below as practicabl, and in sum cases useful and desirabl. 
The inexperienst uzer is very likely to feel entirely competent, without 
reading more than a singl paje of the Tables, regardless of its bearings 
on hundreds of other places, and without so much as looking at the 
author's explanations, to institute a series of 'improvements'. Experience 
shows that nothing cud be more disastrus. It seems a simpl matter to 
put a topic a line hyer or lower, but in sum cases this may aflEect over 
100 Index entries, and there is no posibl way to be sure of correcting 
them except by examining each of 43,000 beds. Proposed chanjes, care- 
fuly studid out and submitted as improvements, ar frequently shown by 
our old records to hav been adopted and uzed in the exact form pro- 
posed til unforeseen considerations forst us to chanje to the form as 
printed. Even after years of experience one is not safe in pronouncing 
on an apparent improvement without consulting voluminus records of 
previus experiments. 

Even sum who hav uzed the sistem longest hav been misled into 
adopting chanjes which on tryal they wer compeld to reject, going bak 
to orijinal form at cost and confuzion of 2 chanjes. In so apparently 
simpl a thing as introducing subdivisions on blank numbers, mistakes ar 
often made; and when too late to correct them the makers regret their 
neglect to consult the editor and secure advice and cooperation of those 
most familiar with the manifold interrelations. Even wer the independ- 
ent divisions equaly good, they do not agree with those which wil later 
be printed in Tables and Index, so that every copy of the printed skeme 
wil hav to be corrected in manuscript before it is uzabl in that library. 
The only safe rule is to make no chanjes or subdivisions without submit- 
ting them to the editor, who wil gladly advize on such matters without 
charj, not on ground of any superior wizdom, nor even becauz of larjer 
experience in this special work, but becauz in this way only can it be 
lernd if corresponding subdivisions hav been alredy assynd sumwhat 
differently. 

A uzer who adopts printed form avoids criticizm sure to be aimd at 
any posibl skeme. The moment he makes 1 'improvement' he must de- 
fend all his beds or alter them to suit each critic. Much time is saved by 
saying that the skeme is uzed as printed, and blunders ar the author s, 
not the uzer's. A list of chanjes made by others without consultation was 
writn for this caution, but is omitted lest it seem invidius. It ilustrates 
how eazy it is for able men to make what no one questions after expla- 
nation to hav been outryt blunders, in 'improving and ading to' the 

9^ 



printed skeme. We ar always grateful for sugjestions from anyone, and, 
having abredy spent so much time in efforts to improve this sistem for 
the common good of all uzers, invite cooperation of those interested in 
completing needed subdivisions and eliminating any errors that remain 
in either Tables or Index. 

Sugjested variations 

The following brief notes show the most important variations found 
practicabl in the 'relativ index and location sistem,' oftener cald the Dec- 
imal Clasification or 'Dewey sistem', or oftenest simply 'D C. 

1 Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions To protect other 
uzers from confuzion, the publishers insist, as entitled to by copyryt, 
that D C numbers shal not be printed with chanjed meanings or adi- 
tions, without sum clear indication of the fact in the number itself. If 
reazons which led to adoption of form printed ar not conclusiv to an- 
other, we wish to remove any obstacls to his use of the sistem with such 
chanjes as shal satisfy him. This can redily be dun by uzing a letter or 
sum other caracter than the 10 dijits, to mark chanjes; e.g. if yu wish a 
different set of subdivisions under any number, make it out to suit, and 
letter it a, b, c, etc. It wil arranje in its exact place and exact order ^^dth- 
out difficulty, and no other uzer of the sistem wil be confuzed by yur 
forms. In Index, cancel 1, 2, 3, etc. yu hav discarded, and write in a, b, 
c, etc. adopted. Whenever yu uze our exact numbers, uze also our exact 
and universal meanings for them as indext. For any aditions or chanjes 
of yur own, uze letters or simbols of yur own which can not be mistaken 
for ours, uzing, of course, our figures to the place where difference be- 
gins; e.g. if yu want a new heding next to 551.34, Icebergs, it can not 
properly go as decimal 1. Mark it 551.34a, and it arranjes as wisht. If 
yu wish to chanje a bed from one place to another, cancel it where it 
stands, and leav that number bhnk in Tables. Then insert the hed in its 
new place as abuv, as if it had never been in our Tables. Unuzed deci- 
mals ar often alredy appropriated for authorized subdivisions, tho they 
may not be printed til several editions later. 

This plan of introducing letters or other simbols wherever each uzer 
pleazes, wil giv all needed freedom to the personal equation and desire 
for orijinality', and meet all real wants for pecuUar clasification in pe- 
culiar cases. 

Fiction In sum cases it is uzualy best to modify clas numbers by let- 
ters as abuv. In popular Ubraries half the circulation is often fiction. It 

93 



Decimal Classification 



is a great saving to omit clas number entirely and uze merely book num- 
ber, it being understood that no clas number means 'fiction'. Sum librar- 
ies go stil further and for fiction omit book number as wel as clas num- 
ber. Sum even omit book numbers in other clases. 

Juvenils After fiction, great circulation makes juvenils a good place 
to economize, if they ar kept separate, as is uzualy desirabl in popular 
libraries. Books ar clast as if for adults ( except that a short number may 
be uzed ) J being prefixt to show their special caracter. This givs J alone 
as clas number for juvenil fiction; J942 is a child's history of England. 
These books ar arranjed in a paralel library by themselvs, so J942 cums 
between J941, juvenil history of Scotland, and J943, juvenil history of 
Germany. 

The separate J hbrary can at any time be abandond by distributing J 
books amung the regular clases, either ignoring J entirely, or preferably 
by putting all J books by themselvs at end of each clas number. In for- 
mer case, if shorter numbers hav been uzed for juvenils than for adults 
they shud be extended to correspond; in latter case, numbers may either 
be extended and the books shelvd at end of exact subdivision, or the 
shorter numbers may be retaind and the books groupt at end of entire 
section, e.g. all juvenil works on English history may be kept under short 
number J942 and shelvd after all adult works on English history, both 
942 alone and 942 with subdivisions. 

There ar thus 3 methods: 1, to hav a separate J library; 2, to hav J 
books by themselvs at end of each clas number; 3, to hav J books in al- 
fabetic order amung other books on same subject. In this last case J is 
useful only to call attention plainly to their juvenil caracter. 

Unless shorter numbers ar uzed for juvenils than for adults the same 
marking is uzed for all these plans, and one can be chanjed to another 
by simply distributing books the other way and teling attendants. 

Biografy For this larj clas, opinions differ as to best treatment. Be- 
side the plan printed in Tables the following methods ar widely uzed. 

For individual biografy, i.e. that relating to a singl person (including 
books containing biografies of not more than 4 persons) 

1 Put all biografies in one alfabet of names of persons tvritn about, 
uzing 92 for clas number, and indicating the subject or biografee by a 
Cutter book number; e.g. hfe of Grant, 92 G76. This is most compact 
for charjing, and is preferd in popular libraries of larj circulation. Insted 
of 92 for clas number, B is often uzed, but is les desirabl, since it has no 
lojical place in a numeric arranjement on shelvs and is sumtimes con- 
fuzed with the author's initial in fiction. 



94 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



2 Distribute biografy as far as posibl to subjects it ilustrates, leaving, 
of course, under 920 the lives not bearing specialy on any subject; e.g. 
all lives of musicians go under 780 and its subdivisions, life of Wagner 
being 782.2 insted of 927.82 as in Tables. When 9 is uzed to indicate 
history of a special subject, 92 may be uzed for its biografy; e.g. 780.9 
History of music, 780.92 Biografy of musicians. 

Collectiv biografy may be clast in a singl group under 920, or by sub- 
ject under 920-928, as in Tables, or distributed thruout the clasification, 
according to 2d plan givn abuv for individual biografy, subarranjement 
with any of these methods being alfabetic by author. 

Paralel libraries This treatment of fiction, juvenils and biografy ilus- 
trates the principl. Its other chief appHcation is for languaj colections. 
Sum libraries hav a constituency not reading English, and so need a 
paralel library in Italian or Swedish, etc. This is most eazily made by 
simply prefixing languaj initial to clas number. If arranjed in one series 
of subjects this initial is ignored, or all books in the special languajes 
may be groupt under initial letters at end of each clas number. The 
paralel library is made by simply putting together all books having same 
languaj initial and then arranjing by clas numbers. Initials uzed ar F, 
French, G, German, I, Italian, Sp, Spanish, Sw, Swedish, Dn, Danish, 
Du, Dutch, N, Norwegian, W, Welsh, A, Arabic, etc. Where only 1 lan- 
guaj is so markt in a givn library, jeneraly only 1 letter shud be uzed, 
so as to avoid an extra letter in charjing; e.g. S wil anser for either Span- 
ish or Swedish if uzed in only 1 sense. A prefixt letter may, however, hav 
been uzed with a different meaning, e.g. R for Reference, necesitating 
more than 1 letter for the languaj prefix, even if only 1 languaj is rep- 
resented by the initial, e.g. Ru for Russian. This plan has proved very 

satisfactory in actual use. 

Combining languaj and literature Same principl can be applyd also 
in combining each languaj with its literature, if it is preferd to abolish 
class Filolojy, and make it simply an appendix to Literature; e.g. uzing 
82f for English filolojy and ading filolojy subdivisions, English diction- 
aries wud becum 82f3, English grammars 82f5, etc. arranjed either just 
before or just after English literature, 820, 821, etc. and reverse wud 
hold true if a filolojist wisht to abolish Literature and make it an ap- 
pendix to Filolojy. 

Reference library To separate books most needed, the best plan is 
to mark R before clas numbers, and arranje books together as an R li- 
brary. When books ar to go into jeneral colection again, draw a line 
thru this letter. 

95 



Decimal Classification 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



In same way it frequently happens that a jeneral private Hbrary is 
givn on condition that it be kept together; e.g. Phoenix hbrary of Co- 
lumbia University. This has P prefixt to clas number, and thus is a 
paralel Hbrary by itself. An initial is better than * or similar mark, for it 
helps memory and is just as brief. Same plan applys if the library has 
an 'inferno' for books not uzed without permits, or for distant rooms 
where books worth keeping but seldom cald for can be arranjed in a 
paralel storaj library. 

Stil another provision is made in 080, 8 being regular number for 
jeneral colections (as in 508, 520.8 etc.), for those special libraries which 
can not be separated becauz of binding or conditions of gift; but insted 
of the 3 figures in 080, a singl letter, as described abuv, indicates the 
special colection, and it is eazy to lern location of the few special colec- 
tions of any one library. 

Omission of initial O in the clas 'Jeneral works' has been tryd; e.g. 51 
insted of 051 for an American periodical, but is not advized, for the eye 
gets so in the habit of reading as Syence any number beginning with 5, 
tiiat there is a mental hich if, e.g. jeneral periodicals ar writn 51, etc. 
insted of 051, etc. Another reazon is that Institut International de Bib- 
liographic regards as neglijibl a final and uzes the 1 and 2 figure num- 
bers as we uze those same numbers fild out by to 3 figures, e.g. 1 for 
filosofy, like our 100, 22 for Bible, Uke our 220. Also in clasification it 
sumtimes happens that the 1st 2 figures ar obvius at a glance, but time 
must be taken to determin the 3d. It is convenient to write these 1st 
figures, but if a mathematical book receivs its 1st 2 figures (51), this 
unfinisht number is likely to be confuzed with the 2-figi.u:e number 51. 
This danjer may be larjly avoided by v^riting the decimal point after a 
blank; e.g. 51 ., to show that a figure is omitted. 

2 Contractions for specialists The sistem is often uzed by specialists 
for very minute work, where decimals run out to 6 or more places. The- 
oreticly it is better to write all these figures, thus showing relation to 
the universe of knowlej, but there is no practical gain to justify the labor 
if a great quantity of slips must be numberd. A specialist working on 
'Swedish poetry of the aje of Gustavus' can uze a singl letter insted of 
the ful 839.715 and save 5 caracters in numbering each note; or a dash 
may be writn for all but the last figure, thus ' — 5'. A body of such notes 
can be inserted together in their place in an index at 839715, with a 
colord card to mark the special groups, with litl danjer of confuzion. 
Stil a stickler for theoretic completeness wil write a ful index number 
for each separate sUp. 



I 



3 Use of alfabet or cronolojy for final subdivisions While our plan is 
decimal as distinguisht from 'dictionary' we always alfabet wherever 
that is more useful. Indeed, the main feature of our plan is its alfabetic 
Relativ Index. Frequently in minute divisions it is economy to arranje 
alfabeticly or by dates without uzing a translation sistem. This is spe- 
cialy true in index rerums and notes of speciaUsts. After numbers hav 
been uzed as far as that is the most useful form, then either the name 
chosen for hed or the year can be inserted at the end; e.g. towns in a 
givn state, individual birds or insects cuming under one number, names 
of men writn about in biografy, etc. Sum may prefer to adopt this plan 
in places where we hav chosen a grouping; e.g. in chemistry, to put all 
metals in one alfabet under 546.3, insted of uzing numbers 546.3-.99. If 
this chanje is wisht, a more complete one wil probably be better: put all 
elements, metallic and nonmetallic, in 1 alfabet under 546. Such use of 
the alfabet cauzes no confuzion with tlie Index, as it simply subdivides 
more closely, unless, as in the case of 546.3, the alfabet replaces beds 
alredy printed. In this case, cancel all subsections in the Tables by draw- 
ing a line obhquely thru beds discarded, and mark in marjin 'Alfabet 
by elements,' e.g. 



546.3 



Alfabet by elements 




Metals 

Alkali group 
Potassium 
Sodium 
Lithium 

>idium 
Caesn 
Then find each of these beds in Index and cancel all figures after 

546.3, e.g. 

Potassium, inorganic chemistry, 546. 3X 
Rubidium, * 546.3\ 

This plan has special value in this place, as new elements ar discoverd 
from time to time, and can redily be inserted in alfabetic place. Stil 
many chemists think it valuabl to hav similar metals groupt together for 
convenience of study, and to cover books writn on the group as a whole, 
and also think it important to hav a number for rejected elements, becauz 
literature and references about them remain, and must be provided for. 

4 Broken order Another common and often desirabl variation for 
shelf arranjement is to break sequence of numbers, to get most-uzed 
books nearest delivery desk. Theory keeps numbers in strict sequence; 

9S^ 



Decimal Classification 



Melvil Dewey s introduction 



i 



but a hyer rule everywhere is ^sacrifice any theory for a substantial gain*. 
Practicaly there ar few libraries where it is not best to break order of 
clases. Often divisions ar best arranjed out of numeric place; e.g. 520 
Astronomy may be wanted in a room accessibl at nyt; fiction, juvenils 
and biografy ar always wanted near the delivery desk in a pubhc library, 
and in strict order ar as Hkely to cum at the most distant point. Number- 
less local reazons may make a broken order desirabl. There need be no 
hesitation in adopting it if enuf is gaind, but there shud be charts clearly 
showing where each division starts; e.g. after 430 Treceding 830*; after 
520 In observatory', it being necesary to specify room for books entirely 
removed from jeneral hbrary arranjement. The summary of 100 divisions 
is fumisht by Library Bureau, on celluloid charts, to show location. Op- 
posit each division shud be markt its beginning on shelvs, and it is eazy 
to vary the order as much as desirabl, tho of course the nearer the di- 
visions run in regular order, 000-999, the eazier it is for a stranjer to find 
his way about. Variations in order of sections ar les wize and seldom 
necesary, but if made, a wood or cardboard dummy in regular place 
shud hav markt on its side the actual location of any section removed. 

This broken-order plan is best for bringing together filolojy and litera- 
ture of each languaj without altering numbers or prefixing any letter. Let 
420 be shelvd just ahed of 820, 430 ahed of 830, and so for all languajes, 
making the jeneral note that all 400s ar shelvd just ahed of correspond- 
ing 800s, and remembering that after main languajes 4 or more figures ar 
required to indicate languaj alone, so Portuguese filolojy goes between 
868 and 869, Russian between 891.69 and 891.7, Bohemian between 
891.85 and 891.86, etc. 

5 Pro and con division of topics It is very useful in many cases to 
separate books on a topic with strongly markt sides, so either set of views 
and argiunents may be seen by itself. This has been dun in sum cases by 
subdivision, e.g. 337 Protection and free trade. In others it is equaly use- 
ful, and can be indicated by an aded mark, e.g. 324.3 Woman suffraj. 
The number may be uzed for jeneral works, giving facts etc. and ad- 
vocates and opponents may be separated by + and — for positiv and 
negativ, or by p and c, the initials for pro and con, which tho short, ar 
too long for a circulating library to uze in charjing but may be disre- 
garded for that purpose if book numbers ar so assynd as to distinguish. 
In reference libraries, on cards, etc. most wil prefer to write out pro and 
con, to mark the 2 groups. The order on shelvs is, of course, alfabetic, 
i.e. 324.3, 324.3c, 324.3p; or if + and - ar uzed, the uzual order is fol- 
lowd: +,— . 



98 



These 5 notes sugjest the ranje of variations which may be made, and 
ilustrate D C adaptabihty to widely different conditions. 

Bibliografic modifications 

After study of all other availabl sistems the Decimal Clasification was 
adopted in 1895 by the newly organized Institut International de Bib- 
liographie (known as I IB) as best adapted for its projected universal 
subject bibliografy to cover ultimately all subjects in all languajes in all 
periods of the world's history. 
Determining factors wer: 

1 Decimal Clasification was of topics, independent of languaj or exact 

sinonim by which exprest 

2 Its notation was in itself the only international languaj, since it con- 
sisted solely of arabic numerals, uzed all over the world 

3 Its decimal principl allowd indefinit intercalation 

Overdetaild as the Clasification ahedy seemd to many librarians, lak 
of subdivision was the Institute's 1st difficulty and it urjd us at once to 
enlarj the Tables. State Library duties at that time made concentration 
on this imposibl, but we promist cooperation and criticizm if I I B wud 
draft required extensions. When its remarkably rapid work precluded 
even adequate criticizm, it was authorized to pubUsh its tables and as- 
sured that the American revision wud vary from them as htl as prac- 
ticabl. At Geneva in 1924 the harmonizing of the American and Euro- 
pean editions was agreed on and to D G editor was delegated the very 
extensiv work of checking the variant forms and recommending which 
shud be kept, a work which is now wel under way. 

Ob\dusly, bibliografic and jeneral library use ar so different that in sum 
cases what is clearly best for real needs of skolarly specialists, where 
any simbols can be uzed on index cards, wud be quite impracticabl for 
a public library, which must hav simbols that can be markt on the bak 
of books, redily uzed by the unskild public in writing call slips, and 
rapidly handld by low-priced runners and yung clerks. This difficulty 
can, however, often be obviated by allowing altemativ forms. 

1 1 B has devized and uzes injenius simbols, expressing many interrela- 
tions and greatly increasing numbering capacity. But these new simbols 
ar tho't by many too complex for ordinary shelf or catalog use, tho 25 
years use by 1 1 B with unskild clerks has proved that this objection is 
more fear than result of fair tryal. They ar givn here broadly for personal 
notes of specialists and other close clasifyers, to whom their vast prao 

99 



Decimal Classification 



tical advantajes wil strongly appeal, and as a key to notation on 1 1 B 
bibliografic cards. Elaborate details and explanations ar in Classification 
decimale, Brussels, 1905, of which a new edition is announst for 1927, 
Obviusly these simbols allow subdivision of the same number in many 
diflFerent ways without confuzion. 

The most important of these devices ar 3 Relation syn and 6 Place syn 
and their use in libraries where they hav been tryd has proved that it is 
entirely practicabl, even for marking books. 

The wide and ever-growing ranje of application of certain subjects 
makes it imposibl to subdivide satisfactorily by assyning definit numbers, 
but use of colon to show relation between 2 subjects provides an auto- 
matic method which can be uzed with any subject for unlimited sub- 
division. (For ilustration see note under 150 Sykolojy.) 

Use of ( ) round a local number provides an automatic method of local 
subdivision for any subject, as there may be need in an individual li- 
brary, while the simbol shows instantly the local nature of the subdivi- 
sion. 

1 Accretion syn + This simplest of simbols, equivalent to and', indi- 
cates exactly what it sugjests, that the articl so numberd treats of all 
subject numbers connected by +; e.g. 637+614.32 a work concerning 
dairies and also on inspection of dairy products. 

2 Cupling syn - This is uzed for cupling to a subject a series of sub- 
divisions common to a group of subjects, as 400 Filolojy ( e.g. 45-3 Italian 
dictionary, 45^ Itahan sinonims, 45-5 Italian grammar; 46-3 Spanish 
dictionary, 46-4 Spanish sinonims, 46-5 Spanish grammar), 800 Litera- 
ture (85-3 Italian fiction, 85-4 Itahan essays, 85-5 Itahan oratory; 86-3 
Spanish fiction, 86-4 Spanish essays, 86-5 Spanish oratory), 546 Inor- 
ganic chemistry (546.51-3 Oxids of led, 546.51-4 Sulfid of led, 546.51-5 
Chlorid of led; 546.56-3 Oxids of copper, 546.56-4 Sulfid of copper, 
546.56-5 Chlorid of copper; 546.57-3 Oxids of silver, 546.57-^ Sulfid of 
silver, 546.57-5 Chlorid of silver). It shud, however, be uzed only where 
such use is specificly mentiond in the Tables, as confuzion wud other- 
vvize result. This syn is so similar to that commonly uzed for 'to and in- 
cluding' that when it is uzed with Institut meaning it is advizabl to uze 
word 'to' for the other meaning. 

3 Relation syn : This is most useful simbol of all, as it involvs no 
chanje of number except omission of final by those preferring shortest 
form. It indicates merely that subjects so connected ar considerd in rela- 
tion to each other, thus affording means of expressing ahnost limitless 

100 



Melvil Dewey s introduction 



interrelations: e.g. ethics in relation to fine arts is 17:7 (or, better, in ful 
170:700). Vice versa, art in its ethical aspect is 7: 17 (or 700: 170); order 
of numbers before and after colon depending on emfasis, or on subject 
with which they ar to be arranjed. 

4 Form syn (0) Form or jeneralities ar exprest by a parenthetic num- 
ber beginning with 0. This is further subdivided as follows: 
(0: ) Form simbol; e.g. 335 (0:843) means Socialism treated in form of a 

French novel. 

(00) Subdivisions peculiar to a subject; e.g. for history it means sources. 
It is further subdivided and in sum cases modifyd by a hyfend 
figure; e.g. 9(44) (001-3) means Catalog of ofkial sources of 
French history, (001) meaning official sources and -3 meaning cata- 
logs, indexes, lists etc. 

(01 )-(09) ar the same as our regular form numbers 01-09. Obviusly we 
can not replace our long estabHsht simpl form numbers by sumthing 
so much more complex that it is impracticabl for shelf use. 

5 Universality syn oo The mathematical syn of infinity is uzed with 
place and time syns to mean 'Without limitation : with place syn (see 6 
below) it means 'including all places', e.g. 9 ( cc ) History of all cuntries; 
with time syn (see 8 below) it means 'covering all periods', e.g. 9 ( oo ) 
"oo" History of all cuntries at all times. 

6 Place syn (3)-(9) These replace our regular cuntry subdivisions 
found in 930-999, but do not conflict, as 1 1 B merely leavs D C 930-999 
vacant, and writes History of France 9(44) insted of 944. Other auxiliary 
place numbers indicating jeneral rejion, direction, jeolojic place, prehis- 
toric time, etc. ar also provided in place curvs. 

7 Languaj syn = This syn preceding languaj numbers as found in 400 
Filolojy, indicates subdivision by languaj; e.g. 523.5=9185 means a work 
on meteors, in Polish, 91.85 being filolojy number for Polish languaj m 

400. 

8 Time syn " ** Numbers denoting time division ar writn m quotes. 

1 1 B skeme givs an elaborate time-division sistem based on exact dates; 
e.g. "1922. 12. 11", meaning year 1922, 12th month, Uth day. 

9 Jeneral points of view syn 00 Each of the following numbers for 
point of view (except 005) has also a series of subdivisions: 

001 Speculativ: idea, purpose, plan etc. 

002 Realization: execution, construction etc. 

003 Economic: industrial production, cost and sale prices, etc. 

004 Servis and use: workings, administration 

loi 



Decimal Classification 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



005 Equipment and apparatus 

006 Bildings and establishments: details of organization and servis 

007 Special personnel 

10 A to Z Alfabetic arranjement by name of person, place or thing is 
indicated according to circumstances by initial or whole name. 

Sequence of these simbols in clas number may be varid by uzers to 
produce any special arranjement wisht, but unless distinct notis of this 
is givn, sequence is arbitrary in the following order: 

( ) " " = : - A-Z 
e.g. 9(44)"17"=2 History of France in 18th century, writn in English 

Other uses 

Tho this sistem was devized 1st for library catalog and shelf arranje- 
ment, 54 years hav developt many new applications. Nearly every ad- 
^inistrativ department feels directly the great economy, and in every 
field of literary activity this clasification has been found a great labor- 
saver, whose practical usefulness has exceeded the most sanguin hopes 

of its erly f rends. 

Bookstores The plan is a great convenience to both dealers and cus- 
tomers, when applyd to miscelaneus stok. Very often a much wanted 
book, specialy if not recently publisht, is reported not in stok', when 
D C arranjement by subject vmd hav reveald its place at once. Specialists 
often find on shelvs books they wud never hav orderd, but ar glad to by 
after examination. Experience proves it profitabl for a dealer to arranje 
his books so each person may find what he is interested in without ex- 
amining entire stok. 

Ofiis files A great file of papers is like a hbrary in miniature. Experi- 
ence the world over proves that while alfabetic and numeric sistems ar 
invaluabl for many purposes, complete usefulness demands close clasing 
as material grows. The best plan is to combine simpUcity of numeric and 
utility of clast as in this Decimal Clasification and Relativ Index uzed by 
most libraries. The simplest posibl printed index of 43,000 heds tels in- 
stantly by what number to mark or to find any paper. Insurance is markt 
368. This means: clas 3, Sociolojy; division 6, Associations and institu- 
tions; section 8, Insurance. Fire insurance is 1st subdivision, so every 
paper about fire insurance is markt 368.1 and goes in the drawer in nu- 
meric order, where it can instantly be found thru the printed Index. 

54 years use in a score of cuntries has proved this numeric sistem, with 

102 



its Relativ Index, a marvelus laborsaver. Clasification is a necesity if all 
material on any givn subject is to be redily found. The labor of making 
one's own clasification is uzualy prohibitiv, if wel dun. By adopting the 
skeme in jeneral use by libraries this labor is saved and numbers ar in 
harmony with those of thousands of other catalogs and indexes in which 
the same number has the same meaning; for, as pointed out at a recent 
international congress, these numbers ar the only international languaj of 
perfectly definit meaning amung all civilized nations; and also cheapest 
and quickest in application. 

A successful man is uzualy a clasifyer and chartmaker. This applys as 
much to modem business as to syence or libraries. Hyer education diflFers 
from elementary in studying not mere facts, but their relations to all 
other facts. Alex. Bain wizely said 'to lern to clasify is in itself an educa- 
tion'. The man of much business or affairs must study every problem in 
its manifold relations; i.e. must clasify and make charts of his results. 
Without these he is like a sailor in stranje waters, sooner or later shiprekt 
unless he uzes charts to find safe channels as wel as to avoid roks and 
shoals. A larj business or work unclasifyd or uncharted is not a worthy 
organization but mere material from which a clever brain may construct 
one. It differs in efficiency from the ideal as a mob of men differs from a 
wel disciplind army. Piles of brik and mortar ar not a tempi any more 
than heaps of typ ar Shakspere s works, tho if clasifyd' and set, each in 
ryt relation to the rest, the transformation is bro't about. 

Scrapbooks The plan has proved the best for keeping newspaper clip- 
pings. Uze manila sheets of uniform size (we find 20x25cm best) 
Write clas number of subject in uzual place on paje, and mount clippings 
on sheets as in a common scrapbook. These sheets ar arranjed numericly 
Hke a clast card catalog, sheets of each clas being further arranjed, when 
desirabl, under alfabetic subheds. When one sheet is ful, insert another 
at the exact place. Thus perfect clasification is kept up without blank 
sheets, and at smallest outlay of money and trubl. Scraps thus mounted 
ar shelvd either in manila pamflet cases or in patent binders, or ar kept 

in vertical files. 

Index rerums These ar best made on standard P size (7.5xl2.5cm) 
cards or slips. Lyt weight catalog card stok is best for private indexes, 
etc. It costs only % as much as hevy bristol, takes only % room, and 

handls eazily. 

Where durability and convenience of handUng ar les important than 
cheapness uze common hevy writing paper. Novises often greatly di- 

103 



ti 



Decimal Classification 



minish usefulness of the card sistem by uzing ordinary machine-cut cards 
or slips varying in hyt so much as to make quik and accurate manipula- 
tion imposibl. Extreme variation to be tolerated is 1 mm or y2 5 inch. This 
wil be understood by placing a 7.4cm card between two 7.5cm cards. 
In rapid turning, fingers make a brij across taller cards and mis the lower 
one entirely. Cards must be accurately cut or they lose half their value 
and in many cases necesitate recopying material at a cost 10-fold greater 
than to hav thrown away imperfectly cut cards or slips at the outset. 

Clas number is writn in upper left corner, any alfabetic subject hed 
follows at ryt, and notes fil card below. Cards ar then filed in order of 
clas numbers, the cards of each clas being further arranjed like scrap 
sheets, according to any alfabetic subheds. 

Paper the size of scrap sheets, 20x25cm, arranjed and stored the same 
way may be uzed insted of cards. This has the advantaj of a ful letter 
paje in syt at once, and holds over 5 times as much as card. While the 
sistem can be applyd to slips or sheets of any size, there ar literaly hun- 
dreds of accessories and conveniences exactly adapted to these 2 sizes, 
which ar uzed much more than all others combined; so it is folly to begin 
on another size, and lose the advantajes of this uniformity. If inter- 
mediate sizes must be had, the best ar Billet 10x15cm, Note 12.5x20cm, 
and Ms 15x25cm. Often uzers of sum other size finaly find it profitabl 
to chanje to either P, 7.5x12.5, or to L, 20x25cm, even at cost of re- 

v^riting many notes. 

After 50 years use of P size, countless millions of cards ar in catalogs 
and indexes in scores of cuntries, so it wud be quite imposibl to chanje 
from 7.5xl2.5cm. But recent study and experiments hav shown that 
sheet or room proportions ar most pleazing in ratio of 1 to square root 
of 2, or about 5 to 7, i.e. ratio of the side of an equal-side triangl to its 
hypotenuse. An immense practical advantaj is that this is the only ratio 
where continuus halving givs always the same ideal proportion. This re- 
sults in markt economy in cutting sizes from larj standard sheets. The 
favorit letter sheet is 19x27 cm. This fits most vertical and other files. 
We now uze it insted of 20x25 and 15x25. Half this size is a pleazing 
small quarto, 13.5x19, and its quarter is a very convenient pocket size, 
9.5xl3.5cm. These replace our old Note and Billet sizes. 

Note books ar best in loos-leaf form. A much poorer method is to take 
a bound blank book, and assyn clas numbers in order, giving about the 
space it is tho't each wil require, and, when pajes so assynd ar ful, note 
at bottom where rest of the material may be found. This has all objec- 

104 



Melvil Dewey s introduction 



tions of old fixt location as compared to relativ, and wil hardly be adopted 
by any person who has ever seen loos-leaf simplicity and economy. 

Scores of devices for convenient handling and storing of these slips and 
sheets and of pamflets ar manufactured. The ful descriptiv and ilustrated 
catalogs of Library Bureau giv details. 

Topical indexes Clas numbers ar uzed to index books red. Simpl num- 
bers take the place of a series of words, and results can be handld, ar- 
ranjed and found much quicker. Such entries may be kept separate or 
combined with index rerums. 

Advantajes for making topical indexes of colected works, periodicals, 
transactions etc. wil be evident to every indexer or librarian. These con- 
solidated indexes may be arranjed together with the card catalog of the 
books, or by themselvs, as seems best in each case. 

These ar only a few of the sistem's varid applications. Enuf hav been 
mentiond to show its wide adaptability to wants of librarian, student 
and business man. 



This brief account has probably faild to meet sxim objections which 
may be raizd and could eazily be anserd. 

Tho much elaborated and in sum few points alterd, the essential 
caracter of the plan has remaind unchanjed from the first. Revision and 
expansion constantly in progress involv many new interrelations. As ex- 
tensiv advance testing of new skemes is not always posibl, practical ap- 
plications ar sure to develop unnotist faults. Clasifyers ar therefore askt 
to uze new tables criticaly and report defects of any kind, with proposed 
remedies and any needed subdivisions, also any heds needed for the 
Index. All such criticizms ar a decided help and favor. 

Aknowlejments 

The labor on Clasification and Index has been wholy beyond apprecia- 
tion of any who hav never attempted a similar task. 

In his varid reading, correspondence and conversation on the subject, 
the author has doutless recievd many sugjestions and gaind ideas which 
it is now imposibl for him specificly to aknowlej. The Nuovo sistema di 
catalogo bibliografico generate of Natale Battezzati, of Milan, adopted 
by the ItaUan pubhshers in 1871, tho he copid nothing from it, more 

^05 



Decimal Classification 



Melvil Dewey's introduction 



than any other singl sistem stimulated his study of the problem. The 
plan of the St Louis PubHc School Library and that of the Apprentices' 
Library of New York, which in sum respects resembld his own, wer not 
seen til all essential features wer decided on, tho not givn to the public. 
In filling the 9 clases of the skeme, the inverted Baconian arranjement 
of the St Louis Library was foUowd. The author has no wish to claim 
orijinal invention for any part of his sistem where another has been be- 
fore him, and wud gladly make specific aknowlejment of every aid and 
sugjestion wer it in his power. Tho at its start a litl book, it came not 
forth except by grievus labor. 

Much valuabl aid has been renderd by specialists, who hav assisted 
greatly in developing tables. Amung these ar many wel-known skolars, 
and to all most cordial aknowlejment is made. Without such assistance, 
the present development cud not hav been attaind, for many minds wer 
necesary to supply teknical and special lerning absolutely essential in 
filling minute beds. Indeed, in many subjects the author's share has been 
limited to modification necesary for teknical adjustment to his skeme, of 
material prepared by specialists. To many prominent librarians we ar 
indetted for valuabl sugjestions and appreciativ criticizm. While these 
frends ar in no way responsibl for any remaining imperfections, they 
shud hav credit for many improvements made in these 54 years of revi- 
sion, during the 1st 3 of which the skeme was kept in manuscript, that 
its many details myt be subjected to actual tryal, and modifyd where 
improvement was found practicabl. 

We ar under deep obligation to Institut International de Bibliographie 
for its great volume of valuabl work, covering almost the whole ranje of 
subjects, and also for its advice and criticizm during progress of our own 
expansions. To Dr C W Andrews, John Crerar Librarian, Chicago, and 
to American Library Association clasification committee, of which for 
past 10 years he has been chairman, we ar greatly indetted for interest 
and advice. 

W S Biscoe From 1st publication to the present, the most extended 
and valued assistance has cum from my colej clasmate, associate and 
frend, Walter Stanley Biscoe, my 1st assistant in Amherst College Li- 
brary, in charj of which he succeeded me, resyning to accept again in 
1883 the place next me in Columbia College Library, and again resyning 
in 1889 to becum librarian in charj of clasification and catalogs in New 
York State Library. This book is witness to the rare unselfishness with 

io6 



which he has givn time taken from rest and recreation to this work, in 
which he shared my interest and faith. 

May Seymour Except a year in charj of clasification in the Osterhout 
Library she was with me 34 years, from her entrance to the 1st Library 
School clas in 1887 til her deth, June 14, 1921. At New York State Li- 
brary, clasification was her department til she was made director's as- 
sistant. For 32 years every item of work on new editions past thru her 
hands. For each of editions 4-10 she did all editorial and much con- 
structiv work, secured expert cooperation, cald attention to faults or 
omissions, and sought the best availabl compromize where doctors dis- 
a<^reed, devoting to this vast labor rare skolarly industry and a loyalty 
for which no words of thanks can be adequate. She shared my faith in its 
immense usefulness, did the hardest work, and deservs the gratitude of 
all who profit by this invaluabl laborsaver. I often askt that her name 
appear on the title-paje of the book to which she gave so much, but she 

persistently refuzed. 

Her place as editor was taken by one of her own choosing, Dorcas 
Fellows, who more than anyone else had workt closely with Mis Seymour 
for 25 years, and who wil giv future editions the benefit of cumulativ 
experience in which she so larjly shared. D C uzers ar congratulated 
that Mis Seymour's position is held by the one whom she herself chose 
as best adapted to carry on her work. For 5 years past her hedquarters 
hav been in New York State Library at Albany, which has long been 
regarded by many as D C's library home, but recent developments in re- 
lations of American Library Association, Library of Congress and Deci- 
mal Clasification hav resulted in an invitation from L C to D C to make 
its home henceforth at that Library, where, most appropriately, D C's 
servis to American Ubraries, which is the chief factor in its work, wil be 
coordinated with undertakings previusly instald by the national library, 
extending stil further the latter's ahedy great servises to the libraries of 
the cuntry at larj. 

Future of D C 

Mis Seymour had a stedily growing wish to make D C a permanent 
force for education, by greatly improving its ful, short and oudine edi- 
tions, and by printing cheap special editions (indext) for many prom- 
inent divisions; e.g. education, medicin, enjineering, agriculture. As a 

lay 



Decimal Classification 



memorial to her, all copyryts and control of all editions hav been givn to 
Lake Placid Club Education Foundation, in establishing which she had 
been warmly and activly interested, and which was charterd by the Uni- 
versity of the State of New York, Jan. 26, 1922, with these objects: 

'as an educational institution, to restore to helth and educational ef- 
ficiency teachers, librarians and other educators of moderate means, who 
hav becum incapacitated by overwork; to establish, maintain and aid 
skools, libraries or other educational institutions, specialy at Lake Placid; 
and to institute, organize or foster other movements to advance public 
welfare thru education, by means of the Foundation pres, conferences, 
forums, addresses, gyded reading, and similar ajencies'. 

To this Foundation was at once givn all voting stok and surplus of 
Lake Placid Co. which owns the 10,000 akers and 391 bildings of Lake 
Placid Club, thus assuring permanent financial support, which has alredy 
been further increast by gifts and bequests from interested f rends. Under 
Foundation auspices future editions of D C wil be pubHsht, on absolute 
condition that entire reciets abuv necesary expenses be uzed forever 
solely for improving D C and extending its usefulness, thereby prevent- 
ing posibility that the work shud ever be made a source of either indi- 
vidual or institution profit. A committee on D C, consisting of the most 
interested Foundation trustees, in consultation with committees of Amer- 
ican Library Association and Institut International de Bibliographic, wil 
insure observance of the abuv condition. 

D C has becum an international laborsaver. It therefore justly belongs 
to its uzers as a whole. All who contribute to the stedy improvement of 
future editions may kno that they ar helping to make stil more useful a 
sistem which is so greatly helping stedily increasing thousands scatterd 
all over the civilized world. 



Melvil Dew^y 



Lake PiAcm Club N Y 
Dec. 10, 1926 



Previus editions hav been dated Amherst College Library, June 10, 
1876; Columbia College Library, Aug. 10, 1885, and Aug. 30, 1888; New 
York State Library, Dec. 25, 1890; Lake Placid Club, Ap. 10, 1911, 
Ap. 10, 1913, Oct. 1, 1915, Aug. 11, 1919, and Aug. 31, 1922. 

io8 



Summaries 



First Summary 
The 10 Classes 



000 Generalities 

100 Philosophy & related disciplines 

200 Religion 

300 The social sciences 

400 Language 

500 Pure sciences 

600 Technology ( Applied sciences ) 

700 The arts 

800 Literature & rhetoric 

900 General geography, history, etc. 



log 



Second Summary 
The 100 Divisions 



Third Summary 
The 1000 Sections 



ii 



' 



f, 



000 Generalities 

010 Bibliographies & catalogs 

020 Library science 

030 General encyclopedic works 

040 

050 General periodicals 

060 General organizations 

070 Newspapers & journalism 

080 General collections 

090 Manuscripts & book rarities 

100 Philosophy & related 

110 Ontology & methodology 

120 Knowledge, cause, purpose, man 

130 Pseudo- & parapsychology 

140 Specific philosophic viewpoints 

150 Psychology 

160 Logic 

1 70 EtWcs ( Moral philosophy ) 

180 Ancient, med.. Oriental philos. 

190 Modem Western philosophy 

200 Religion 

210 Natural religion 

220 Bible 

230 Christian doctrinal theology 

240 Christ, moral & devotional theol. 

250 Christ, pastoral, parochial, etc. 

260 Christ, social & eccles. theol. 

270 Hist. & geog. of Chr. church 

280 Christ, denominations & sects 

290 Other religions & compar. rel. 

300 The social sciences 

310 Statistical method & statistics 

320 Political science 

330 Economics 

340 Law 

350 Public administration 

360 Welfare & association 

370 Education 

380 Commerce 

390 Customs & folklore 

400 Language 

410 Linguistics & nonverbal lang. 

420 English & Anglo-Saxon 

430 Germanic languages 

440 French, Provencal, Catalan 

450 Italian, Romanian, etc. 

460 Spanish & Portuguese 

470 Italic languages 

480 Classical & Greek 

490 Other languages 



500 Pure sciences 



510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 
590 

600 

610 

620 
630 
640 
650 
660 
670 
680 
690 

700 

710 
720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 
780 
790 

800 

810 
820 
830 
840 
850 
860 
870 
880 
890 

900 

910 
920 
930 
940 
950 
960 
970 
980 
990 



Mathematics 

Astronomy & allied sciences 

Physics 

Chemistry & allied sciences 

Earth sciences 

Paleontology 

Anthropolog. & biol. sciences 

Botanical sciences 

Zoological sciences 

Technology ( Applied sci. ) 

Medical sciences 
Engineering & allied operations 
Agriculture & agric. industries 
Domestic arts & sciences 
Business & related enterprises 
Chemical technology etc. 
Manufactures processible 
Assembled & final products 
Buildings 

The arts 

Civic & landscape art 

Architecture 

Sculpture & the plastic arts 

Drawing & decorative arts 

Painting & paintings 

Graphic arts 

Photography & photographs 

Music 

Recreation ( Recreational arts ) 

Literature & rhetoric 

American literature in English 
Engl. & Anglo-Saxon literature 
Germanic languages literature 
French, Provencal, Catalan lit. 
Italian, Romanian etc. literature 
Spanish & Portuguese literature 
Italic languages literature 
Classical & Greek literature 
Lits. of other languages 

General geog. & history etc. 

General geography 
General biog., geneal., etc. 
Gen. hist, of ancient world 
Gen. hist, of modern Europe 
Gen. hist, of modern Asia 
Gen. hist, of modem Africa 
Gen. hist, of North America 
Gen. hist, of South America 
Gen. hist, of rest of world 





Generalities 


000 


Generalities 


050 ( 


001 


Knowledge 


051 


002 




052 


003 




053 


004 




054 


005 




055 


006 




056 


007 




057 


008 




058 


009 




059 


010 


Bibliographies & catalogs 


060 < 


on 


General bibliographies 


061 


012 


Of individuals 


062 


013 


Of specific classes of writers 


063 


014 


Of anonymous & pseudon. works 


064 


OlS 


Of works from specific places 


065 


016 


Of specific subjects 


066 


017 


General subject catalogs 


067 


018 


General author catalogs 


068 


019 


General dictionary catalogs 


069 


020 


Library science 


070 


021 


The library 


071 


022 


Physical plant of libraries 


072 


023 


Library personnel & positions 


073 


024 


Regulations for use of libraries 


074 


025 


Library economy 


075 


026 


Special libraries 


076 


027 


General libraries 


077 


028 


Reading & reading aids 


078 


029 


Indexing & documentation 


079 


030 


General encyclopedic works 


080 


031 


American 


081 


032 


Other English-language 


082 


033 


Other Germanic languages 


083 


034 


French, Provengal, Catalan 


084 


035 


Italian, Romanian, etc. 


085 


036 


S Danish & Portuguese 
Slavic languages 


086 


037 


087 


038 


Scandinavian languages 


088 


039 


Other languages 


089 


040 




090 


041 




091 


042 




092 


043 




093 


044 




094 


045 




095 


046 




096 


047 




097 


048 




098 


049 




099 



General periodicals 

American 

Other English-language 
Other Germanic languages 
French, Provengal, Catalan 
Itahan, Romanian, etc. 
Spanish & Portuguese 
Slavic languages 
Scandinavian languages 
Other languages 

General organizations 

In North America 

In England 6e Wales 

In central Europe 

In France 

In Italy & adjacent territories 

In Iberian Peninsula etc. 

In eastern Europe 

In other countries 

Museums 

Newspapers & journalism 

In North America 

In England & Wales 

In central Europe 

In France 

In Italy & adjacent territories 

In Iberian Peninsula etc. 

In eastern Europe 

In Scandinavia 

In other countries 

General collections 

American 

Other Enghsh-language 
Other Germanic languages 
French, Provencal, Catalan 
Italian, Romanian, etc. 
Spanish & Portuguese 
Slavic languages 
Scandinavian languages 
Other languages 

Mss, & book rarities 

Manuscripts 

Block books 

Incunabula 

Notable printing 

Notable binding 

Notable illustrations & materials 

Notable ownership & origin 

Notable content 

Notable format 



lio 



111 



Decimal Classification 



Summaries 



Philosophy and related disciplines 



Religion 



■^A 



100 Philosophy & related 



101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 

110 

111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 

120 

121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 

130 

131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 

140 

141 

142 
143 

144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 



150 Psychology 



Theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc. 

Serial publications 
Organizations 
Study & teaching 
Collections & anthologies 
Historical treatment 

Ontology & methodology 

Ontology 

Classification of knowledge 

Origin of universe 

Space 

Time, duration, eternity 

Motion & change 

Matter & form 

Force & energy 

Number & quantity 

Other metaphysical topics 

Epistemology 

Cause & effect 

Freedom & necessity 

Teleology 

Finite & infinite 

Consciousness & personahty 

Unconscious & subconscious 

Man 

Origin & destiny of soul 

Pseudo- & parapsychology 

Pseudopsychology 

Parapsychology & occultism 

Dreams & the mystic traditions 

Personality anal. & improvement 

Physiognomy 

Phrenology 

Specific viewpoints 

Ideahsm & related systems 
Critical philosophy 
Intuitionism & Bergsonism 
Humanism & related systems 
Sensationalism & ideology 
Naturahsm & related systems 
Pantheism & related systems 
Liberalism & other systems 
Other systems & doctrines 



151 
152 
153 
154 

155 
156 
157 

158 
159 

160 

161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 

175 

176 

177 

178 

179 

180 

181 

182 
183 
184 

185 
186 
187 
188 
189 

190 

191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 



Physiological & experimental 
Intelligence & intellect 
Subconscious states & processes 
Differential & genetic psychology 
Comparative psychology 
Abnormal & clinical psychologies 
Applied psychology 
Other aspects 

Logic 

Induction 
Deduction 

Symbolic & mathematical logic 
Fallacies & sources of error 
Syllogism 
Hypothesis 

Argument & persuasion 
Analogy 
Ethics (Moral philosophy) 

Systems & doctrines 

Ethics of political relationships 

Ethics of family relationships 

Profes. & occupational ethics 

Ethics of recreation 

Sexual ethics 

Ethics of social relations 

Ethics of temperance etc. 

Other apphcations of ethics 

Anc, med., Oriental 

Oriental 

Pre-Socratic 

Sophistic, Socratic & related 

Platonic 

Aristotelian 

Skeptic & Neoplatonic 

Epicurean 

Stoic 

Medieval Western 

Modem Western philosophy 

United States & Canada 

British Isles 

Germany & Austria 

France 

Italy 

Spain & Portugal 

Russia & Finland 

Scandinavia 

Other 



200 

201 

202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 

210 

211 
212 
213 

214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 

220 

221 
222 
223 
224 

225 
226 
227 
228 
229 

230 

231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 

240 

241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 



Religion 

Philosophy of Christianity 
Miscellany of Christianity 
Dictionaries of Christianity 

Serial pubis, on Christianity 
Organizations on Christianity 
Study of Christianity 
Collections on Christianity 
Hist. & geography of Christianity 

Natural religion 

Knowledge of God 
Nature of God 
Creation 
Theodicy 
Science & religion 
Good & evil 
Worship & prayer 
Immortahty & eternity 
Analogy 

Bible 

Old Testament 

Historical books 

Poetic books 

Prophetic books 

New Testament 

Gospels & Acts 

Epistles 

Revelation (Apocalypse) 

Apocrypha, pseudepigrapha, etc. 

Christian doctrinal theology 

God, Trinity, Godhead 

Jesus Christ & his family 

Man 

Salvation (Soteriology) 

Invisible world 

Eschatology 

Creeds & confessions of faith 
Apologetics & polemics 

Christ, moral & devotional 

Moral theology 
Prayers & meditations 
Evangelistic writings 

Hymns 

Symbolism etc. 
Sacred furniture etc. 
Personal religion 
Worship in family life 



250 

251 
252 
253 
254 

255 
256 
257 

258 
259 

260 

261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 

270 

271 

272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 

280 

281 

282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 

290 

291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 
298 
299 



Christ, pastoral & parochial 

Preaching (Homiletics) 

Sermons 

Pastor 

Parish govt. & administration 

Rehgious congregations & orders 

Parochial welfare work 
Other parochial activities 

Chr. social & eccles. theoL 

Social theology 

Church govt., org., nature 

Times of religious observance 

Public worship 

Other rites & ceremonies 

Missions 

Associations for religious work 

Rehgious training & instruction 

Organized spiritual renewal 

Hist. & geog. of Chr. church 

Rehgious congregations & orders 

Persecutions 

Heresies 

Christian church in Europe 

Christian church in Asia 

Christian church in Africa 

Christian church in No. America 

Christian church in So. America 

Christian church elsewhere 

Christ, denominations & sects 

Primitive & Oriental churches 

Roman Catholic Church 

Anglican churches 

Protestants of Continental origin 

Presb., Amer, Ref., Congr. chs. 

Bapt., Disc, of Christ, Adventists 

Methodist churches 

Unitarianism 

Other denominations & sects 

Other religions etc. 

Comparative religion 

Classical (Gr. & Rom.) religion 

Germanic religion 

Brahmanism & related religions 

Zoroastrianism 

Judaism 

Islam 6e its derivatives 

Other religions 



112 



^^3 



\ 



Decimal Classification 



Summaries 



i 



I 






ft. 





I'he social 


sciences 


300 


The social sciences 


350 


Public administration 


301 


Sociology 


351 


Central governments 


302 


VJV 


352 


Local units of government 


303 




353 


United States federal & states 


304 




354 


Other central governments 


305 




355 


General mihtary administration 


306 




356 


Foot forces 


307 




357 


Mounted forces 


308 




358 


Armored, technical, air, space 


309 


Social situation & conditions 


359 


Sea ( Naval ) forces 


310 


Statistical method & statistics 


360 


Welfare & association 


311 


Statistical method 


361 


Organization of social welfare 


312 


Statistics of populations 


362 


Welfare services to spec, groups 


313 




363 


Other services 


314 


General statistics of Europe 


364 


Criminology 


315 


General statistics of Asia 


365 


Penology 


316 


General statistics of Africa 


366 


Association 


317 


Gen. statistics of North America 


367 


Social clubs 


318 


Gen. statistics of South America 


368 


Insurance 


319 


Gen. statistics of rest of world 


369 


Other kinds of associations 


320 


Political science 


370 


Education 


321 


Types & forms of states 


371 


The school 


322 


Relation of state to org. groups 


372 


Elementary education 


323 


Rel. of state to individuals etc. 


373 


Secondary education 


324 


Suffrage 


374 


Adult education 


325 


International migration 


375 


Curriculums 


326 


Slavery & emancipation 


376 


Education of women 


327 


International relations 


377 


Schools & religion 


328 


Legislation 


378 


Higher education 


329 


Practical politics 


379 


Govt, supervision & support 


330 


Economics 


380 


Commerce 


331 


Labor 


381 


Internal commerce 


332 


Lucrative capital 


382 


International commerce 


333 


Land ( Natural resources ) 


383 


Postal communication 


334 


Cooperative systems 


384 


Other systems of communication 


335 


Collectivist systems & schools 


385 


Railroad transportation 


336 


Public finance 


386 


Inland waterway transportation 


337 




387 


Water, air, space transportation 


338 


Production 


388 


Ground transportation 


339 


Distribution & consumption 


389 


Metrology & standardization 


340 


Law 


390 


Customs & folklore 


341 


Intemat. law ( Law of nations ) 


391 


Costimie 


342 


Constitutional law 


392 


Customs of life cycle 


343 


Criminal law 


393 


Death customs 


344 


Martial law 


394 


Public & social customs 


345 


United States statutes & cases 


395 


Etiquette 


346 


British statutes & cases 


396 




347 


Private law & judicial system 


397 




348 




398 


Folklore 


349 


Statutes & cases not U.S.-Brit. 


399 


Customs of war 



Language 



400 

401 
402 
403 
404 
405 
406 
407 
408 
409 

410 

411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
416 
417 
418 
419 

420 

421 

422 
423 
424 
425 
426 
427 
428 
429 

430 

431 
432 
433 
434 

435 
436 
437 
438 
439 

440 

441 

442 
443 
444 
445 
446 
447 
448 
449 



Language 

Philosophy & theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc. 

Serial publications 
Organizations 
Study & teaching 
Collections & anthologies 
Hist. & geographical treatment 

Linguistics & nonverbal 

Notations 

Etymology 

Polyglot dictionaries 

Phonology 

Structural systems 

Prosody 

Dialectology & paleography 

Usage ( Applied linguistics ) 

Nonverbal language 

English & Anglo-Saxon 

Written & spoken English 
English etymology 
English dictionaries 

English structural system 
English prosody 
Nonstandard English 
Standard English usage 
Anglo-Saxon (Old English) 

Germanic languages 

Written & spoken German 
German etymology 
German dictionaries 

German structural system 
German prosody 
Nonstandard German 
Standard German usage 
Other Germanic languages 

French, Provencal, Catalan 

Written & spoken French 
French etymology 
French dictionaries 

French structural system 
French prosody 
Nonstandard French 
Standard French usage 
Provengal & Catalan 



450 Italian, Romanian, etc. 

Written & spoken Italian 
Italian etymology 
Itahan dictionaries 



451 
452 
453 
454 
455 
456 
457 
458 
459 

460 

461 
462 
463 
464 
465 
466 
467 
468 
469 

470 

471 
472 
473 
474 
475 
476 
477 
478 
479 

480 

481 

482 
483 
484 
485 
486 
487 
488 
489 

490 

491 

492 
493 
494 
495 
496 
497 
498 
499 



Italian structural system 
Italian prosody 
Nonstandard Italian 
Standard Italian usage 
Romanian & Rhaeto-Romanic 

Spanish & Portuguese 

Written & spoken Spanish 
Spanish etymology 
Spanish dictionaries 

Spanish structural system 
Spanish prosody 
Nonstandard Spanish 
Standard Spanish usage 
Portuguese 

Italic languages 

Written & spoken Latin 
Latin etymology 
Latin dictionaries 

Latin structural system 
Latin prosody 

Old, Postclassical, Vulgar Latin 
Standard Latin usage 
Romance & other Italic langs. 

Classical & Greek 

Written & spoken classical Greek 
Classical Greek etymology 
Classical Greek dictionaries 

Class. Greek structural system 
Classical Greek prosody 
Postclassical Greek 
Standard classical Greek usage 
Other Greek languages 

Other languages 

East Indo-European & Celtic 
Semitic languages 
Hamitic & other languages 
Ural-Altaic, Dravidian, etc. 
East & Southeast Asian langs. 
African languages 
North American Indian langs. 
South American Indian langs. 
Austronesian & other languages 



114 



lis 



Decimal Classification 



Pure sciences 



Summaries 



Technology ( Applied sciences ) 



if* 

?ij'? 



fife 






500 Pure sciences 



501 
502 
503 
504 
505 
506 
507 
508 
509 

510 

511 
512 
513 
514 
515 
516 
517 
518 
519 

520 

521 

522 

523 

524 

525 

526 

527 

528 

529 

530 

531 
532 
533 
534 
535 
536 
537 
538 
539 

540 

541 
542 
543 

544 
545 
546 
547 
548 
549 



550 Earth sciences 



li s'l 



H 



Philosophy & theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc. 

Serial publications 
Organizations 
Study & teaching 
Collections, travels, surveys 
Hist. & geographical treatment 

Mathematics 

Arithmetic 

Algebra 

Synthetic geometry 

Trigonometry 

Descriptive geometry 

Analytic (Coordinate) geometry 

Calculus 

Probabilities & statistical math. 

Astronomy & allied sci. 

Theoretical astronomy 
Practical & spherical astronomy 
Descriptive astronomy 

Earth (Astronomical geography) 
Mathematical geography 
Celestial navigation 
Ephemerides (Naut. almanacs) 
Chronology 

Physics 

Mechanics 

Mechanics of fluids 

Mechanics of gases 

Sound & related vibrations 

Visible light etc. 

Heat 

Electricity & electronics 

Magnetism 

Modem physics 

Chemistry & allied sciences 

Physical & theoret. chemistry 
Laboratories & equipment 
General analytical chemistry 
Qualitative analytical chemistry 
Quantitative analytical chemistry 
Inorganic chemistry 
Organic chemistry 
Crystallography 
Mineralogy 



551 

552 
553 
554 
555 
556 
557 
558 
559 

560 

561 
562 
563 
564 
565 
566 
567 
568 
569 

570 

571 
572 
573 
574 
575 
576 
577 
578 
579 

580 

581 
582 
583 

584 
585 
586 
587 
588 
589 

590 

591 

592 
593 
594 
595 
596 
597 
598 
599 



Physical & dynamic geology 
Petrology 
Economic geology 
Geology of Europe 
Geology of Asia 
Geology of Africa 
Geology of North America 
Geology of South America 
Geology of other parts of world 

Paleontology 

PcJeobotany 

Invertebrate paleozoology 
Protozoa, Parazoa, Metazoa 
MoUusca & moUuscoidea 
Other invertebrates 
Vertebrate paleozoology 
Anamnia ( Fishes etc. ) 
Sauropsida ( Reptiles & birds) 
Manmialia (Mammals) 

Anthropol. & biological sci. 

Human races (Ethnology) 

Somatology ( Phys. anthropol. ) 

Biology 

Organic evolution 

Microbiology 

Gen. properties of living matter 

Microscopes & microscopy 

Coll. & preservation of specimens 

Botanical sciences 

Botany 

Spermatophyta 

Dicotyledones 

Monocotyledones 

Gymnospermae 

Cryptogamia 

Pteridophyta 

Bryophyta 

Thallophyta 

Zoological sciences 

Zoology 
Invertebrates 

Protozoa, Parazoa, Metazoa 
MoUusca 6e moUuscoidea 
Other invertebrates 
Chordata ( Vertebrates ) 
Anamnia ( Fishes etc. ) 
Reptiles & birds 
Mammaha (Mammals) 



ii6 



600 Technology (Applied sci.) 

60 1 Philosophy & theory 

602 Miscellany 

603 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc. 

604 

605 Serial publications 

606 Organizations 

607 Study & teaching 

608 Collections, patents, etc. 

609 Hist. & geographical treatment 

610 Medical sciences 

611 Human anatomy 

612 Human physiology 

613 General & personal hygiene 

614 Public health 

615 Therapeutics & pharmacology 

616 Medicine 

617 Surgery 

618 Other speciahzed medicine 

619 Compar. & experim. medicine 

620 Engineering & allied 

621 Applied physics 

622 Mining engineering & operations 

623 Military & naval engineering 

624 Civil engineering 

625 Railroads & highways 
626 

627 Hydraulic engineering etc. 

628 Sanitary & municipal engineering 

629 Other branches 

630 Agriculture & agr. indus. 

631 Farming 

632 Plant pathology & its control 

633 Field crops 

634 Orchards, small fruit, forestry 

635 Garden crops ( Horticulture ) 

636 Livestock & domestic animals 

637 Dairy & related industries 

638 Insect culture 

639 Nondomesticated animals 

640 Domestic arts & sciences 

641 Food & drink 

642 Food & meal service 

643 The home & its equipment 

644 Household utilities 

645 Household furnishings 

646 Clothing & care of body 

647 Housekeeping 

648 Household sanitation 

649 Child rearing & home nursing 



650 Business & related 



651 
652 
653 
654 

655 
656 
657 
658 
659 

660 

661 
662 
663 
664 
665 
666 
667 
668 
669 

670 

671 
672 
673 
674 
675 
676 
677 
67S 
679 

680 

681 

682 
683 
684 
685 
686 
687 
688 
689 

690 

691 
692 
693 
694 
695 
696 
697 
698 
699 



Office services 

Writing 

Shorthand 

Printing & related activities 

Accounting 

Management 

Other activities & techniques 

Chemical technology etc. 

Industrial chemicals 
Explosives, fuels, etc. 
Drinks, stimulants, etc. 
Food technology 
Industrial oils, fats, gases 
Ceramic & allied industries 
Cleaning, color & related 
Other organic products 
Metallurgy 

Manufactures processible 

Metal manufactures 

Ferrous metals manufactures 

Nonferrous metals manufactures 

Lumber, cork, wood-using indus. 

Leather & fur industries 

Pulp & paper industries 

Textiles 

Elastomers & their products 

Other products 

Assembled etc. products 

Precision mechanisms etc. 

Small forge work 

Hardware 

Furnishings & wheeled supports 

Leather goods & substitutes 

Clothing 

Other final products 

Buildings 

Materials 

Construction practices 
Systems of construction 
Wood construction 
Roofing & auxiliary structures 
Plumbing, heating, ventilating 
Heating, ventilating, etc. 
Detail finishing 



117 



f 



Decimal Classification 



Summaries 



\i"^ 



t- 



^ The arts 

700 The arts 750 

701 Philosophy & theory 751 

702 Miscellany 752 

703 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc. 753 

704 Collections, iconography, etc. 754 

705 Serial publications 755 

706 Organizations 756 

707 Study & teaching 757 

708 Galleries, museums, etc. 758 

709 Hist. & geographical treatment 759 

710 Civic & landscape art 760 

711 Area planning (Civic art) 761 

712 Landscape design 762 

713 Landscape design of trafficways 763 

714 Water in landscape design 764 

715 Woody plants in landscape design 765 

716 Herbaceous plants in design 766 

717 Structures in landscape design 767 

718 Landscape design of cemeteries 768 

719 Natural landscapes 769 

720 Architecture 770 

721 Architectural construction 771 

722 Ancient period 772 

723 Medieval period 773 

724 Modem period 774 

725 Public structures 775 

726 Buildings for religious purposes 776 

727 Bldgs. for educational purposes 777 

728 Residential buildings 77S 

729 Design & decoration 779 

730 Sculpture & plastic arts 780 

731 Processes etc. of sculpture 781 

732 Ancient nonclassical sculpture 782 

733 Ancient classical sculpture 783 

734 Medieval sculpture 784 

735 Modem sculpture 785 

736 Carving & carvings 786 

737 Numismatics 787 

738 Ceramic arts 788 

739 Art metalwork 789 

740 Drawing & decorative arts 790 

741 Freehand drawing & drawings 791 

742 Perspective 792 

743 Freehand drawing by subject 793 

744 Technical drawing 794 

745 Design & crafts 795 

746 Textile handicrafts 796 

747 Interior decoration 797 

748 Glass 798 

749 Furniture & accessories 799 

ii8 



Literature (Belles-lettres) and rhetoric 



Painting & paintings 

Processes & forms 

Color theory & practice 

Abstractions, mythology, etc. 

Subjects of everyday life 

Religion & religious symbolism 

Historical events 

Human figures & their parts 

Other subjects 

Hist. & geographical treatment 

Graphic arts 

Relief processes for prints 

Lithographic processes 
Chromolithography & serigraphy 
Metal intaglio processes 
Mezzotinting etc. processes 
Etching & drypoint processes 

Prints 
Photography & photographs 

Equipment, supplies, chemistry 
Metallic salt processes 
Pigment processes of printing 



Specific fields of photography 
Collections of photographs 

Music 

General principles & techniques 
Dramatic music 
Sacred music 
Voice & vocal music 
Instrumental ensembles & music 
Keyboard instruments & music 
String instruments & music 
Wind instruments & their music 
Percussion, mechan., electr. inst. 

Recreation (Recr. arts) 

Public entertaimnent 
Theater ( Stage presentations ) 
Indoor games & amusements 
Indoor games of skill 
Games of chance 
Athletic 6e outdoor sports 
Aquatic & air sports 
Equestrian & animal sports 
Fishing, hunting, shooting 



I 



800 

801 
802 
803 
804 
805 
806 
807 
808 
809 

810 

811 
812 
813 
814 
815 
816 
817 
818 
819 

820 

821 

822 
823 
824 
825 
826 
827 
828 
829 

830 

831 

832 
833 
834 
835 
836 
837 
838 
839 

840 

841 
842 
843 
844 
845 
846 
847 
848 
849 



Literature & rhetoric 

Philosophy & theory of literature 
Miscellany about hterature 
Dictionaries etc. of hterature 

Serials of & about literature 
Organizations on literature 
Study & teaching of literature 
Rhetoric & collections of lit. 
History & criticism of literature 

American lit. in English 

Poetry 

Drama 

Fiction 

Essays 

Speeches 

Letters 

Satire & humor 

Miscellany 

English & Anglo-Saxon lit. 

English poetry 
English drama 
English fiction 
English essays 
Enghsh speeches 
English letters 
English satire & humor 
English miscellany 
Anglo-Saxon (Old Enghsh) 

Germanic languages lit. 

German poetry 
German drama 
German fiction 
German essays 
German speeches 
German letters 
German satire & humor 
German miscellany 
Other Germanic languages 

French etc. literature 

French poetry 
French drama 
French fiction 
French essays 
French speeches 
French letters 
French satire & humor 
French miscellany 
Provengal & Catalan 



850 Italian etc. Hterature 



851 

852 
853 
854 
855 
856 
857 
858 
859 

860 

861 
862 
863 
864 
865 
866 
867 
868 
869 

870 

871 

872 
873 
874 
875 
876 
877 
878 
879 

880 

881 
882 
883 
884 
885 
886 
887 
888 
889 

890 

891 
892 
893 
894 
895 
896 
897 
898 
899 



Itahan poetry 

Italian drama 

Italian fiction 

Italian essays 

Italian speeches 

Italian letters 

Italian satire & humor 

Italian miscellany 

Romanian & Rhaeto-Romanic 

Spanish & Portuguese lit. 

Spanish poetry 
Spanish drama 
Spanish fiction 
Spanish essays 
Spanish speeches 
Spanish letters 
Spanish satire & humor 
Spanish miscellany 
Portuguese 

Italic languages literature 

Latin poetry 

Latin dramatic poetry & drama 

Latin epic poetry & fiction 

Latin lyric poetry 

Latin speeches 

Latin letters 

Latin satire & humor 

Latin miscellany 

Other Itahc languages 

Classical, modem Greek lit. 

Classical Greek poetry 
Classical dramatic poetry 
Classical epic poetry & fiction 
Classical Greek lyric poetry 
Classical Greek speeches 
Classical Greek letters 
Classical Greek satire & humor 
Classical Greek miscellany 
Modem Greek 

Lits. of other languages 

East Indo-European & Celtic 
Semitic languages 
Hamitic & other languages 
Ural-Altaic, Dravidian, etc. 
East & Southeast Asian langs. 
African languages 
North American Indian langs. 
South American Indian langs. 
Austronesian & other languages 



^^9 



Decimal Classification 



General geography and history and related disciplines 



M 

ri 



900 

901 
902 
903 
904 
90S 
906 
907 
908 
909 

910 

911 
912 
913 
914 
915 
916 
917 
918 
919 

920 

921 
922 
923 
924 
925 
926 
927 
928 
929 

930 

931 
932 
933 
934 
935 
936 
937 
938 
939 

940 

941 
942 
943 
944 
945 
946 
947 
948 
949 



Gen. geog. & history etc. 

Philos. & theory of gen. hist. 
Miscellany of general history 
Dictionaries etc. of gen. hist. 
Collected accounts of events 
Serial publications of gen. hist. 
Organizations on gen. hist. 
Study & teaching of gen. hist. 
Collections of generd history 
World history 

General geography 

Historical geography 
Atlases, maps, charts, etc. 
Geography of ancient world 
Geography of modem Europe 
Geography of modem Asia 
Geography of modem Africa 
Geography of North America 
Geography of South America 
Geography of rest of world 

Gen. biography, geneaL, etc. 



Genealogy, names, insignia 

Gen. hist, of ancient world 

China 

Egypt 

Palestine 

India 

Mesopotamia & Iranian Plateau 

Northern & western Europe 

Italian peninsula & adjacent 

Greece 

Other parts of ancient world 

Gen. hist, of modem Europe 

Scotland & Ireland 

British Isles 

Central Europe 

France 

Italy & adjacent territories 

Iberian Peninsula & adjacent isls. 

Eastern Europe 

Scandinavia 

Other parts of Europe 



950 


Gen. hist, of modem Asia 


951 


China & adjacent areas 


952 


Japan & adjacent islands 


953 


Arabian Peninsida & adj. areas 


954 


South Asia 


955 


Iran (Persia) 


956 


Middle East 


957 


Siberia ( Asiatic Russia ) 


958 


Central Asia 


959 


Southeast Asia 


960 


Gen. hist, of modem Africa 


961 


North Africa 


962 


Egypt & Sudan 


963 


Ethiopia 


964 


Northwest coast & offshore isls. 


965 


Algeria 


966 


West Africa & offshore islands 


967 


Central Africa & offshore islands 


968 


South Africa 


969 


South Indian Ocean islands 


970 


Gen. hist, of North America 


971 


Canada 


972 


Middle America 


973 


United States 


974 


Northeastern states of U.S. 


975 


Southeastern states of U.S. 


976 


South central states of U.S. 


977 


North central states of U.S. 


978 


Western states of U.S. 


979 


Great Basin & Pacific Slope 


980 


Gen. hist, of South America 


981 


Brazil 


982 


Argentina 


983 


Chile 


984 


Bohvia 


985 


Peru 


986 


Northwestern South America 


987 


Venezuela 


988 


Guiana 


989 


Other parts of South America 


990 


Gen, hist, of rest of world 


991 


Malay Archipelago 


992 


Sunda Islands 


993 


New Zealand & Melanesia 


994 


Australia 


995 


New Guinea ( Papua ) 


996 


Other parts of Pacific 


997 


Atlantic Ocean islands 


998 


Arctic islands 


999 


Antarctica 



120 



General Tables 



1" 



X 









"4 ' 

*5^ 



f1 
'it 



Vi^ 



V 



lit 



If . 



u^; 






vfci" 



r^. 






Use of the General Tables 



000 



Full instructions on use appear in the Editor's 
Introduction, section 3. 

A number in square brackets is not in force or 
is no longer in force with the meaning indicated. 



12% 



000 Generalities 

001 Knowledge 

.09 Historical and geographical treatment 

Scope: spread of knowledge 





SUMMARY 




001.2 Intellectual life (Scholarship and learning) 




.3 Humanities 




•4 Research 




•S Communication 




.9 Controversial and spurious knowledge 


^ 


Intellectual life (Scholarship and learning) 


^ 


Humanities 


.4 


Research {^formerly 007] 


[.401 8] 


Methodology 




Do not use; class in 001.42 


.42 


Methodology 




Scope: surveys and appraisals 


.422 


Statistical method 


.424 


Operations research 




Experimental models, design, programing 


.425 


Empirical tests and testing 


.426 


Case studies 


.429 


Collecting and collections 


.44 


Incentives 



Endowment [formerly 378.32], prizes, awards, scholarships, 
fellowships, medals, certificates, honors 

123 



Decimal Classification 



Knowledge 



fM 



001.5 

.501 



.51 



Conununication [formerly 384] 

Philosophy and theory 
Class theories in 001.51 

Theories [formerly 006] 



.53 


Cybernetics [formerly 006] 


.532 


Prototypes (Bionics) 


.533 


Self -organizing systenjs 


.534 


Perception theory 


.535 


Artificial intelligence 


.539 


Information theory 


.539 2 


Recall 


.539 3 


Uncertainty 


.539 4 


Relevance and irrelevance 


.55 


Counimnication thru records 


.552 


Printed and v^^itten mediums (The book [formerly 




002]) 


.552 2 


Conventional size 


.552 3 


Microreproductions [formerly 099] 


.553 


Other visual mediums 


.553 2 


Motion-picture films 


.553 3 


Filmstrips 


.553 4 


Slides 


.553 5 


Unprojected illustrations 


.554 


Audio medimns 


.554 2 


Mechanical 


.554 3 


Magnetic 


.554 4 


Electronic 



001.9 


Controversial and spurious knovv^ledge 


.92 


Controversies 


.93 


Curiosities 


.94 


Mysteries 


.95 


Deceptions and hoaxes 


.96 


Errors, delusions, superstitions 


[002] 


The book 




Class generalities in 001.552, bookmaking and book arts in 655 


003 




004 




005 




[006] 


Communication theories and cybernetics 



008 
009 



Class communication theories in 001.51, cybernetics in 001.53 



[007] Research 



/ 



Class in 001.4 



.555 



Other 



124 



125 






Decimal Classification 



I '-J 



I s 






M 



010 Bibliographies and catalogs 



.28 



Oil 



•02 



012 



013 



.9 



015 



of books, other printed and written mediums, nonmusical recordings, 
information fibns and slides 

Class book collecting in 020.75, documentation in 029.7 [both formerly 
010] 

For bibliographies and catalogs of books for children and young 
adults, see 028.52 

Preparation 
General bibliographies 

Lists of works not limited to a specific kind of coverage or place of 
publication 

Including general classified bibliographies [formerly 016] 
Reference works 



012-016 Special bibhographies and catalogs 
Of individuals 

Works by or about persons not clearly associated with a specific 
subject 

Of specific classes of writers 

Works whose authors have common characteristics 

Divide like 920.1-928.9, e.g., bibhographies and catalogs of writings 
of librarians 013.02 

For bibliographies and catalogs of individuals, see 012 

Residents of specific continents, countries, localities 

Add area notations 3-9 to 013.9 



014 Of anonymous and pseudonymous works 

Divide like 031-039, e.g., bibliographies of anonymous and 
pseudonymous works in French 014.41 ' 



Of works from specific places 

Works issued or printed in specific continents, countries, localities, or 
by specific firms 

Scope : national bibliographies 

Add area notations 3-9 to 015 

126 



016 



.1 

.2 

.3 
.4 



.5 
.6 
.7 
S 



018 



019 



Bibliographies and catalogs 



Of specific subjects 

If preferred, class in standard subdivision 016 

Use 016.000 1-016.000 9 for standard subdivisions 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., bibliographies of mathematics 016.51, of 
newspapers in England 016.072 

Class general classified bibliographies [forjuerly 016] in Oil 

For bibliographies and catalogs of music scores and parts, see 
781.97 



017-019 General catalogs 

Lists of works held in a specific collection or group of collections 
and not limited to a specific kind of coverage or place of publi- 
cation 



017 Subject catalogs 



017.1-017.4 Classified 
Catalogs of non-private libraries 
Catalogs of private and family libraries 
Auction catalogs 
Booksellers' catalogs 

For auction catalogs, see 017.3 



017.5-017.8 Alphabetically arranged Iformerly 019] 
Catalogs of non-private libraries 
Catalogs of private and family libraries 
Auction catalogs 
Booksellers' catalogs 

For auction catalogs, see 017.7 

Author catalogs 

Divide like 017.1-017.4, e.g., catalogs of private and family libraries 
018.2 

Dictionary catalogs 

Divide hke 017.1-017.4, e.g., auction catalogs 019.3 

Class alphabetically arranged subject catalogs [formerly 019] in 



017.5-017.8 



i2y 



t: 



Decimal Classification 



Library science 



r^ 



I 






i.'. 



lu 



020 Library science 

The knowledge and skill by which printed and written records are 
recognized, collected, organized, utilized 

For bibliographies and catalogs, see 010 

•6 Organizations 

Class friends-of-the-library organizations [formerly 020.6] in 021.7 



.62 


Permanent nongovernment organizations 


.621 


International 


.622 


National 




Add area notations 3-9 to 020.622 


.623 


Regional, state, provincial 


.623 2 


Regional 



Add area notations 3-9 to 020.623 2 

.623 4 State and provincial 

Add area notations 3-9 to 020.623 4 

.624 Local 

Add area notations 3-9 to 020.624 

«7 Study and teaching 

,71 Institutions offering instruction in library science 

.711 Library schools 

[.713] In-service training 

Class in 023.5 

.715 Institutes and workshops 

.75 Book collecting [formerly QIO] 

021 The library 

Use 021.001-021.008 for standard subdivisions 



.009 



Historical and geographical treatment 

Class specific libraries and kinds of libraries in 026-027 
128 



021.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.6 
.62 



.63 
.64 



[.65] 



.7 



.82 



.83 
.84 
.85 



.88 
[.89] 



021.1-021.8 Establishment and purpose of libraries 
Libraries as storage centers 
Libraries as educational force 

Libraries in relation to other educational institutions 
Libraries as social force 
Library extension and cooperation 

Extension units 

Class branches [formerly 021.62] in 027.4 

Centralization of systems 

Cooperation 

Including union catalogs, bibliographical centers [both 
formerly 025.35] 

For cooperation in a specific activity, see the activity, e,g 
cooperative cataloging 025.35 

Bookmobiles 
Class in 027.4 

Promotion of libraries 

Including friends-of-the-library organizations [formerly 020.6] 
For friends of specific libraries, see 026-027 

Libraries and the state 
Library commissions 

Including governing boards [formerly 023.3] 

Monetary aid and subsidies 

Gifts of books and copyright deposits 

OflBcial exchange of publications 

Class United States Book Exchange [formerly 021.85] in 
025.26 

Political pressures 
Library laws 

Class in 340 

i2g 



Decimal Classification 



022 Physical plant of libraries 

Scope: school libraries [fonnerly also 371.622] 
For maintenance of physical plant, see 025.9 

.1 Location and site 

[.2] Building materials and insurance 

Class building materials in 022.3, insurance in 368 

♦3 Planning for buildings 

Requirements based on function 

Including building materials [formerly also 022.2] 

Class library architecture [formerly 022.3] in 727.8 

[.309] Historical and geographical treatment 

Do not use; class in 022.33 

.31 By kinds of libraries 

Divide like 027, e.g., planning of college libraries 022.317 
For geographical treatment, see 022.33 

.33 Historical and geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 022.33 

•4 Stacks and shelving 

.5 Reading rooms 

For reading rooms for special materials, see 022.6 

.6 Administrative and special rooms 

Including reading rooms for special materials 

.7 Lighting 

S Heating, ventilation, air conditioning 

,9 Furniture and equipment 

For stacks and shelving, see 022.4 

023 Library personnel and positions 

[.3] Governing boards 

Class in 021.82 

130 



Library science 



023.4 
.5 



[.502 02] 



[.8] 



.9 



024 



.6 



025 



023.4-023.5 Personnel 
For titles and job descriptions, see 023.7 

Administrative 

Staff 

Qualifications and organization 

Including in-service training [formerly 020.713] 

StafiF manuals, rules, codes 
Do not use; class in 023.9 

Titles and job descriptions 

Use 023.700 1 - 023.700 9 for standard subdivisions 

Classification, pay, retirement plans 

Class pension and retirement plans in 658.325, classification and 
pay plans in 658.322 2 

Staff manuals, rules, codes 

Regulations for use of libraries 
Interlibrary loans 

Library economy 

Practical appUcation of library science to the founding, organizing, 
administration of libraries 
Use 025.001-025.009 for standard subdivisions 
For indexing and documentation, see 029 



.02 



Technical processes 



SUMMARY 

025.1 Administration 

^ Acquisitions 

^ Cataloging 

•4 Classification 

S Services to patrons 

JS Circulation services 

.7 Binding and repair services 

^ Maintenance and preservation of collections 

.9 Maintenance of physical plant 

131 



Decimal Classification 



025.1 
.11 



.12 
.129 



Administration 

Finance 

Class accounting [formerly 025.11] in 657.834 

Printing and publishing 
Duplication processes 



.17 



.171 
.172 

.173 
[.175] 

.176 
.177 



.1771 



.177 3 



Treatment of special materials 
Anrangement, care, use 

For a special kind of treatment, see the kind, e.g., cataloging 
of special materials 025.34 

Manuscripts, archival materials, rarities 

Vertical file [formerly also 029.3] 
Including clippings [formerly 025.175] 

Serials, documents, report literature 
Clippings 

Class in 025.172 

Maps, atlases, globes 



Audio-visual materials 

For recordings, see 025.178; maps, atlases, globes, 025.176; 
realia, 025.179 

Art materials 

Pictures and prints 

Films and slides 



.178 



.179 



.179 2 



Recordings and music scores 

Other special materials 

Including microreproductions, realia 

Books in raised characters 
Braille and others 
132 



Library science 



21 

23 
.25 

,26 



025.2 Acquisitions 



Selecting and acquiring books, periodicals, other materials by 
purchase, exchange, gift 

Book selection 

Principles and theory 

Order work 

Physical preparation for shelves 

Exchange and gift work 

Including United States Book Exchange [formerly 021.85] 



3 

.32 
.33 



Cataloging 

Descriptive cataloging 

Subject cataloging 

Use 025.330 001 - 025.330 009 for standard subdivisions 
For classification, see 025.4 



.330 01-.339 99 



.34 



.35 



.37 



Subject headings 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., subject headings in science 
025.335 



Cataloging of special materials 

Divide like 025.17, e.g., cataloging of maps 025.346 

Cooperative cataloging 

Class union catalogs, bibliographical centers [both formerly 
025.35] in 021.64 

Filing 



.4 

.43 

.46 



Classification 

Principles, systems, notations 

General classification schedules 

Classification of special subjects 

Use 025.460 001 - 025.460 009 for standard subdivisions 
Divide like 001-999, e.g., classification of music 025.467 8 

^33 



Decimal Classification 



025,5 



.52 



.54 



.542 
.544 
.6 



.7 
.8 

.81 
.82 
.84 

.9 



Services to patrons 

For a specific service, see the subject, e.g., circulation services 
025.6; reference and reader advisory services to special groups, 
027.6 

Reference services 

Class reference and research libraries [formerly 025.52] in 
027.424 

For use of books as sources of information, see 028.7 

Reader advisory services [formerly also 028.8] 

For books as sources of recreation and self-development, see 
028.8 

To individuals 

To groups 

Circulation services 

Lending materials, keeping records of loans 

For regulations for interlibrary loans, see 024.6 

Binding and repair services 

Maintenance and preservation of collections 

Arrangement 

Inventory 

Preservation 

For binding and repair, see 025.7 

Maintenance of physical plant 



026-027 Specific kinds of libraries 

Scope: specific libraries, friends of specific libraries 

Class a specific library activity or service w^ith the subject 



026 Special libraries 



.001-.999 



Use 026.000 1 - 026.000 9 for standard subdivisions 

For libraries for special groups and specific organizations, see 
027.6 

Libraries devoted to specific subjects 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., medical libraries 026.61 

^34 



Library science 



027 General libraries 

Use 027.001-027.008 for standard subdivisions 

.009 Historical treatment 

Class geograpliical treatment in 027.01-027.09 

.01 -.09 Geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 027.0, e.g., general libraries in 
France 027.044 



027.1-027.5 By form of ownership 

For libraries for special groups and specific organizations, see 
027.6; libraries devoted to specific subjects, 026.001-026.999 



.1 



Private and family libraries 

Add area notations 1-9 to 027.1 



Proprietary libraries 

Semiprivate libraries requiring subscription or membership fees for 
general use 

Add area notations 1-9 to 027.2 

Rental libraries 

Libraries whose materials are available for use on conmiercial basis 
Add area notations 1-9 to 027.3 



.4 



Public libraries 

Institutions that serve free all residents of a community, district, or 
region, usually receiving their financial support, in whole or in 
part, from public funds 

Including bookmobiles [formerly 021.65], branches [formerly 
021.62] 



.409 



Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
027.43-027.49 



.42 



Specific kinds of public libraries 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 027.43-027.49 

^35 



Decimal Classification 



027.422 
.424 

.43-.49 



County and regional libraries 
Reference and research libraries [formerly 025.52] 
Treatment by continent, country, locality 
Add area notations 3-9 to 027.4 



.5 Government libraries 

National, state, provincial 

.509 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class specific institutions in 027.53-027.59 

.53-.59 Specific institutions 

Add area notations 3-9 to 027.5 

Class United Nations Library [formerly 027.574 71] in 027.68 

.6 Libraries for special groups and specific organizations 

Scope: reference and reader advisory services to special groups 

For libraries for educational institutions, see 027.7-027.8; 
libraries devoted to specific subjects, 026.001-026.999 

.62 Libraries for specific age groups 

.622 For old-age groups 

.625 For children 

.625 ] Storytelling 

.626 For young adults 

,63 Libraries for minority groups 

,65 Government libraries for special groups 

.66 Welfare institution libraries 

.662 Hospital libraries 

Comprehensive works on patient and medical libraries 
Class medical Ubraries in 026.61 

.663 Libraries for the blind 

.665 Prison libraries 

.67 Religious organization libraries 

136 



027.68 



.69 



.709 



.73-.79 



.8 

.809 



.82 



.822 



Library science 



Non-profit organization libraries 

Including libraries of learned societies [formerly 027.7], United 
Nations Library [formerly 027.574 71] 

Business and industrial libraries 



027.7-027.8 Libraries for educational institutions 

For libraries devoted to specific subjects, see 026.001-026.999 

College and university libraries 

Class libraries of learned societies [formerly 027.7] in 027.68 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Class specific institutions in 027.73-027.79 

Specific institutions 

Add area notations 3-9 to 027.7 

School libraries 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Class specific libraries in 027.823-027.829 

By level and by place 

For libraries in church-supported schools, see 027.83 

Types by level 

For specific libraries, see 027.823-027.829; college and 
university libraries, 027.7 



.822 2 


Elementary 


.822 3 


Secondary 


.823-.829 


Specific libraries 



.83 



Add area notations 3-9 to 027.82 

Libraries in church-supported schools 

Libraries in schools conducted by religious groups, usually 
without tax support 



^37 



Decimal Classification 



028 



.074 
.1 



.5 

.52 

.7 
.8 



.9 



029 



[•1] 



.5 

[.6] 

.7 



Reading and reading aids 

Exhibits and displays 

Book reviews 

Class technique of book reviewing in 808.066 028 1, critical 
appraisal of literature in 809 

Reading of children and young adults 

Bibliographies and catalogs 
Use of books and libraries as sources of information 

Use of books as sources of recreation and self -development 

Class reader advisory services [formerly 028.8] in 025.54 

Reading interests and habits 
Indexing and documentation 

Former heading: Literary methods and labor savers 

Study techniques 

Class in 371.302 81 



[.3] Clippings and files 



Class vertical file in libraries in 025.172, filing systems in o£Bce 
services in 651.53 . 

Indexing 

Authorship and editorial techniques 

Class in 808.02 

Documentation [jormerly 010] 

Assembling, coding, disseminating recorded knowledge as an 
integral procedure to achieve maximum accessibility and usabihty, 
utihzing semantics, psychological aids, techniques of reproduction 

Including information storage and retrieval 



13S 



General encyclopedic works 



030 



General encyclopedic works 

Divide by language in which originally written as below; but, if it is 
desired to give local emphasis and a shorter number to encyclopedias 
of a specific language, place them first by use of a letter or other 
symbol, e.g., Arabic-language encyclopedias 03A (preceding 031) 



031 



.02 



032 



.02 



033 



.1 
.9 



.92 

.93 

.931 

.932 

.936 

.94 



034 



.1 

.9 

.91 
.99 



031-032 English-language 
American 

English-language encyclopedias originating in Western Hemisphere 
and Hawaii 

Books of miscellaneous facts 

Other English-language 

Encyclopedias originating outside Western Hemisphere and Hawaii 
Books of miscellaneous facts 

Other Germanic languages 
Cennan 
Other 

Class Scandinavian-language encyclopedias in 038 

Frisian 

Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans 

Dutch 

Flemish 

Afrikaans 
Low German 

French, Provencal, Catalan 
French 
Provencal and Catalan 

Provengal 
Catalan 



139 



Decimal Classification 



General collected essays, addresses, lectures 



^ 



035 


Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 


.1 


Italian 


.9 


Romanian and Rhaeto-Romanic 


.91 


Romanian 


.99 


Rhaeto-Romanic 


036 


Spanish and Portuguese 


.1 


Spanish 


.9 


Portuguese 


037 


Slavic languages 


.1 


Russian 


.8 


Other 




For Ukrainian- and Belorussian-language encyclopedias, see 037.9 


.81 


Bulgarian and Macedonian 


.811 


Bulgarian 


.819 


Macedonian 


.82-.89 Other 




Divide like 491.82-491.89, e.g., Polish-language encyclopedias 




037.85 


.9 


Ukrainian and Belorussian 


.91 


Ukrainian 


.99 


Belorussian 


038 


Scandinavian languages 


.6 


West Scandinavian 


.61 


Old Norse (Old Icelandic) 


.69 


Modem Icelandic and Faeroese 


.691 


Modern Icelandic 


.699 


Faeroese 


.7-.8 


East Scandinavian 



039 



Divide like 439.7-439.8, e.g., Swedish-language encyclopedias 
038.7 

Other languages 

Divide hke 420-490, e.g., Japanese-language encyclopedias 039.956 

140 



[040] General collected essays, addresses, lectures 

Class in 080 



041 
042 
043 
044 
045 
046 
047 
048 
049 



141 



s 



050 



052 



053 



054 



055 



056 



057 



058 



059 



Decimal Classification 



General organizations 



General periodicals and their indexes 

Divide by language as below; but, if it is desired to give local emphasis 
and a shorter number to periodicals of a specific language, place them 
first by use of a letter, e.g., Hindi-language periodicals 05H (preceding 
051) 

If preferred, arrange periodicals alphabetically under 050, using Al for 
comprehensive works about them and Z9 for general indexes to them 



► 051-052 English-language 

051 American 

English-language periodicals of Western Hemisphere and Hawaii 



Other English-language 

Periodicals outside Western Hemisphere and Hawaii 

Other Germanic languages 

Divide like 033, e.g., German-language periodicals 053.1 

Class Scandinavian-language periodicals and their indexes in 058 

French, Provencal, Catalan 

Divide like 034, e.g., Catalan-language periodicals 054.99 

Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 

Divide hke 035, e.g., Romanian-language periodicals 055.91 

Spanish and Portuguese 

Divide like 036, e.g., Spanish-language periodicals 056.1 

Slavic languages 

Divide like 037, e.g., Polish-language periodicals 057.85 

Scandinavian languages 

Divide like 038, e.g., Swedish-language periodicals 058.7 

Other languages 

Divide Uke 420^90, e.g., Japanese-language periodicals 059.956 

142 



060 General organizations 



Societies, academies, foundations, associations, conferences, congresses 
whose activity is not limited to a specific field 

Scope: comprehensive works on organizations 

Including general international organizations [formerly also 341.11] 

Class organizations having a specific purpose, field or subject with the 

subject 

Divide geographically as below; but, if it is desired to give local 

emphasis and a shorter number to organizations in a specific country, 

place them first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., organizations in 

Pakistan 06P (preceding 061) 

061 In North America 

Class organizations in Middle America in 068.72 

•1 Canada 

Divide like area notation 71, e.g., general organizations in British 
Columbia 061.11 

.3-.9 United States 

Divide like area notations 73-79, e.g., organizations in Ohio 061.71 
Class organizations in Hawaii in 068,969 

062 In England and Wales 

Divide like area notation 42, e.g., organizations in London 062.1 
Class organizations in Scotland and Ireland in 068.41 

063 In central Europe 

Divide like area notation 43, e.g., organizations in Poland 063.8 



064 



In France 

Divide like area notation 44, e.g., organizations in Lyons 064.582 



065 In Italy and adjacent territories 



066 



Divide like area notation 45, e.g., organizations in Rome 065.632 

In Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands 

Divide like area notation 46, e.g., organizations in Portugal 066.9 



Decimal Classification 



Newspapers and journalism 



067 In eastern Europe 

Divide like area notation 47, e.g., organizations in Ukraine 067.71 

068 In other countries 

Add area notations 3-9 to 068 

069 Museums 

Class museums specializing in a specific subject in standard 
subdivision 074 

.09 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class specific museum buildings [formerly 069.09] in 069.2 

♦1 Educational functions 

.2 Buildings and service facilities 

Including specific museum buildings [formerly 069.09], school 
museums [formerly also 371.622] 

3 Equipment and furnishings 

.4 Collecting and preparing specimens 

•5 Collections and exhibits 
.51 Acquisition and disposal 

.52 Registration and recording 

.53 Exhibit methods and techniques 

.54 Thefts and forgeries 

[.6] Office methods and accounting 

Class oflBce methods in 651.9, accounting in 657.834 

.7 Printing and publishing 



070 Newspapers and journalism 

Use 070.01-070.08 for standard subdivisions 



.1 



.11 

[.13] 
[.3] 

.4 

•41 

.43 



.44 
.48 

.482 

.484 



.486 



144 



070.1-070.4 Journalism 

Collecting, writing, editing information and opinion of current 
interests for presentation in newspapers, periodicals, newsreels, 
radio, television 

Class journals on a specific subject with the subject, general 
periodicals in 050, general newspapers in 071-079 

The press 

Dissemination of news and opinion thru publication and 
broadcasting 

Responsibility to the public 

Press law 
Class in 340 

Business management of newspapers and periodicals 

Class in 658 

Editorial management and journalistic techniques 

Journalistic editing 

News and news sources 

Class news and editorial writing [both formerly 070.43] in 
808.066 

Features and special topics 
Journalism for special groups 
For school journalism, see 371.897 

Religious groups 

Foreign-language groups 

Journalism in languages foreign to the country where 
disseminated 

Occupational and employee groups 

Historical and geographical treatment of newspapers and 
journalism 

Class treatment by country and locality in 071-079 

^45 



Decimal Classification 



071 



.1 



.3-.9 



072 



074 



071-079 Treatment of newspapers and 
journalism by comitry and locality 

Scope: specific general newspapers and works about them 

Divide geographically as below; but, if it is desired to give local 
emphasis and a shorter number to newspapers and journalism of 
a specific country, place them first by use of a letter, e.g., news- 
papers and journalism in Nigeria 07N ( preceding 071 ) 

If preferred, arrange newspapers alphabetically under 070, 
using Al for comprehensive works about them 

In North America 

class newspapers and journalism in Middle America in 079.72 

In Canada 

Divide like area notation 71, e.g., newspapers and journalism in 
British Columbia 071.11 

In United States 

Divide like area notations 73-79, e.g.. New York Times 071.471 
Class newspapers and journalism in Hawaii in 079.969 

In England and Wales 

Divide like area notation 42, e.g.. Times of London 072.1 

Class newspapers and journalism in Scotland and Ireland in 079.41 



073 In central Europe 



Divide like area notation 43, e.g., newspapers and journalism in 
Austria 073.6 

In France 

Divide like area notation 44, e.g., newspapers and journalism in 
Lyons 074.582 



075 In Italy and adjacent territories 



Divide like area notation 45, e.g., newspapers and journahsm in Rome 
075.632 



146 



Newspapers and journalism 



076 In Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands 

Divide like area notation 46, e.g., newspapers and journalism in 
Portugal 076.9 

077 In eastern Europe 

Divide like area notation 47, e.g., newspapers and journalism in 
Ukraine 077.71 



078 



In Scandinavia 

Divide like area notation 48, e.g., newspapers and journalism in 
Sweden 078.5 



079 



In other countries 

Add area notations 3-9 to 079 



080 



081 



082 



General collections and anthologies 

Scope: general collected essays, addresses, lectures [all formerly 040], 

quotations 

Divide by language as below; but, if it is desired to give local emphasis 

and a shorter number to collections and anthologies in a specific 

language, place them first by use of a letter, e.g., collections and 

anthologies in Urdu 08U (preceding 081) 

If preferred, arrange collections and anthologies alphabetically under 080 



081-082 English-language 
American \Jormerly also 082] 

English-language collections and anthologies of Western Hemisphere 
and Hawaii 

Class other English-language collections and anthologies in 082, 
collections and anthologies in other languages in 083-089 [both 
formerly 081] 

Other English-language \Jormerly also 081] 

Collections and anthologies outside Western Hemisphere and Hawaii 

Class American collections and anthologies in 081, collections and 
anthologies in other languages in 083-089 [both formerly 082] 



M7 



fc 



083 



084 



085 



086 



088 



089 



Decimal Classification 



Manuscripts and book rarities 



083-089 Other languages Iformerly 081-082] 
Other Germanic languages 

Divide like 033, e.g., Gennan-language collections and anthologies 

083.1 

Class Scandinavian-language collections and anthologies in 088 

French, Provencal, Catalan 

Divide like 034, e.g., Catalan-language collections and anthologies 
084.99 

Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 

Divide like 035, e.g., Romanian-language collections and anthologies 
085.91 

Spanish and Portuguese 

Divide like 036, e.g., Spanish-language collections and anthologies 
086.1 



087 Slavic languages 



Divide like 037, e.g., Polish-language collections and anthologies 
087.85 

Scandinavian languages 

Divide like 038, e.g., Swedish-language collections and anthologies 
088.7 

Other languages 

Divide like 420-490, e.g., Japanese-language collections and 
anthologies 089.956 



091 
092 
093 



094 



.4 



095 
096 



.1 
.2 



097 
098 



090 Manuscripts and book rarities 

Description and history 



.1 

,11 

.12 
.3 



099 



Manuscripts 
Block books 
Incunabula 

Books printed before 1501 

Including books printed by Caxton [formerly 094] 

Books notable for printing 

Limited editions, special editions, typographic masterpieces 
Class books printed by Caxton [formerly 094] in 093 
For block books, see 092; incunabula, 093 

First editions 
Books notable for bindings 
Books notable for illustrations and materials 

Illustrations 

Materials 

Leaves of vellum and silk, letters of silver and gold 

Books notable for ownership or origin 

Works notable for content 
Prohibited works 

By religious authorities 
By civil authorities 
Literary forgeries and hoaxes 

Books notable for format 

Miniature editions, unusual dimensions and shapes 
Class microreproductions [formerly 099] in 001.552 3 



148 



M9 



Ontology and methodology 



100 



100 Philosophy and related disciplines 

Use 100.1-100.9 for standard subdivisions 

Class philosophy of a specific subject with the subject, e.g., philosophy of 
history 901 



101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 

109 



110 

111 



101-109 Standard subdivisions of philosophy 
Theory 
Miscellany 
Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 

Serial publications 
Organizations 
Study and teaching 
Collections and anthologies 

Class collected writings of individual philosophers in 180—190 

Historical treatment 

Not limited by period or place 

Class history, description, critical appraisal, biographical treatment of 
philosophy of specific periods and places in 180-190 



110-120 Metaphysics (Speculative 
philosophy ) 

Ontology and methodology 

Ontology 

Nature of relations and being 
For cosmology, see 113-119 



ui.i 


Existence and essence 




Class existentialism [formerly 111.1] in 142.7 


.8 


Transcendental properties of being 


.82 


Unity 


.83 


Truth 


.84 


Goodness and evil 


.85 


Beauty (Esthetics) 


112 


Classification of knowledge 


► 


113-119 Cosmology 


113 


Origin of universe 


JZ 


Nature 


.6 


Cosmic harmony 


A 


Life 


114 


Space 




Including relation of space and matter 


115 


Time, duration, eternity 




Including relation of time and motion 


.4 


Space time 




Implications of theories of relativity 


116 


Motion and change 


117 


Matter and form 


118 


Force and energy 


119 


^ limber and quantity 


120 


Knowledge, cause, purpose, man 


121 


Epistemology 




Origin, sources, limits, validity of knowledge 




For logic, see 160 




151 



Decimal Classification 



Pseudopsychology, parapsychology, occultism 



121.5 


Doubt and denial 


.6 


Belief and certitude 


.7 


Faith 


.8 


Worth and theory of values 


122 


Cause and effect 




Including chance versus cause 




For final cause, see 124 



123 



.3 



125 



Freedom and necessity 

Determinism and indeterminism 

Chance 

For chance versus cause, see 122 



124 Teleology 



Design, purpose, final cause 

Finite and infinite 



•'^\ 



126 Consciousness and personality (The self) 

127 The unconscious and the subconscious 

128 Man 
a Soul 

For origin and destiny of the individual soul, see 129 

JZ Mind 

3 Man s nature 

For soul, see 128.1; mind, 128.2 

•5 Nature of life and death 

129 Origin and destiny of the individual soul 
A Incarnation and reincarnation 

•6 Immortality 

15^ 



130 Pseudopsychology, parapsychology, occultism 

131 Pseudopsy cholo gy 

Class physiological psychology [formerly 131] in 152 

For pseudopsychology of character and mental capacity, see 
137-139 

,3 Personal well-being, happiness, success 

Class mental hygiene [formerly 131.3] in 614.58 

.32 Favorable factors 

Tranquihty, personal insight, self-confidence, faith, harmonious 
living 

.33 Adverse factors 

111 health, fear, anxiety, frustrations, fatigue, tension 

[ . 34 ] Psychoanalysis 

Class psychoanalytic systems in 150.195, psychoanalysis as 
therapy in 616.891 7 

.35 Dianetics 

Extrascientific methods of eradicating mental disturbances thru 
rehving traumatic experiences 

[132] Abnormal and clinical psychologies 

Class in 157 

133 Parapsychology and occultism 

For esoteric and cabalistic traditions, see 135.4 





SUMMARY 


133.1 


Apparitions (Ghosts) 


J 


Divinatory arts 


.4 


Magic, witchcraft, demonology 


Ji 


Mundane astrology 


J6 


Palmistry 


.7 


Frauds in occultism 


S 


Extrasensory perception 


A 


Spiritualism 




^53 



Decimal Classification 



Pseudopsychology, parapsychology, occultism 



I 






133.1 Apparitions (Ghosts) 

.12 Haunted places 

.122 Ghosts in specific types of locale 

Haunted graveyards, churches, forests, houses 
FoT ghosts in specific places, see 133.129 

, 1 29 Ghosts in specific places 

Add area notations 3-9 to 133.129 

.14 Specific kinds of apparitions 

Poltergeists, hobgobUns, disembodied spirits 

3 Divinatory arts 

For chiromancy, see 133.64; dream hooks, 135.3; divinatory 
graphology, 137.7 

.32 Predictions 

.322 Crystal gazing 

.323 Radiesthesia 

' Location of living and inert substances thru human 
sensitivity to latent radiations and use of divining rods, 
pendulums, other devices 



.324 2 
.324 24 
.324 29 
.324 4 
.324 8 





133.323 2 - 133.323 7 Location of specific substances 


.323 2 


Water 


.323 3 


Metals 


.323 7 


Petroleum and gases 


.323 9 


Telediesthesia (Distant prospection) 


.324 


Fortunetelling 



For fortunetelling by numbers, see 133.335 4; horoscopes, 
133.54 

Cartomancy 

By tarot 

By other kinds of cards 
By tea leaves and coffee grounds 
By oracles and sibyls 
^54 



133.33 



Symbolic divination 

For cartomancy, see 133.324 2 



.333 Geomancy 

.334 Divinatory signs and omens 

.335 Numerology 

.335 4 Fortunetelling by numbers 

,335 9 Symbohsm of specific numbers 

.4 Magic, witchcraft, demonology 

.42 Demonology 

.422 Satanism ( Devil worship ) 

.423 Evil spirits 

Incubi, succubi, vampires, werewolves 

.425 The evil eye 

.426 Demoniac possession 

.427 Exorcism of demons 

.43 Magicians* manuals 

Grimoire, black books, magic formulas, incantations 

.44 Charms, amulets, talismans, mascots 

.442 Love charms 

.443 Good luck charms 

.446 Therapeutic charms 

.47 Voodooism 

JJ Mundane astrology 

.52 Zodiacal signs 

.53 Planets 

Aspects, houses, positions of planets 

.54 Horoscopes 

.540 4 Daily guides and birthday books 

.542 Casting horoscopes 

.548 Horoscopes of specific individuals 

155 



i 



1> 



133.55 

.56 
.58 



.6 
.62 



.64 



.92 



.93 



Decimal Classification 



Pseudopsychology, parapsychology, occultism 



Ephemerides 

Horary astrology 

Specific applications 

Use 133,580 001 - 133.580 009 for standard subdivisions 
Divide like 001-999, e.g., medical astrology 133.586 1 

Palmistry 

Chirognomy 

Determination of character and latent abilities thru study of 
shape and physical characteristics of hand 

Chiromancy 

Divination thru study of mounts, lines, signs on hands 



.7 


Frauds in occultism 


•8 


Extrasensory perception 


.82 


Telepathy 


.84 


Clairvoyance 


.85 


Clairaudience 


.86 


Precognition 


.9 


Spiritualism 




Communication with discamate spirits 


.901 


Philosophy and theory 


.9013 


Personal survival 


.91 


Mediumship 




Development and practice of mediums, psychic experiences of 



individual mediums 

For a specific phenomenon, see the subject, e.g., levitation 
133.92 



Physical phenomena 

Table-tipping, rapping, levitation, dematerialization, ectoplasm 

Psychic phenomena 

Ouija board messages, automatic writings and utterances 



135 



3 

1.37] 

.4 

.42 
.43 

[136] 



137 



.7 



138 



[134] Hypnotism 



Class in 154.7 

Dreams and the mystic traditions 

Class sleep phenomena [formerly 135] in 154.6 

Dream books 

Daydreams 
Class in 154.3 

Esoteric and cabalistic traditions 

Mysteries of the ancient elements 
Rosicrucian mysteries 

DiflFerential and genetic psychology 

Class in 155 



137-139 Pseudopsychology of character and 
mental capacity 

Personality analysis and improvement 

Class psychology of personahty [formerly 137] in 155.2 
For physiognomy, see 138 

Analytic and divinatory graphology 
Physiognomy 

Determination of character from analysis of features 



139 Phrenology 



Determination of mental capacities from skull structure 



157 



Decimal Classification 



140 



141 



.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 



142 



,3 

.7 



Specific philosophical viewpoints 

Class specific philosophers in 180-190, a specific branch of philosophy 
with the subject 

Idealism and related systems and doctrines 

Including spirituaHsm, panpsychism, subjectivism, voluntarism, 
Platonism, Neoplatonism 

Transcendentalism 
Individualism 
Personalism 
Romanticism 

Critical philosophy 

For critical realism, see 149.2 

Kantianism and neo-Kantianism 
Phenomenalism and phenomenology 

Including existentialism [formerly 111.1] 



143 Intuitionism and Bergsonism 

For mysticism, see 149.3 



144 



3 
.5 
J6 



145 
146 



Humanism and related systems and doctrines 

Pragmatism 

Instrumentalism 

Utilitarianism 

Sensationalism and ideology 

Naturalism and related systems and doctrines 

Including dynamism, energism 

Materialism 

Includinii dialectical materialism 



.4 



Positivism ( Comtism ) 

Inchulin;^ logical positivism 

15^ 



Specific philosophical viewpoints 



146.5 
.6 
.7 

147 



3 

A 



148 



149 



.1 

3 
.5 

.6 
.7 



Atomism 

Mechanism and neomechanism 

Evolutionism 
Pantheism and related systems and doctrines 

Including panentheism, animism, vitalism, paralleUsm, occasionalism 

Monism 

Dualism and pluralism 

Liberalism, eclecticism, syncretism, traditionalism, 
dogmatism 

Other philosophical systems and doctrines 
Nominalism and conceptualism 
Realism, neorealism, critical realism 
Mysticism and anthroposophy 
Optimism and meliorism 
Pessimism 

Rationalism and related systems and doctrines 
Including intellectualism, innatism, nativism 



72 


Agnosticism 


.73 


Skepticism 


.8 


Nihilism and fatalism 




For existentialism, see 142.7 


.9 


Other systems and doctrines 


.94 


Semantics 



159 



II 



r i 



Decimal Classification 



150 Psychology 

This schedule is completely new, prepared with little reference to earlier 
editions and assigning new meanings to many numbers. Such numbers 
are itahcized 

[.13] Applied psychology 

Class in 158 

.19 Systems, schools, viewpoints 

.192 Speculative systems 

Rational, faculty, phenomenological, existential schools 



.1924] 


Gestalt psychology 




Class in 150.198 2 


.193 


FunctionaUsm 


.193 2 


Dynamic psychologies 


.193 3 


Purposive psychologies 


.193 32 


Holistic 


.193 33 


Honnic 


.193 34 


Organismic 


.194 


Reductionisni 


.194 3 


Behaviorism 


.194 32 


Watsonian behaviorism 




Systems of Watson, Spranger, Hunter, Lashley 



.194 34 



.194 4 



Neobehaviorism (Pragmatic reductionism) 
Systems of Guthrie, Hull, Skinner, Tolman 

Reflexology (Associationism) 

Systems of Pavlov, Bekhterev, Thomdike 



.195 


Psychoanalytic systems [formerly 131,34] 


.195 2 


Freudian 


.195 3 


Adlerian 


.195 4 


Jungian 


.195 7 


Neopsychoanalytic 




Systems of Homey, Fromm, Sullivan 




i6o 



. 






Psychology 


150.198 


Other systems 


.198 2 


Gestalt psychology [formerly 150.192 4] 


.198 4 


Field theory 


J2 


Research 




Class experimental psychology [formerly 150.72] in 152 


[151] 


Intelligence and aptitudes 



Class in 153.9 



[.3] Comparative psychology 



Class in 156 



152 



.1 



Physiological [formerly 131] and experimental 
[formerly 150.72] psychology 

SUMMARY 

152.1 Sensory perception 

.3 Movements and motor functions 

.4 Emotions and feelings 

J Motivation (Drives) 

•8 Quantitative psychology 

Sensory perception 

Receptive processes and functions 

Scope: attributes, thresholds, discrimination, tests 

.14 Visual perception 

.142 Spatial perception 

.142 2 Visual acuity 

Discrimination of spatial distribution of dark and light in 
visual field 

.142 3 Pattern perception 

.142 5 Movement perception 

Real and apparent 

.143 Brightness perception 

.145 Color perception 

.148 Other perceptional attributes 

Optical illusions, afterimages 
i6i 



152.15 
.152 
.154 
.157 



.158 
.16 
.166 
.167 
.18 
.182 
.182 2 
.182 3 
.182 4 
.182 8 



.188 
.188 2 
.188 6 



.189 
[•2] 



.32 

.322 
.322 3 
.322 4 



Decimal Classification 



Psychology 



Auditory perception [formerly 152.2] 

Pitch perception 

Volume perception 

Timbre perception 

Tone discrimination, musical psychology 

Localization 
Chemical sensory perception 

Olfactory perception [formerly 152.3] 
Gustatory perception [formerly 152.4] 
Other types of sensory perception 

Cutaneous (Tactile) perception [formerly 152.5] 
Thermal perception 
Pressure perception 
Pain perception 
Derived sensory perception 

Perception of vibration, itch, tickle 

Proprioceptive perceptions [formerly 152.6] 
Orientational perceptions 
Visceral perceptions 

Hunger, thirst, well-being, fatigue 

Synesthesia 
Auditory perception 

Class in 152.15 

Movements and motor functions [formerly 158.3] 

Class olfactory perception [formerly 152.3] in 152.166 



152.32-152.33 Automatic movements [formerly 158.4] 
Involuntary movements 
Reflexes 

Innate reflexes 

Conditioned reflexes 
162 



I 152.324 


Instinctive movements 


I .33 


Habits and habit formation 


I .334 


Motor learning 


I .335 


Handedness and laterality 


■ .35 


Voluntaiy movements [formerly 158.5] 


.38 


Special motor functions formerly 158.8 


.382 


Locomotion 


.384 


Expressive movements 


.384 2 


Vocal expressions 


.384 5 


Graphic expressions 


.385 


Coordination 


A 


Emotions and feelings Iforuierly 157] 




Affective processes and reactions 


1 


Class gustatory perception [formerly 152.4] in 152.167 


L "^^ 


Expression of emotions 


■ .43 


Types of emotions 


■ .432 


Primitive and uncontrolled emotions 


B .434 


Secondary emotions 


.44 


Feeling and feelings 




Including conation and feeling [formerly 158.1] 


.442 


Expression of feeUngs 


.443 


Types of feelings 


.444 


Feeling tone 


.45 


States affected by feelings 


.452 


Sentiments and attitudes 


.454 


Moods and dispositions 



.5 



.52 



Motivation (Drives) Iformerhf 159.4] 

Class cutaneous (tactile) perceptions [formerly 152.5] in 152.182 

Types 

Biological, secondary, social drives 



.58 



Measurements 



163 



Decimal Classification 



[152.6] 



[.7] 



JS2 
J&3 



153 



Proprioceptive perceptions 

Class in 152.188 

Perceptual processes 

Class in 153.7 

Quantitative psychology 

Psychophysical methods 

Class a specific application with the subject 

Threshold and discrimination studies 
Reaction-time studies 

Intelligence, intellectual and conscious mental 
processes 





SUMMARY 


153.1 
.2 


Memory and learning 
Ideation 


.3 
.4 
.7 
.8 
.9 


Imagination and imagery 
Cognition (Knowledge) 
Perceptual processes 
Volition (Will) 
Intelligence and aptitudes 



Memory and learning Iformerly 154] 

Class concepts and concept formation [formerly 153,1] in 153.23 



.12 


Memory processes 


.122 


Retention 


.123 


Recall and reproduction 


.124 


Recognition 


.125 


Forgetting 


.13 


Types of memory 


.132 


Visual 


.133 


Auditory 


.134 


Visual-auditory 


.136 


Other 




164 



Psychology 



153.14 


Mnemonic systems 


.15 


Learning 


.152 


Methods 


.152 2 


Repetition and rote learning 


.152 3 


Imitation 


.152 4 


Trial and error 


.1526 


Association 


.152 8 


Discrimination 


.153 


Factors 


.153 2 


Attention and concentration 


.153 3 


Interest and enthusiasm 


.153 4 


Motivation 


.154 


Transfer of leaiiiing 


.158 


Learning curves 


3 


Ideation 


.22 


Association of ideas 


.23 


Concepts and concept formation [formerly 153.1] 


.24 


Abstraction [formerly 153.3 


.25 


Inspiration 


J 


Imagination and imagery Iformerly 155] 




Class abstraction [formerly 153.3] in 153.24 


.32 


Eidetic imagery 


.35 


Creativity 


•4 


Cogniticm (Knowledge) 



For ideation, see 153.2 



.42 



.422 
.423 



Thought and thinking 
For reasoning, see 153.43 

Reflective thought 
Imageless thought 



16s 



Decimal Classification 



153.43 


Reasoning [formerly 153.6^ 


.432 


Inductive 


.433 


Deductive 


.44 


Intuition [formerly 156 


.45 


Value 


.46 


Judgment [formerly 153.5] 


[•5] 


Judgment 




Class in 153.46 


[.6] 


Reasoning 




Class in 153.43 



.7 



Perceptual processes ^formerly 152.7] 

Perceptual apprehension and understanding 

For sensory perception, see 152.1; extrasensory perception, 
133.8 



.73 


Basic elements 


.733 


Attention 


.734 


Apperception 


.735 


Preperception 


.736 


Subliminal perception 


.74 


Errors ( Normal illusions ) 


.75 


Types of perception 


.752 


Space perception 


.753 


Time and rhythm perception 


.754 


Movement perception 


J 


Volition (Will) iformerly 159.2] 




Class depth psychology [fomierly 153.8] in 154 


.83 


Choice and decision [formerly 159.1] 


.85 


Modification of will 


.852 


Persuasion 


.853 


VIenticide ( Brainwashing ) 


.854 


Conformity 



i66 



Psychology 



153.9 Intelligence and aptitudes Iformerly 151] 

,92 Factors affecting intelligence 

.93 General intelligence tests 

.932 Individual 

.932 3 Verbal 

.932 4 Nonverbal 

.933 Group 

.933 3 Verbal 

.933 4 Nonverbal 

.94 Aptitude tests 

Individual, group, verbal, nonverbal tests for special abilities 
Use 153.940 001 - 153.940 009 for standard subdivisions 
Divide like 001-999, e.g., tests for musical ability 153.947 8 

.98 Superior intelligence 

For exceptional children, see 155.45 

154 Subconscious states and processes 

Depth psychology [formerly 153.8] 

Class memory and learning [formerly 154] in 153.1 

•2 The subconscious 

.22 Elements 

Id, ego, superego 

.24 Activities 

Sublimation, transference, reasoning, conflicts, complexes 

J Secondary consciousness 

Daydreams [formerly 135.37], fantasies, reveries 



.6 


Sleep phenomena {formerly 135] 


.62 


Sleep 


.63 


Dreams 


.632 


Types 


.634 


Analysis 



167 



Decimal Classification 



Psychology 



154.64 Somnambulism 

.7 Hypnotism Iformerly 134] 

,72 Mesmerism and animal magnetism 

.76 Induction of hypnosis 

,77 Hypnotic phenomena 

.772 Trance phenomena 

.774 Posthypnotic phenomena 

.78 Special developments 

155 DiflFerential and genetic psychology \Jormerly 136] 

Class imagination and imagery [formerly 155] in 153.3 



J 



22 
.23 
.232 
.234 



.24 

.25 

.26 

.262 

.264 





SUMMARY 


155.2 


Individual psychology 


.3 


Sex psychology 


.4 


Child psychology 


J 


Adolescents 


A 


Adults and aged 


.7 


Evolutional psychology 


S 


Ethnopsychology and national psychology 


.9 


Psychology of influence, pattern, example 



Individual psychology 

Personality [formerly 137], character, individuality 

Individual differences 
Personality traits and determinants 

Specific traits 

Determinants 

Biological, moral, social, mental determinants 

Adaptability [formerly 159.3] 
Personality development and modification 
Typology 

Classical (Hippocrates' theory of temperaments) 

Modem 

Classification schemes of Jung, James, Stem, Rorschach, 
Kretschmer, Sheldon 

i68 



155.28 


Appraisals and tests 


.282 


Diagnostic graphology 


.283 


Inventories and questionnaires 


.284 


Projective techniques 


.284 2 


Rorschach tests 


.284 3 


Szondi tests 


.284 4 


Thematic apperception tests 


J 


Sex psychology 


.31 


Erogenity and libido 


32 


Sex and personality 


33 


Sex differences 


332 


Masculinity 


.333 


Femininity 


.334 


Bisexuality 


.34 


Sex relations 



.41 

.412 



.413 



.418 



155.4-155.7 Developmental psychology 

For sex psychology, see 155.3 

Child psychology 

Thru age eleven 

Basic behavior patterns 

Motor behavior 

Development of posture, locomotion, coordination 

Adaptive behavior 

Development of intelligence, intellectual and conscious 
mental processes 

Personal-social behavior 

Development of interpersonal relations, responsiveness to 
gestures and speech, self-help habits 



i6q 






Decimal Classification 



Psychology 



AAA 

,445 
.446 

.45 



155.42-155.45 Specific groupings 

Observe the following table of precedence, e.g., preschool 
boys 155.423 

Exceptional children 

By class, type, relationships 

By age groups 

By sex 



155.42 


By age groups 


.422 


Infants 




From birth to age two 


.423 


Preschool children 




. Ages three to five 


.424 


School children 




Ages six to eleven 


.43 


By sex 


.432 


Boys 


.433 


Girls 


.44 


By class, type, relationships 


.442 


The only child 


.443 


Siblings 




Brothers and sisters not of the same birth 



Twins, triplets, quadruplets 

Brothers and sisters of the same birth 

Adopted and foster children 
Institutionalized children 

Exceptional children 

Divide like 371.9, e.g., psychology of gifted children 155.455 



.5 


Adolescents 




Ages twelve to twenty 


.53 


By sex 


.532 


Young men 


.533 


Young women 


JS 


Adults and aged 




155.61-155.64 Adults 


.61 


Mental and creative productivity 


.63 


By sex 




For adults by status, type, relationships, see 155.64 


.632 


Men 


.633 


Women 


M 


By status, type, relationships 


.642 


Single status 


.642 2 


Bachelors 


.642 3 


Spinsters 


.643 


Divorst status 


.643 2 


Men 


.643 3 


Women 


.644 


Widowed status 


.644 2 


Men 


.644 3 


Women 


.645 


Married status 


MS 2 


Men 


.645 3 


Women 


.646 


Parents 



Class divorst parents in 155.643, widowed parents in 
155.644 



170 



.646 2 
.646 3 



Fathers 
Mothers 



171 



Decimal Classiiication 



Psychology 



I 



155.67 
.671 
.672 



.7 






.82 
.84 



.89 



«9 

.91 
.911 



.915 
.916 
.92 



.93 
.935 



.936 



Aged 

Mental and physical impairments 

Adaptability problems 

Psychological aspects of retirement, change in status, 
institutional life 

Evolutional psychology 

Influence of heredity on personal characteristics 

Ethnopsychology and national psychology 

Primitive man 



155.82-155.84 Ethnopsychology 
Race diflEerences 

Specific races 

Divide like 420-490, e.g., psychology of Jews 155.849 24 

National psychology 

Add area notations 3-9 to 155.89 

Psychology of influence, pattern, example 

Physical influences 

Sensory 

Divide like 152.1, e.g., psychology of color 155.911 45 

Climatic 

Deformities, injuries, diseases 

Social influences 

Divide like 158.2, e.g., influences of family members 155.924 

Situational influences 

Catastrophic disasters 

Behavior patterns during earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, 
fires, bombings 



Accidents 



155.94 

.942-.944 



.945 

.95 

.96 
.962 
.963 
.964 



,965 
.966 



156 



A 
.7 



Housing and community influences 
Specific types of communities 

Divide like area notations 173 2-173 4, e.g., urban influences 
155.942 

Housing 

Clothing 

. Spatial and restrictive influences 
Prisons 
Submarine structures 

Subterranean structures 

Behavior patterns in underground shelters, caves, mines, 
tmmels and similar structures 



Aircraft (Aviation psychology) 
Spacecraft (Space psychology) 

Comparative psychology [formerly 151.3] 

Ontogenic and phylogenic studies of behavior mechanisms in loA^er 
organisms 

Class intuition [formerly 156] in 153.44 



156.2-156.7 Animal psychology 
Physiological psychology 

Divide like 152, e.g., reaction-time studies of animals 156.283 

Intelligence and intellectual processes 

Divide hke 153, e.g., learning curves of animals 156.315 8 

Subconscious states and processes 
Abnormal behavior 

Plant behavior 



iy2 



^73 



f 



i 



.6 



.7 



.8 



.9 
.92 



Decimal Classification 



Psychology 



157 Abnormal and clinical psychologies Iboth formerly 

132] 

Class emotions and feelings [formerly 157] in 152.4 



.94 



157.1-157.8 Abnormal psychology 

Study of behavior patterns of psychotic, psychoneurotic, 
mentally deficient individuals 

For exceptional children, see 155.45 



157.1-157.2 Psychoses 

Organic 

Paresis, cerebrovascular disorders, chorea, epilepsy 

Functional 

Divide like 616.895-616.898, e.g., manic-depressive psychoses 
157.25 



157.3-157.7 Psychoneuroses 
Hysteria and related disorders 

Divide like 616.852, e.g., amnesias 157.33 

Speech and language disorders 

Divide like 616.855, e.g., aphasias 157.52 

Psychoneurotic addictions and intoxications 

Divide like 613.8, e.g., alcoholism 157.61 

Disorders of character and personality 

Divide like 616.858 2 - 616.858 4, e.g., homosexuality 157.734 

Mental deficiency 

Divide like 616.858 8, e.g., imbeciles 157.823 

Clinical psychology 

Psychodiagnoses 

Appraising adjustment problems of individuals 



Rehabilitation 



[.2] 



158 Applied psychology [formerly 150.13] 

class specific applications with the subject 

J Successful living 

Class conation and feeling [formerly 158.1] in 152.44 

.2 Interpersonal relations 

.24 With family members 

.25 With friends and neighbors 

.26 With work associates 

.27 With strangers 

J Interviewing 

Class movements and motor functions [formerly 158.3] in 152.3 

.4 Leadership 

Class automatic movements [formerly 158.4] in 152.32-152.33 

.5 Cooperation 

Class voluntary movements [formerly 158.5] in 152.35 

,6 Vocational interests 

.7 Industrial psychology 

[.8] Special motor functions 

Class in 152.38 

159 Other aspects 

[.1] Choice and decision 



[.4] 



Class in 153.83 

Volition (Will) 
Class in 153.8 



[.3] Adaptability 



Class in 155.24 

Motivation (Drives) 

Class in 152.5 



^74 



^75 



Decimal Classification 



160 Logic 

Science of reasoning processes 

161 Induction 

For hypothesis, see 167; analogy, 169 

162 Deduction 

For syllogism, see 166 

163 

1 64 Symbolic and mathematical logic 



It 



165 



166 
167 
168 
169 



165-169 Specific topics 
Fallacies and sources of error 

Contradiction, paradox, fictions 

Syllogism 

Hypothesis 

Argument and persuasion 

Analogy 



iy6 



Ethics ( Moral philosophy) 



170 Ethics (Moral philosophy) 

.202 Practical ethics ( Conduct of life ) 





170.202 2 - 170.202 4 For specific classes 


.202 2 


Specific age groups 


.202 22 


Children 


.202 23 


Young adults (Adolescents) 


.202 232 


Men 


.202 233 


Women 


.202 26 


Aged 


.202 4 


Groups by sex 




For practical ethics for specific age groups, see 170.202 2 


.202 42 


Male 


.202 44 


Female 



171 



.1 



•4 



Systems and doctrines 

Based on authority 

Class morals and duties in comparative religion in 291.5; in a 
specific religion with the reUgion, e.g.. Christian moral theology 
241 

Based on intuition and moral sense 

For systems and doctrines based on conscience, see 171.6 

Perfectionism 

Systems and doctrines based on self-realization, fulfihnent of 
personahty 

Hedonism 

Systems and doctrines based on achievement of individual pleasure 
or happiness 

Utilitarianism 

Systems and doctrines based on achievement of the greatest 
happiness of the greatest number 

Based on conscience 

Including casuistry, conflict of duties 

177 



Decimal Classification 



171.7 
.8 



.9 



172 



.1 



.2 



.4 



174 



Based on evolution and education 

Based on altruism 

For utilitarianism, see 171.5 

Based on egoism 

For hedonism, see 171.4 



172-179 Applied ethics 

Inherent Tightness and wrongness of specific human qualities, 
relationships, activities 

Class comprehensive works on practical ethics in 170.202 

Ethics of political relationships 

Citizenship 

Duties of citizens to community, state, nation with respect to 
defense, obedience to law, payment of taxes, civic and poUtical 
activity, revolution, civil war 

Public oflBce 

Duties of officials with respect to public administration and 
welfare, security, justice, education, freedom of citizens 

International relations 

Foreign policies, war and peace, disarmament, espionage 



173 Ethics of family relationships 



Marriage, separation, divorce, responsibilities of parents for children 
and home life, of children to parents 

Professional and occupational ethics [formerly 
standard subdivision 069] 

If preferred, class in standard subdivision 017 



.1 


Of clergy 


.2 


Of medical professions 


.22 


Hippocratic oath 


.24 


Euthanasia 


.26 


Economic questions 




Medical advertising, fee splitting 




178 



Ethics (Moral philosophy ) 



174.3 Of legal professions 

A Of trade, manufacture, finance ( Business ethics ) 

.6 Of gambling business and lottery management 

Class ethics of games of chance in 175.5. of betting in 175.9 

,9 Of other professions and occupations 

Including military ethics [formerly 355.13], ethics of musicians 

[formerly 780.071] 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., ethics of librarianship 174.902 

1 7 5 Ethics of recreation 

Scope: sportsmanship, fair play 
.1 Of radio, television, motion pictures, circuses 

J2 Of theater, opera, musical performances 

•3 Of dancing 

,4 Of games of skill 

For ethics of card games, see 175.5 

^ Of games of chance 

Including card games, dice games, roulette 

JS Of human and animal combat 

Boxing, wrestling, bullfights, cockfights 

,7 Of racing 

Man, animals, vehicles 

J^ Of recreational reading 

For ethics of obscenity in literature, see 176.8 

.83 Reading comics 

.9 Of betting 

For ethics of games of chance, see 175.5 

U9 



Decimal Classification 



Ethics ( Moral philosophy ) 



176 Sexual ethics 

Including chastity, celibacy, continence, adultery, artificial 
insemination 

.5 Of prostitution 

.7 Of obscenity in art 

.8 Of obscenity in literature 

177 Ethics of social relations 

.1 Of courtesy, politeness, hospitality 

Class etiquette in 395 

2 Of conversation, gossip, scandal 

.3 Of slander, flattery, truthfulness, lying 

.4 Of personal appearance 

Exposure of person, display of dress 

.5 Of slavery, discriminatory practices 

.6 Of friendship and courtship 

For sexual ethics, see 176 

.7 Of philanthropy, benevolence, kindness 

Including liberality, charity [both formerly also 179.9] 

178 Ethics of temperance and intemperance 
.1 In use of alcoholic beverages 

Abstinence, moderate or social drinking, heavy drinking 



.5] 


Prohibition 




Class in 340 


.7 


In use of tobacco 


Ji 


In use of narcotics 


Ji 


In other forms 




Gluttony, greediness 



1 79 Other applications of ethics 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of cruelty 



2 

.36 
.4 
.5 
A 

.7 



.9 



179.2-179.3 Cruelty 

Class standard subdivisions in 179.01-179.09 

To children 

To animals 

For vivisection, see 179.4 

Birds 
Vivisection 

Profanity, blasphemy, obscenity in speech 
Courage and cowardice 

Respect for hiunan life 

Genocide, homicide, suicide, capital punishment, dueling 

For ethics of war, see 172.4; of civU war, 172.1; of euthanasia, 
174.24 

Vices, faults, failings 

Not otherwise provided for 

Pride, covetousness, envy, anger, sloth, jealousy, avarice, hatred, 

cheating 

Virtues 

Not otherwise provided for 

HumiHty, gentleness, patience, diligence, self-reliance, self-control, 

toleration, honesty, modesty, prudence, cheerfulness, gratitude 

Class liberality, charity [both formerly 179.9] in 177.7 



i8o 



i8i 



Decimal Classification 



Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy 



^ 180-190 Historical and geographical 

treatment of philosophy 

Scope: development, description, critical appraisal, collected 
writings, biographical treatment of individual philosophers re- 
gardless of viewpoint 
Class historical treatment not limited by period or place in 109 

180 Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy 

Use 180.01-180.09 for standard subdivisions 
.1-9 Standard subdivisions of ancient philosophy 

181 Oriental 

Not limited by period 

Use 181.001-181.009 for standard subdivisions 



.04-.09 



Based on specific religions 

Divide like 294-299, e.g., Buddhist philosophy 181.043 

Class Hindu-Brahmanical philosophy in 181.41-181.48, 
Judaistic philosophy in 181.3, Christian philosophy in 189-199 



181. 1-181 ,9 Of specific places 

Divide geographically as belovi^; but, if it is desired to give local 
emphasis and a shorter number to philosophy of a specific 
country, place it first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., 
philosophy of Lebanon 181.L (preceding 181.1) 



.1 


Far East and South Asia 




For philosophy of India, see 181.4 


.11 


China and Korea 


.12 


Japan 


.15 


Pakistan 


.16 


Indonesia 


.17 


Philippines 


.19 


Southeast Asia 



Divide like area notation 59, e.g., philosophy of Thailand 
181.193 

182 



181.2 



.4 



.41 

.42 

.43 

.44 

.45 

.452 

.48 

.482 

.483 

.484 

.4841 

.484 2 

.484 3 

.484 4 

.49 

.5 

.6 



.9 



Egypt 

Palestine, Judea, Israel 

Class here Judaistic philosophy 

India 

Class philosophy of Pakistan in 181.15 



181.41-181.48 Hindu-Brahmanical 
Sankhya 

Mimamsa 

Nyaya 

Vaisheshika 

Yoga 

Patanjali 
Vedanta 

Sankaracharya (Advaita) 

Ramanujacharya (Visistadvaita) 

Dualistic school 

Madhvacharya (Dvaita) 

Bhedabheda 

Nimbarka (Dvaitadvaita) 

Vallabhacharya (Suddhadvaita) 

Other 
Persia and Iran 

Mesopotamia 

Philosophy of Assyria, Babylonia, Chaldea 

Phoenicia 

Other 

Divide like area notation 39, e.g., philosophy of Arabia 181.947 

183 



Decimal Classification 







► 


182-188 Ancient Western 


^ 


182-185 Greek 




Class comprehensive works in 182 




For Skeptic and Neoplatonic philosophy, see 186 


182 


Pre-Socratic 


.1 


Ionic 


.2 


Pythagorean 


^ 


Eleatic 


.4 


Heraclitean 


.5 


Empedoclean 


.7 


Democritean 


.8 


Anaxagorean 


183 


Sophistic, Socratic and related philosophies 


.1 


Sophistic 


.2 


Socratic 


.4 


Cynic 


.5 


Cyrenaic 


.6 


Megaric 


.7 


Elian and Eretrian 


184 


Platonic 


185 


Aristotelian 


186 


Skeptic and Neoplatonic 


.1 


Pyrrhonic 


^ 


New Academy 


.3 


Eclectic 


.4 


Neoplatonic and Alexandrian 


^ 


187-188 Roman 




For Skeptic and Neoplatonic philosophy, see 186 


187 


Epicurean 


188 


Stoic 

184 



189 



Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy 



Medieval Western 

Scope: early Christian philosophy 



.2 


Patristic 


.4 


Scholastic 


.5 


Mystic 



190 Modern Western philosophy 

Scope: Christian philosophy 

Class here comprehensive works on modern philosophy, on Western 

philosophy 

Divide geographically as below; but, if it is desired to give local 

emphasis and a shorter number to phUosophy of a specific country, place 

it first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., philosophy of Mexico 19M 

(preceding 191) 

For ancient, medieval. Oriental philosophy, see 180 



191 


United States and Canada 


192 


British Isles 


193 


Germany and Austria 


194 


France 


195 


Italy 


196 


Spain and Portugal 


.1 


Spain 


S 


Portugal 


197 


Russia and Finland 


.1 


Finland 


a 


Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia 


198 


Scandinavia 


.1 


Norway 


J 


Sweden 


^ 


Denmark 


199 


Other 




Add area notations 4-9 to 199 




185 



200 



i 



200 Religion 



.1 

.19 

.2-.3 

.4 

.5-.9 



201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 



.1 
.11 



.12 



Class comparative religion in 291 
Philosophy and theory 
Psychological aspects 

Including religious emotions [formerly 291.12] 

Miscellany, dictionaries, encyclopedias 
Religious mythology 
Other standard subdivisions 



201-209 Standard subdivisions of Christian 
religion 

Philosophy and theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 

Serial publications 
Organizations 
Study and teaching 

Class religious training and instruction in Sunday schools, church 
schools, vacation Bible schools in 268 

Schools and courses 

Colleges and universities 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Roman Catholic seminaries 207.112 

For colleges and universities in specific places, see 
207.4-207.9 

Secondary schools 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Adventist training schools 207.126 7 
For secondary schools in specific places, see 207.4-207.9 
i86 



ZOl^i 



.4-.9 



208 
209 



Religion 

Research, museums, collecting, review, use of equipment, 

competitions 

Divide Uke standard subdivisions 072-079, e.g., museums and 
exhibits on Christian rehgion 207.34 

Schools in specific places 

Colleges, universities, secondary schools 

Scope; specific schools 

Add area notations 4-9 to 207 

Collections and anthologies 
Historical and geographical treatment 

Class historical and geographical treatment of Christian church in 
270 



-^ 



210 



211 



3 
.4 
Ji 
.6 
.7 
.8 



212 



,2 
.3 
.4 
.5 



Natural religion 

Religious belief attained thru observation and interpretation of evidence 
in nature, speculation, reasoning 

Knowledge of God 
Theism 
Rationalism (Free thought) 

Deism 

Humanism, secularism, humanitarianism 

Agnosticism and skepticism 

Atheism 

Nature of God 
Polytheism 
Dualism 
Monotheism 

Pantheism 

Including theosophy 



.8 



Anthropomorphism 



187 



Decimal Classification 



Bible 



213 



.5 



214 



.8 



215 



Creation 

By fiat, by evolutionary growth and change 

OfUfe 

Including man 

Theodicy 

Vindication of God's justice and goodness in permitting existence of 
evil and suflFering 

Providence 
Science and religion 

Antagonism and reconciliation 
For creation, see 213 



•1 


Mathematics 


.2 


Astronomy 


.24 


Life on other worlds 


.25 


Man in space 


.3 


Physics 


.4 


Chemistry 


.5 


Geology 


.6 


Paleontology 


.7 


Anthropological and biological sciences 


.72 


Anthropology and ethnology 


.74 


Biology and natural history 


.8 


Archeology 


.9 


Medical science 


216 


Good and evil 




For theodicy, see 214 


217 


Worship and prayer 


218 


Immortality and eternity 


219 


Analogy 



Religious belief based on correspondences 

i88 



^ 220-280 Christian reHgion 

220 Bible 

For Biblical theology, see 230 



.01 

.013 

.02-.09 



.1 

.12 

.13 

.14 

.15 

.2 

3 



.4 



Philosophy and theory 
Value [formerly 220.6] 

Other standard subdivisions 

Class concordances in 220.2, dictionaries and encyclopedias in 
220.3 



220.1 

.4 

JS 
.7 
A 
.9 



220.1-220.9 General principles 

SUMMARY 

Origins and authenticity 

Concordances and indexes 

Dictionaries and encyclopedias 

Original texts and early versions 

Modem versions 

Criticism and interpretation 

Commentaries 

Special subjects treated in Bible 

Geography, history, chronology of Bible lands in 

Bible times 



Origins and authenticity 
Canon 

Bible as Holy Scripture 

Inspiration 

Authorship 

Prophetic message 
Concordances and indexes 
Dictionaries and encyclopedias 



220.4-220.5 Texts and versions 

Scope: textual criticism 

For commentaries with text, see 220.77 

Original texts and early versions 

Codices and translations into modern languages 

189 



Decimal Classification 



Bible 



220.42 
.43 
.44 



.45 
.46 



.47 



.48 



.49 



.5 



Chaldee 
Syriac 

Hebrew 

For translations of Hebrew texts into modern languages, see 
220.5 

Samaritan 
Other Semitic 

Including Ethiopic, Arabic 

Latin 

Including Itala, Vulgate 

Class translations of Vulgate text into modem languages 
[formerly 220.47] in 220.5 

Greek 

Including Septuagint 

For translations of Greek texts into modern languages, see 
220.5 

Other early versions 

Including Armenian, Coptic, Gothic 

Modem versions 

Translations into modem languages from Vulgate [formerly dso 
220.47], Hebrew, Greek texts 



.51 


Polyglot 


.52 


In English 


.5201 


Early before 1582 


.520 2 


Douay 


.520 3 


Authorized (King James) 


.520 4 


Revised 



English revised, American revised, revised standard, 
American standard 

.520 5 Confraternity 

.53-. 59 In other languages 

Divide like 430-490, e.g., German-language versions 220.53 

190 



220.6 



.61 
.63 

.64 
.65 
.66 
.67 
.68 

.7 

J7 
.8 



[.88] 

.9 

.91 

.92 

.93 
.95 



.950 5 



Interpretation and higher criticism 

Class value of Bible [formerly 220.6] in 220.013 
For commentaries, see 220.7 

Isagogics 
Hermeneutics 

Science of interpretation 

Symbolism and typology 

Harmony 

Exegesis ( Higher criticism ) 

Historical criticism 

Mythological, allegorical, numerical, astronomical 

interpretations 

Commentaries 

Criticism and interpretation arranged in textual order 

With text 
Special subjects treated in Bible 

Use 220.800 01 - 220.800 09 for standard subdivisions 
Divide like 001-999, e.g., natural science in Bible 220.85 

Bible as literature 
Class in 809.935 22 

Geography, history, chronology of Bible lands in Bible 
times 

Geography (Description and civihzation) 

Collective biography 
Archeology (Material remains) 

History of events 

Use 220.950 01 - 220.950 09 for standard subdivisions 

Bible stories retold 



^9^ 






Decimal Classification 



Bible 



1 



221 



.l-,8 

.9 

.91 
.92 



.93 
.95 

.950 5 



221-229 Specific parts of Bible 
Old Testament 

For specific parts of Old Testament, see 222-224 

General principles 

Divide like 220.1-220.8, e.g., exegesis 221.66 

Geography, history, chronology of Old Testament lands in 
Old Testament times 

Geography (Description and civilization) 

Biography 

Divide like standard subdivision 092, e.g., individual biography 
221.924 

Archeology ( Material remains ) 

History of events 

Use 221.950 01 - 221.950 09 for standard subdivisions 

Old Testament stories retold 



222 



.1 

.11 

.12 

.13 



222-224 Specific parts of Old Testament 

Use 001-009 for standard subdivisions under each subdivision 
identified by * 

Add to each subdivision identified by * and divide as follows: 

1-8 General principles 

Divide like 220.1-220.8, e.g., exegesis 66 
9 Geography, history, chronology 

Divide like 221.9, e.g., biography 92 

*Historical books 
*Pentateuch (Torah) 

* Genesis 

*Exodus 

For Ten Commandments, see 222.16 

•Leviticus 



Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 222-224 

1Q2 



222.14 
.15 



.9 



♦Numbers 

* Deuteronomy 

For Ten Commandments, see 222.16 



.16 


•Ten Commandments (Decalog) 


2 


♦Joshua ( Josue ) 


.3 


*Judges 


.35 


*Ruth 


.4 


*Sauiuel 


.43 


* Samuel 1 




Also called Kings 1 


.44 


*Samuel 2 




Also called Kings 2 


.5 


♦Kings 


.53 


♦Kings 1 




Also called Kings 3 


.54 


•Kings 2 




Also called Kings 4 


.6 


♦Chronicles (Paraliponiena) 


.63 


•Chronicles 1 ( Paraliponienon 1) 


.64 


•Chronicles 2 (Paraliponienon 2) 


.7 


♦Ezra ( Esdras 1 ) 


.8 


♦Nehemiah (Esdras 2, Nehemias) 


.86 


♦Tobit ( Tobias ) 




( Optional; prefer 229.2 ) 


.88 


♦Judith 




(Optional; prefer 229.24) 



♦Esther 

(Optional: deuterocanonical part of Esther; prefer 229.27) 



* Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 222-224 

^93 



Decimal Classification 



Bible 



223 



.1 
.2 



*Poetic books 
*Job 



^Psalms 

Including authorship and chronology [both formerly 223.3], 
special groups [formerly 223 A], metrical versions [formerly 
223.5], commentaries [formerly 223.6] 

[.3] Authorship and chronology of Psalms 

Class in 223.2 

[.4] Special groups of Psalms 

Class in 223.2 

[.5] Metrical versions and liturgical use of Psalms 

Class metrical versions in 223.2, liturgical use in 264 

[.6] Commentaries on Psalms 

Class in 223.2 

,7 *Proverbs 

Ji *Ecclesiastes 

S *Song of Solomon ( Canticle of Canticles ) 

.96 *Wisdom of Solomon ( Wisdom ) 

( Optional; prefer 229.3 ) 

.98 *Ecclesiasticus ( Sirach ) 

(Optional; prefer 229,4) 

*Prophetic books 
.1 *Isaiah (Isaias) 

J2 * Jeremiah ( Jeremias ) 

.3 *Lamentations 

.37 *Baruch 

( Optional; prefer 229.5 ) 

.4 *Ezekiel (Ezechiel) 

• Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 222-224 

^94 



224 



224.5 



* 



Daniel 



(Optional: Song of the three children, prefer 229.5; Susanna, Bel 
and the dragon, prefer 229.6) 



.6 


*Hosea (Osee) 


.7 


*Joel 


.8 


*Amos 


.9 


*Minor prophets 




For Rosea, see 224.6; Joel, 224.7; Amos, 224.8 


.91 


•Obadiah ( Abdias ) 


.92 


♦Jonah ( Jonas ) 


.93 


*Micah (Micheas) 


.94 


*Nahum 


.95 


•Habakkuk (Habacuc) 


.96 


•Zephaniah (Sophonias) 


.97 


•Haggai ( Aggeus ) 


.98 


*Zechariah (Zacharias) 


.99 


* M alachi ( M alachias ) 


.997 


•Maccabees 1 and 2 (Machabees 1 and 2) 




(Optional; prefer 229.73) 



225 New Testament 

For specific parts of New Testament, see 226-228 

.1-.8 General principles 

Divide like 220.1-220.8, e.g., canon 225.12 

.9 Geography, history, chronology of New Testament lands in 

New Testament times 

.9 1 Geography ( Description and civilization ) 

.92 Biography 

Divide like standard subdivision 092, e.g., individual biography 
225.924 

For life of Jesus, see 232.901 

* Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 222-224 

^9S 



H 



Decimal Classification 



Bible 



225.93 
.95 



.950 5 



Archeology (Material remains) 

History of events 

Use 225.950 01-225.950 09 for standard subdivisions 

New Testament stories retold 



226-228 Specific parts of New Testament 

Use 001-009 for standard subdivisions under each subdivision 
identified by * 

Add to each subdivision identified by * and divide as in- 
structed under 222-224 



226 *Gospels and Acts 

.1 Harmonies of the Gospels 



227 



226.2-226.5 Specific Gospels 

For miracles, see 226.7; parables, 226.8 



J2 


*Matthew 




For Lord's Prayer, see 226.9 


Ji 


*Mark 


A 


*Luke 


J 


*John 


J6 


*Acts of Apostles 


.7 


*Miracles 


A 


*Parables 


.9 


*Lord's Prayer 


r 


*Epistles 


.1 


*Romans 


^ 


*Corinthians 1 


^ 


♦Corinthians 2 


.4 


*Galatians 


J 


*Ephesians 



227.6 


*PhiIippians 


.7 


*Colossians 


.8 


*Other Pauline epistles 


.81 


•Thessalonians 1 


.82 


•Thessalonians 2 


.83 


•Timothy 1 


.84 


•Timothy 2 


.85 


•Titus 


.86 


•Philemon 


.87 


•Hebrews 


.9 


*Catholic epistles 


.91 


•James 


.92 


•Peter 1 


.93 


•Peter 2 


.94 


•John 1 


.95 


•John 2 


.96 


•John 3 


.97 


•Jude 


228 


*Revelation ( Apocalypse ) 


229 


Apocrypha, pseudepigrat 



* Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 222-224 

196 



Use 229.001-229.009 for standard subdivisions 

.01-.08 General principles 

Divide like 220.1-220.8, e.g., commentaries 229.07 

.09 Geography, history, chronology of lands of Apocrypha in 

times of Apocrypha 
.091 Geography (Description and civilization) 

.092 Biography 

Divide like standard subdivision 092, e.g., individual 
biography 229.092 4 

* Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 222-224 

^97 



Decimal Classification 



229.093 
.095 



.095 05 



.1 



.2 



.24 



.27 



.3 



.4 



.5 



.6 



Archeology ( Material remains) 

History of events 

Use 229.095 001 - 229.095 009 for standard subdivisions 

Stories of Apocrypha retold 



229.1-229.9 Specific books 

Use 001-009 for standard subdivisions under each subdivision 
identified by * 

Add to each subdivision identified by * and divide as 
instructed under 222-224 

*Esdras 1 and 2 

Also called Esdras 3 and 4 

*Tobit (Tobias) 

If preferred, class in 222.86 

*Judith 

If preferred, class in 222.88 

♦Esther 

If preferred, class in 222.9 

*Wisdom of Solomon (Wisdom) 

If preferred, class in 223.96 

*Ecclesiasticus ( Sirach ) 

If preferred, class in 223.98 

♦Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Song of three children 

If preferred, class Baruch in 224.37, Song of the three children in 
224.5 

*Susanna, Bel and the dragon. Prayer of Manasses 

If preferred, class Susanna, Bel and the dragon in 224.5 



* Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 222-224 



198 



Bible 



229.7 


♦Maccabees (Machabees) 


.73 


♦Maccabees 1 and 2 (Machabees 1 and 2) 




If preferred, class in 224.997 


.75 


•Maccabees 3 and 4 ( Machabees 3 and 4 ) 


.8 


*Pseudo gospels 


.9 


♦Other pseudepigrapha 


.91 


*01d Testament 


.911 


♦Historical books 


.912 


*Poetic books 




Including Odes of Solomon 



.913 



.914 



.915 



•Prophetic books 

Including Jewish apocalypses, Book of Enoch, Assumption 
of Moses, Vision of Isaiah, Apocalypse of Elias or Elijah 

•Testaments 

Including Testament of the twelve patriarchs 
•Other books by or about the prophets 



229.92-229.95 New Testament 

Class pseudo gospels in 229.8 



.92 


•Acts of Apostles 


.93 


•Epistles 


.94 


•Apocalypses 


.95 


•Other 



* Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 222-224 



^99 



Decimal Classification 



Doctrinal theology {Dogma) 









1 



► 230-270 Specific elements of Christian 

religion 

If preferred, class specific elements of specific denominations 
and sects in 280 

230 Doctrinal theology (Dogma) 

Scope: Biblical theology 

Use 230.01-230.09 for standard subdivisions 



1-.9 



231 



JZ 

.3 
.4 

.5 
.6 

.7 

.73 



Doctrines of specific denominations and sects 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Methodist doctrines 230.7 

(Optional: specific doctrines of specific denominations and sects; 
prefer 231-236. If option is chosen, add to number resulting 
from division like 281-289 and divide further like 231-236, e.g., 
Methodist doctrines on salvation 230.704) 



231-236 Specific doctrines 

Scope: specific doctrines of specific denominations and sects; if 
preferred, class in 230.1-230.9 

Class doctrines on church government, organization, nature in 
262 

God, Trinity, Godhead 

God the Father, Creator 
God the Son, Redeemer 

For Jesus Christ, see 232 

God the Holy Ghost (Holy Spirit), Giver of Life, Sanctifier 

Attributes 

Omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence 

Providence 
Love and wisdom 

Divine law 

Including Kingdom of God, sovereignty of God 

Miracles 

Miraculous places, events, objects, cures 
Including stigmata 

200 



231.74 



232 



.12 

.4 
•5 

.7 
A 

.9 



Revelation 

Vision and appearing of God, disclosure to men of divine 
piurpose and superhuman knowledge 

Theodicy 

Vindication of God's justice and goodness in permitting existence 
of evil and suffering 

For Providence, see 231.5 

Jesus Christ and his family 

Including person and ofiBces, royal office, priesthood, intercession of 
Jesus Ghrist 



232.1-232.8 Christology 

For doctrines on life of Jesus, see 232.9 

Incarnation and messiahship 

Including typology 

Messianic prophecies 
Logos (Word of God) 
Atonement 
Sacrifice 
Resurrection 
Second coming 
Judgment 
Natures (Divinity and humanity) 

Doctrines on family and life of Jesus 

Use 232.900 01 - 232.900 09 for standard subdivisions 



.900 1-.900 9 
.901 



.903 
.904 
.908 



Standard subdivisions of life of Jesus 

Life of Jesus 

Class specific events in 232.92, 232.95-232.97 

Character and personality of Jesus 
Influence of Jesus 
Historicity of Jesus 

201 



Decimal Classification 



Doctrinal theology (Dogma) 



I 1 






i 



I 



i 



^ 



t 





SUMMARY 




232.91 Mary, mother of Jesus ( Mariology ) 
,92 Infancy of Jesus 
.93 Mary's husband and parents 
.94 John the Baptist 
.95 Public life of Jesus 
.96 Passion and death of Jesus 
.97 Resurrection, appearances, ascension of Jesus 

.98 Agrapha 


232.91 


Mary, mother of Jesus (Mariology) [formerly 232.931] 


.911 


Immaculate Conception 


.912 


Annunciation 


.913 


Virginity 


.914 


Assumption (Ascent to heaven) 


.915 


Sanctity and virtues 


.916 


Spiritual powers 


.92 


Infancy of Jesus 




Including Holy Family [formerly 232.93] 


.921 


Nativity 


.922 


Adoration of the shepherds 


.923 


Three wise men ( Magi ) 


.924 


Circumcision 


.925 


Massacre of innocents 


.926 


FHght into Egypt 


.927 


Childhood in Nazareth 


.928 


Presentation in temple 


.929 


Jesus among doctors in temple 


.93 


Mary's husband and parents 



[.931] 



[.931 7] 



Class Holy Family [formerly 232.93] in 232.92 

Mary, mother of Jesus ( Mariology) 
Class in 232.91 

Sanctuaries and shrines 

Class in 246.9 ■ 
202 



[232.931 8] 



.932 



.933 



.94 
.95 

.954 
.956 
.957 
.958 



Veneration, prayers, hymns 

Class veneration in 248, prayers in 242.74, hymns in 245 

Joseph 

Class veneration in 248, sanctuaries and shrines in 246.9 [all 
formerly 232.932] 

Joachim and Anne 

Class veneration in 248, sanctuaries and shrines in 246.9 [all 
formerly 232.933] 

John the Baptist 

Public Hfe of Jesus 

Including baptism, temptation, calling of apostles 

Teachings 

Transfiguration 

Last Supper 

Last words to disciples 

Class seven last words on cross [formerly 232.958] in 
232.963 5 



.96 


Passion and death of Jesus 


.961 


Betrayal by Judas 


.962 


Trial and condemnation 


.963 


Crucifixion and death 


.963 5 


Seven last words on cross [formerly 232.958; 


.964 


Burial 


,966 


Relics of Passion 


.967 


Descent into hell 


.97 


Resurrection, appearances, ascension of Jesus 


.98 


Aurapha 



Jesus's words not appearing in canonical Gospels 



203 



ft' 



>■■ 



233 



.1 

.11 
.14 

a 



.21 
.22 



*4 
.7 



.1 



.16 



Decimal Classification 



Doctrinal theology ( Dogma ) 



Man 



Including moral and spiritual heredity, personality, natural and 
spiritual body 

For future state of man, see 236.2; intermediate state, 236.4 

Creation and fall 

Creation of man 

Original sin and fall of man 

Sin 

For original sin, see 233.14 

Mortal and venial sin 

Sins against the Holy Ghost 

Class specific mortal and venial sins in 233.21 

Accountability 

The soul 

Freedom of choice between good and evil 



234 Salvation ( Soteriology ) 



Grace 



Including actual and sanctifying grace, merit, innate virtues, gifts 
of the Holy Ghost, righteousness, holiness, universal priesthood 

Sacraments 

Divide like 265.1-265.7, e.g., baptism 234.161 



.2 


Faith 


.3 


Redemption 


.4 


Regeneration 


.5 


Repentance 


,6 


Obedience 


.7 


Justification 


.8 


Sanctification 


.9 


Predestination and free will 




204 



235 



.2 



.24 



236 



.6 



.7 



Invisible world 

Saints 

Class veneration in 248, sanctuaries and shrines in 246.9 [all 
formerly 235.2] 

For Marys husband and parents, see 232.93; John the Baptist, 

232.94 

Canonization and beatification 





235.3-235.4 Spirits 


.3 


Angels 


.4 


Devils and demons 


A7 


Satan 


\ 


Eschatology 


.1 


Death 


^ 


Future state of man (Life after death) [formerly 237] 




Eternal reward and punishment 


21 


Eternity 


,22 


Immortality 


.23 


Annihilationism (Conditional iiiiaiortality) 


.24 


Heaven 


.25 


Hell 


a 


Millenmiua 


A 


Intermediate state of man 



Probation after death 

For purgatory, see 236.5; limbo, 236.6-236.7 

Purgatory 



236,6-236.7 Limbo 

Limbo of fathers (Limbus patrum) 

Abode of souls of the just who died before coming of Jesus Christ 

Limbo of infants (Limbus infantum) 

Abode of souls of the unbaptized but just 

205 



r 



Decimal Classification 



Doctrinal theology ( Dogma ) 









236.8 
.9 

[237] 
238 



.1 

.11 

.14 



.142 
.144 
.19 



•2 



Ressurection of the dead 
Last judgment 

Future state of man ( Life after death ) 

Class in 2362 

Creeds, confessions of faith, covenants, catechisms 

Class a specific doctrine with the subject 

Early 

Apostles' Creed 

Nicene and post-Nicene creeds of Western Church 
Including ConstantinopoUtan Creed 

Nicene Creed 
Athanasian Creed 
Creeds and confessions of Eastern Church 

Confession of Gennadius II, Answers of Jeremiah II, Confession 
of Metrophanes, Orthodox Confession of Peter Mogila, 
Confession of Dositheus 

Later Roman Catholic 

Including Creed of Pius IV 



.3-.9 Other 

Divide like 283-289, e.g., Augsburg Confession 238.41 



239 



.1 



Apologetics and polemics 

Exposition of Christian doctrines refuting alleged errors in other 

systems 

Use 239.001-239.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class apologetics and polemics on a specific doctrine with the subject 

In apostolic times 

For polemics against doctrines of specific groups in apostolic times, 
see 239.2-239.4 



239.2 
.3 
.4 



.5 
.6 
.7 
.8 



.9 



239.2-239.4 Against doctrines of specific groups in 
apostolic times 

Jews 

Pagans and heathens 
Neoplatonists 



239.5-239.9 Against doctrines of specific groups in 
post-apostolic times 

Class comprehensive post-apostolic defenses of and attacks on 
doctrines of a specific denomination or sect in 230.1-230.9; of a 
specific religion with the religion, e.g., doctrines of Judaism 
296.3 

Deists 

Encyclopedists 

Rationalists and agnostics 

Scientists and materialists 

For communists, see 239.9 

Communists and other denials 



206 



207 



Decimal Classification 



240 


Moral and devotional theology 




241 


Moral theology 

For conduct of Christian life, see 248.4 




.1 


Conscience 




a 


Laws 

Natural, human, divine 

For codes of conduct, see 241.5 




Ji 


Sins and vices 




A 


Virtues 




.5 


Codes of conduct 




^ 


241.52-241.54 Biblical precepts 




.52 


Ten Commandments 




.54 


Golden Rule 





.57 



Precepts of church 



242 



.1 



242-245 Devotional texts 

For texts used in public worship, see 264 

Prayers [^formerly 248.37]5 meditations, 
contemplations 

Class value of contemplation in 248.3, devotional sermons in 252 
[both formerly 242] 

Classics of meditation and contemplation 

Including Imitatio Christi of Thomas a Kempis 



.3 

.33 



242.2-242.4 Prayers, meditations, contemplations for 
specific times and occasions 

Daily 

For religious occasions 

Advent and Christmas 

Sio8 



Moral and devotional theology 



242.34 

.35 

.36 

.37 

.4 

.6 



.7 

.72 

.722 

.74 

.742 

.75 

76 

A 



Lent 

For Holy Week, see 242.35 

Holy Week 

Easter 

Other feast and fast days 
For consolation in times of illness, troubles, bereavement 
Meditations and contemplations for specific classes of 
persons 

Divide like 248.8, e.g., meditations for young women 242.633 

Class meditations and contemplations for specific times and 

occasions in 242.2-242.4 



242.7-242.8 Prayers 

Class prayers for specific times and occasions in 242.2-242.4 

Specific prayers and groups of prayers 

To God the Father, the Son, the Holy Ghost 

Lord's Prayer 
To Mary [formerly 232.931 8] 

Rosary 
To Joseph, Joachim, Anne 
To other saints 
Collections of prayers 

For specific groups of prayers, see 242.7 



.801-.809 



.82-.89 



By specific denominations and sects 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., collections of private prayers for 
Methodists 242.807 

For specific classes of persons 

Divide like 248.82-248.89, e.g., collections of private prayers 
for young women 242.833 



243 



Evangelistic writings 

Works designed to convert readers, promote repentance 
Class evangelistic sermons [formerly 243] in 252 

209 



Decimal Classification 



Moral and devotional theology 






244 




247.6 


Insignias of rank 


245 


Hymns 


.7 


Vestments and altar cloths 




Without music 

Including hymns to Mary formerly 232.931 8] 

Divide like 420-490, e.g., hymns in English 2452 


.8 


Eucharistic vessels 

ChRlice, ciborium, monstrance, paten, pyx 




For metrical versions of Psalms, see 223.2 


.9 


Ecclesiastical emblems 



246 



.1 
.4 



.7 



247 



.1 



.4 
.5 



246-247 Art, artifacts, places 
Symbolism and symbolic objects and places 



246.1-246.7 Art and decoration in Christian services 

and buildings 

Byzantine and Gothic symbolism 

Primitive church art 

Statuary and icons 

Protestantism and religious art 

Emblematic and cryptographic art 

Liturgic symbolism 

Altar, colors, lights 

Music and rhythmic arts 

Including the dance 

Buildings, sanctuaries, shrines 

Including sanctuaries and shrines to Mary [formerly 232.931 7], to 
Joseph [formerly 232.932], to Joachim and Anne [both formerly 
232.933], to other saints [formerly 235.2] 

Sacred furniture, vestments, insignia 

Church furniture 

Fonts, baptisteries, lecterns, pulpits, tabernacles, rood screens, 
reredoses 

Stained glass, mosaics, enamels 

Paintings 

2io 



.92 



248 



Cross and crucifix 



248-249 Practice of religion in personal and 
family life 

Personal religion 

Christian religion as an inner experience and guide to daily living 

Including veneration of Mary [formerly 232.9318], of Joseph 
[formerly 232.932], of Joachim and Anne [both formerly 232.933], 
of other saints [formerly 235.2] 

Class devotional texts in 242-245 



.2 


Religious experience 


.22 


Mysticism 


.24 


Converts and conversion 


.242 


Conversion of Protestants to Roman Catholicism 


.244 


Conversion of Roman Catholics to Protestantism 


.246 


Conversion of non-Christians to Christianity 


.25 


Moral rearmament 


27 


Self -discipline 




Aids to perfection 


.272 


Strict self-denial 


.273 


Fasting and abstinence 


.274 


Other austerities and self-denials 


29 


Other 



Including stigmata, pilgrimages 



21X 



l:y 



Decimal Classification 



Moral and devotional theology 






248.3 



[.37] 



.4 



.42 
.48 



.5 
.8 



Private worship, prayer, meditation, contemplation 

Including value of contemplation [formerly 242] 

Prayers 
Class in 242 

Conduct of Christian life 

Application of Christian virtues to everyday living 

General guides 

Guides for specific denominations and sects 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Roman Catholic guides 248.482 

Witness bearing 

Personal Christianity for specific classes of persons 

Class a specific aspect with the subject 



248.82-248.85 For specific age groups 

For personal Christianity for other groupings of persons, see 
248.86-248.89 



.82 


Children 


.83 


Young adults (Adolescents) 




Scope: students 


.832 


Men 


.833 


Women 


.84 


Adults 




For personal Christianity for aged, see 248.85 


.842 


Men 


.843 


Women 



248.86 
.88 



.89 

.892 

.894 



248.86-248.89 For other groupings of persons 
Afllicted 

Working and professional classes 

Including those engaged in specific occupations 

For personal Christianity for religious groups, see 248.89 

Religious groups 

Clergy and lay ministers 

Priests, ministers, rectors, vicars, elders, deacons 

Persons in religious orders 

ReUgious and monastic life [formerly 271] 



.894 2 


Men 


.894 22 


Vocation 


.894 25 


Selection and novitiate 


.894 28 


Rules 




Including vows of poverty, chastity, obedience 


.894 3 


Women 


.894 32 


Vocation 


.894 35 


Selection and novitiate 


.894 38 


Rules 



Including vows of poverty, chastity, obedience 



249 Christian worship in family life 



.85 



Aged 



212 



Z13 



* . 



J 



-l 



w 

•A 



:\ 



I 



Decimal Classification 



^ 250-260 Practical theology 

250 Pastoral theology, parishes, religious orders 

Use 250.01-250.09 for standard subdivisions 



.1-.9 



For public worship, see 264; missions, 266; religious training and 
instruction, 268 

Standard subdivisions of pastoral theology 



251 





251-253 Pastoral theology 




Preaching (Homiletics) 




Use 251.001-251.009 for standard subdivisions 




For sermons, see 252 


JOI 


Preparation 


.02 


Sennon outlines 


.a^ 


Delivery 




Voice, expression, gestiu« 


.07 


Radio and television preaching 


.08 


Homiletic illustrations 



252 



Sermons 

Scope: devotional sermons [formerly 242], evangelistic sermons 

[/onnerfy243] 

Use 252.001-252.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class sermons on a specific subject with the subject 



.01-.09 



By specific denominations and sects 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Anglican sermons 252.03 



.1 

.5 

.53 

.55 



252.1-252.9 For specific occasions and audiences 
For baptisms, confirmations, weddings, funerals 

For memorial sermons, see 252.9 

For specific classes of persons 

Children 

Young adults (Adolescents) 

Including academic, chapel, convocation, commencement 



sermons 



214 



.594 



.7 



.9 



253 



.2 



Pastoral theology, parishes, religious orders 




Afflcted and aged 

Working and professional classes 

Religious groups 

Clergy 

Priests, ministers, rectors, vicars, elders, deacons 

Persons in religious orders 
Monks, friars, nuns 

For church and public occasions 





252.61-252.67 Church year 


.61 


Advent and Chris Unas 


.62 


Lent and Holy Week 


.63 


Easter 


.67 


Other feast and fast days 


.68 


Secular occasions 



Including elections, thanksgivings, holidays 

For consecrations, ordinations, installations 
For memorial occasions 

Pastor 

Life and person 

Qualifications, celibacy, wife, family 



253.5-253.7 Duties and responsibilities 

For preaching, see 251 



.5 


Counseling 


.7 


Evangeh'sni 


.73 


Outdoor 


.75 


In prisons 


.76 


In homes 


.78 


By radio and television 



22.5 



14 



Decimal Classification 



Social and ecclesiastical theology 






'i : 



^ i 



254 



.01-.09 



.2 



.3 
A 

.5 

.6 
.7 



255 



256 
257 
258 



259 



Parish government and administration 

Use 254.001-254.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class parish office methods [formerly 254] in 651 

By specific denominations and sects 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., government and administration of 
Roman Catholic parishes 254.02 

In specific kinds of communities 

Divide like area notation 173, e.g., government and administration 
of rural parishes 254.24 

Radio and television work 
Public relations and publicity 

For radio and television work, see 254.3 ; 

Membership 

Promotion and service 

Programs 

Planning and executing 

Buildings and equipment 

Finance 

Budget, income, methods of raising money, expenditures 
Class compensation of clergymen [formerly 254.8] in 3312 

Religious congregations and orders (Monasticism) 

Government, organization, administration 
Use 255.001-255.009 for standard subdivisions 
Divide like 271.01-271.98, e.g., Jesuits 255.5 



Parochial welfare work 

Provision by parish and religious orders of assistance, guidance, cheer 
to disadvantaged members of parish 

Other parochial activities by parish and religious 
orders 

Recreation, work with children, soldiers, students, foreigners 

2l6 



^ 260-280 Christian church 

Class local church in 250 

260 Social and ecclesiastical theology 

Institutions, services, observances, discipUnes, work of Christianity and 

Christian church 

Including Christian church and the apostate and indifferent 



261 



.2 
.5 



[.6] 

.7 

.72 
.73 

[.75] 

.8 

J83 
£5 

•87 

.873 



Social theology 

Attitude of Christianity toward and influence on secular matters and 
other religions 

Christianity and other religions 
Christianity and intellectual development 

Including attitude toward science [formerly 261.75], growth of 
knowledge 

Christianity and world order 

Class in 261.87 

Christianity and civil government 

Attitude toward and influence on pohtical activities and ideologies 

Religious freedom 

Theocracy ( Supremacy of church over civil government) 

Attitude toward science 
Class in 261.5 

Christianity and socioeconomic problems 

For Christianity and civil government, see 261.7 

Social problems 
The economic order 
International affairs 

Including Christianity and world order [formerly 261.6] 



f-.::;- 



War and peace 

Including attitude of Christianity toward pacifism, 
conscientious objectors 

^17 



li 



Decimal Classification 



Social and ecclesiastical theology 



ii 



262 



.001 



Church government, organization, nature 
(Ecclesiology) 

Use 262.000 1 - 262.000 9 for standard subdivisions 

Philosophy and theory of government and 
organization 

Including ecumenicalism [formerly 280.1] 



.002-.009 Other standard subdivisions of government and 

organization 

.01-.09 Government and organization of specific denominations 

and sects 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., government and organization of the 
Methodist Church 262.076 



.1 

.11 



.12 
.13 
.131 
.132 

.135 
.136 



.14 



SUMMARY 



V t 



262.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.7 
.8 
.9 



Governing leaders 

Parishes and religious orders in church organization 

Systems governed by episcopacy 

Systems governed by election 

General (Ecumenical) councils 

Nature of the church 

Church and ministerial authority 

Church law and discipline ' 

Governing leaders 
Apostolic succession 



262.12-262.15 By rank 
Bishops and archbishops 
Popes and their administration 
Papal infallibility 
Temporal power of the pope 
Including extranationality 

College of Cardinals 

Administration 

Congregations, tribunals, oflSces of Curia Romana 
For College of Cardinals, see 262.135 



<--'X 



V..-- \^-fi 



Local clergy 



262.15 



.17 
.18 
.19 

.2 

.22 

.24 



.3 



•4 



.5 

[.6] 

•7 

.72 



.73 

.77 



Laity 



262.17-262.19 By system of government 
Episcopal system 
Presbyterian system 
Congregational system 

Parishes and religious orders in church organization 

Parishes 

For parish government and administration, see 254 

Religious congregations and orders 

For government, organization, administration of religious 
congregations and orders, see 255 



218 



262.3-262,4 Government and organization of specific 
church systems 

Class a specific aspect with the subject, e.g., parishes 262.22 

Systems governed by episcopacy 

Sees, dioceses, cathedral systems 

Systems governed by election 

Synods, presbyteries, congregations 

General (Ecumenical) councils 

Canons and decrees 
Class in 262.91-262.93 

Nature of the church 

Attributes, marks, notes 

Apostolicity, cathoUcity, holiness, unity, credibiUty, infaUibiUty, 
necessity, visibility and invisibility 

Communion of saints 
Mystical body of Christ 

219 



Decimal Classification 



Social and ecclesiastical theology 



I I 

H 

ill 



73 



h:1 



262.8 

[.82] 



•9 



.91 



.92 

.922 
.923 
.924 
.925 

.93 
.931 

.932 



.933 



.934 



.935 
.98 



Church and ministerial authority 

Encyclicals, papal bulls and decrees 
Class in 262.91 

Church law Iformerly 348] and discipline 

Canon or ecclesiastical law 



262.91-262.93 Roman Catholic 
Scope: canons and decrees [both formerly 262.6] 

Acts of the Holy See 

Encyclicals, papal bulls and decrees [all formerly 262.82], 
briefs, apostolic letters 

Early codes and treatises on them 
To Gratian, ca. 1140 
Corpus iuris canonici 
Quinque compilationes antiquae 
Other 

Codex iuris canonici (1917) 

General principles ( Canons 1-86) : ^ 

Persons (Canons 87-725) 
Clergy, religious, laity 

Things (Canons 726-1551) 

Sacraments, sacred times and places, worship, teaching 
office, benefices, temporal goods 

Procedure (Canons 1552-2194) :, 

Trials, cases of beatification and canonization 

Crimes and penalties (Canons 2195-2414) 

Other denominations 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Anglican ecclesiastical law 262.983 

220 



263 Days and times of religious observance 



.1 

.2 
.3 

.4 
[.8] 

.9 

.91-.97 



.98 



264 



263.1-263.8 Sabbath and Sunday 
Biblical Sabbath 
Observance of seventh day 

Christian Sunday 

For Sunday observance, see 263.4 

Sunday observance 

Laws on Sunday observance 

Class in 340 

Other days and times 

Church year 

Divide like 252.61-252.67, e.g., observance of Advent 263.91 

Specific saints' days 
Public worship 

Divine services, religious ceremonies, their conduct and texts 
Scope: liturgical use of Psalms [formerly 223.5] 
Use 264.001-264.009 for standard subdivisions 

For Sunday school services, see 268.7; other rites, ceremonies, 

ordinances, 265 



.01 



•02 



264.01-264.09 By specific denominations and sects 
Primitive and Oriental churches 

Divide like 281, e.g., liturgy and ritual of Eastern Orthodox 
churches 264.019 

Roman Catholic Church 

Use 264.020 01 - 264.020 08 for standard subdivisions 



.020 09 
.020 1-.020 9 



Historical and geographical treatment [formerly 
264.029] 

Specific elements 

History, meaning, place in public worship 

Divide like 264.1-264.9, e.g., scripture readings 
264.020 3 

221 









Decimal Classification 



264.021 
.022 

.023 



.024 



.027 4 

.028 
[.029] 

.03 



264.021-264.028 Texts of liturgy, ritual, prayers 
Calendars and ordos 

Ceremonials 

Class lectionary [formerly 264.022] in 264.024 

Missals 

Including epistles, gospels [both formerly 264.026] 
Class morning prayer [formerly 264.023] in 264.024 

Breviaries 

Including lectionary [formerly 264.022], morning prayer 
[formerly 26A.023] 

For psalter, see 264.028 



.025 


Rituals 


[.026] 


Epistles and gospels 




Class in 264.023 


.027 


Special books 


.027 2 


For specific times of year 




Including Holy Week 



^l.i 



.030 09 



.030 1-.030 9 



For special liturgical services 
Including Forty Hours devotion 

Psalter 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Class in 264.020 09 

Anglican churches 

Use 264.030 01 - 264.030 08 for standard subdivisions 



Historical and geographical treatment [formerly 
264.039] 

Specific elements 

History, meaning, place in public worship 
Divide like 264.1-264.9, e.g., prayer 264.030 1 
222 



Social and ecclesiastical theology 



264.031 
.032 
.033 
.034 
.035 
.036 
.037 
.038 
[.039] 

.04-.09 



.1 



.13 



3 
.4 

3 



264.031-264.038 Texts of Hturgy, ritual, prayers 
Calendars, festivals, fasts 
Lectionary and rubrics 
Morning prayer and litany 
Evening prayer and vespers 
Sacraments, ordinances, services 
Collects, epistles, gospels 
Ordinal, articles, creeds 
Psalter 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Class in 264.030 09 

Other specific denominations 

Divide like 284-289, e.g., Methodist Episcopal services 264.076 



264.1-264.9 Specific elements 

Class specific elements in public worship of specific denomina- 
tions and sects in 264.01-264.09 

Prayer 

Scope: comprehensive works on public and private prayer 
For private prayer, see 248.3 

Prayers 

Including litanies 

Music 

Class musical scores and parts in 783 

Scripture readings and the Mass 
Responsive readings 

Creeds and confessions of faith 

Class texts in 238 

Sermons, exhortations, instructions 

Class texts of sermons in 252 

223 



Decimal Classification 



264.7 
3 



Prayer meetings, Holy Hours, novenas 

Sacramentals 

For consecrations and dedications, see 265.92 



265 Other rites, ceremonies, ordinances 

Scope: preparation, instruction, performance 
Use 265.001-265.009 for standard subdivisions 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of sacraments 



.1 

.12 

.13 

.2 

.3 



.4 
.5 
.6 

.61 

.62 
.63 

.64 
.65 



.66 



265.1-265.7 Sacraments 



Class liturgy and ritual of sacraments in specific denominations 
in 264.01-264.09 

Baptism 

Infant 

Adult 
Confirmation 
Eucharist, Holy Commimion, Lord's Supper 

Including transubstantiation 
For viaticum, see 265.7 

Holy Orders 

Matrimony 

Penance 

Contrition 

Examination of conscience, prayers preparatory to confession 

Confession 

Satisfaction 

Penitential prayers and acts for the remission of sin 

Absolution 

Censiues 

Excommunication, suspension, interdiction, withholding 
absolution 



Indulgences 



224 



Social and ecclesiastical theology 



265.7 



Ji 

.82 

.85 
.9 



.92 



266 



Anointing of the sick and viaticum 

Including extreme unction 

Rites in illness and death 

Religious ceremonies for the afflicted 
For anointing of the sick, see 265.7 

Religious ceremonies for the dead 

Other acts 

Including love feasts (agapes), foot washing, laying on of hands, 
exorcism, ceremonies of joining church 

Consecrations and dedications 
Missions \Jormerhj also 274-279] 

Scope: missionary societies 

Use 266.001-266.009 for standard subdivisions 

For mission schools, see 377.6 . . 



.02 


Kinds of missions 


[.021] 


Missionary stories 




Class in 266.09 


.022 


Home 


.023 


Foreign 


.025 


Medical 


.09 


Missionary stories [/( 



.1-.9 Of specific denominations and sects 

Divide Uke 281-289, e.g., Seventh-Day Adventist missions 266.673 

267 Associations for religious work 

For missionary societies, see 266; religious congregations and orders, 
255 



.1 

.15 
.18 



Of both men and women 
Salvation Army 
Of specific denominations and sects 

Divide Uke 281-289, e.g., Baptist Adult Union 267.186 

22$ 



Decimal Classification 



Social and ecclesiastical theology 



267.2 
.23 



.24 



.3 

[.309] 



.31 
.32 
,33 
.34 



.35 



.36 



.39 



.4 



.5 



Of men 

Interdenominational and nondenominational 
For Young Mens Christian Associations, see 267.3 

Of specific denominations and sects 

Divide like 281-289. e.g., Baptist societies 267,246 

Young Men s Christian Associations 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 267.39 

Program and objectives 
Buildings and equipment 
Organization and administration 

StaflE 

Duties, qualifications, training 

Departments 

Religious, educational, physical, boys' 

Work among special classes 

Service to travelers, foreign and racial groups, migrants 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Add area notations 1-9 to 267.39 

Of women 

Divide like 267.2, e.g.. Baptist societies 267.446 

For Young Women's Christian Associations, see 267.5 

Young Women s Christian Associations 

Divide like 267.3, e.g., stafE 267.54 



226 



267.6 Of young adults 

.61 Interdenominational and nondenominational 

For Young Mens Christian Associations, see 267.3; Young 
Women's Christian Associations, 267.5 

613 Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor 

.62 Of specific denominations and sects 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Methodist Young People's Society 

267.627 

.7 Of boys 

For Young Men's Christian Associations, see 267.3 

.8 Of girls 

For Young Women's Christian Associations, see 267.5 

268 Religious training and instruction 

In Sunday schools, church schools, vacation Bible schools 
For religious instruction in nonsectarian schools, see 377.1 

^ 268.1-268.7 Specific elements 

,1 Administration 

JZ Buildings and equipment 

.3 Personnel 

.4 Teaching departments and divisions 

Organization, methods, records, niles, services 

.43 specific departments and divisions 

.432 Children's division (Ages 1-12) 

Cradle roll, beginners', primary, junior departments 

,433 Young people's division 

Intermediate, senior departments 

.434 Adult division 

Men's, women's departments 

.435 Home departments 

227 



Decimal Classification 



Christian church history 



\ 



\ 






268.5 



.6 



.61 



.62 



.63 

.632 
.635 

.67 

.68 

.7 



.8 



269 



J5 



Records and rules 

Attendance, promotion, prizes, decorations, honor rolls 

Class records and rules for specific departments and divisions in 
268.43 

Methods of instruction and study 

Scope: curriculums 

Class methods for specific age groups in 268.43 

Textbooks 

For catechisms, see 238 \ .^ 

Textbook method 

For textbooks, see 268,61 • lu 

Lecture and audio-visual methods 
Lecture method 
Audio-visual methods 

Dramatic method 

Laboratory methods 

Services 

Order of service, music, rallies, anniversaries, special days and 
festivals 

Class services for specific departments and divisions in 268.43 

Specific denominations and sects 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Presbyterian religious training and 
instruction 268.85 

For specific elements, see 268.1-268.7 

Organized spiritual renewal 
Revivals and camp meetings 

Retreats 

Divide hke 248.8, e.g., retreats for men 269.642 



270 



Historical and geographical treatment of 
Christian church 

Use 270.01-270.08 for standard subdivisions 
For denominations and sects, see 280 



.1 
.2 

.3 

.38 

.4 

.5 
.6 

.7 

.8 

.81 

.82 



271 



270.1-270.8 Historical periods 
Apostolic period to 325 
Period of ecumenical councils, 325-787 
Struggle between papacy and empire, 787-1054 

Great schism, 1054 
Period of papal supremacy, 1054-1200 
Late Middle Ages to Renaissance, 1200-1517 
Reformation and Counter-Reformation, 1517-1648 
Peace of Westphalia to French Revolution, 1648-1789 

Modem church, 1789- 
19th century, 1789-1900 

20th century, 1900- 



271-273 Special topics of church history 
Religious congregations and orders 

Use 271.001-271.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class religious and monastic life [formerly 271] in 248.894 



228 





271.01- 


-271.09 


Specific kinds 


.01 


Conteiiiplative 






.02 


Eremitical 






.03 


Teaching 






.04 


Preaching 






.05 


Military 






.06 


Mendicant 






.07 


Nursing 






.08 


Canons regular 


229 





Decimal Classification 



271.09 
.092 
.093 
.094 



.1 



.12 

.125 

.13 

.2 

.3 



.36 
.37 

.4 



.5 

.6 

.62 
.64 

.7 

.71 

.73 

.75 

.76 

77 

78 



Brothers, lay brothers, third orders 
Brothers 
Lay brothers 
Third orders 



271.1-271.8 Specific orders of men 



271.1-271.7 Roman Catholic 

Benedictines 

Including Celestines, Cluniacs 

Cistercians (Bemardines) r-. 

Trappists 
Olivetans 

Dominicans ( Friars Preachers, Black Friars ) 

Franciscans ( Gray Friars ) 

Including Observants, Recollects, Alcantarinfes 

Capuchins 
Conventuals 

Augustinians 

Including Augustinian Recollects 

Jesuits ( Society of Jesus ) 

Fassionists and Redemptorists 

Fassionists 
Redemptorists 

Other 

Carthusians 

Carmelites (White Friars) 
Sulpicians 
Oblates 
Lazarists 

Christian Brothers ( Brothers of the Christian Schools ) 

230 



271.79 



3 



Christian church history 



Otlier orders 

Including specific orders of knighthood, e.g.. Knights of Malta 

Non-Roman Catholic 

Of women 

Sisterhoods, convents, nunneries 

Use 271.900 1 - 271.900 9 for standard subdivisions 

.901-.909 Specific kinds 

Divide like 271.01-271.09, e.g., contemplative orders 
[/ormerfi/ 271.96] 271.901 



271.91-271.98 Specific orders 



.91 



.92 
.93 
.94 
.95 
[.96] 

.97 

.971 

.972 

.973 

.974 

.975 

.976 

.977 

.979 

.98 



271.91-271.97 Roman Catholic 

Sisters of Charity 

Including Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul 

Sisters of Mercy 
Sacred Heart orders 
Sisters of Bon Secours 
Little Sisters of the Poor 
Contemplative nuns 
Class in 271.901 

Other 

Carmelites 
Dominicans 

Franciscans (Poor Clares) 
Ursulines 
Visitation orders 
Saint Joseph orders 
Presentation orders 
Other orders 
Non-Roman Catholic 

23^ 



Decimal Classification 



272 Persecutions 

.1 Of Apostolic Church by imperial Rome, lst-4th centuries 

.2 By Inquisition 

.3 Of Waldenses and Albigenses, llth-12th centuries 

.4 Of Huguenots 

.5 Of Molinists and Quietists 

^6 Of Anglican reformers by Mary I 

.7 Of Roman Church by Elizabeth I and the Anglicans 

.8 Of Quakers, Baptists, witches by Puritans and others 

.9 Other 

273 Heresies 

.1 Gnostic heresies 

.2 Third-century heresies 

Including mystic heresy 

.23 Manicheism 

.25 Parsee dualism 

.3 Sabelhan heresy 

.4 Arian heresy 

^ Pelagian heresy 

.6 Antinomian heresy 

.7 Molinist, Jansenist, Pietist heresies 

.8 Agnostic heresy 

,9 Other heresies 



232 



Christian church by place 



274-279 Treatment by continent, country, 
locality 

Class missions [formerly 274-279] in 266 

Class geographical treatment of a specific element of the 

Christian church with the subject 



274 



Europe 

Add area notation 4 to 27, e.g.. Christian church in France 274.4 



275 



Asia 



Add area notation 5 to 27, e.g.. Christian church in Japan 275.2 



276 



277 



278 



279 



Africa 

Add area notation 6 to 27, e.g.. Christian church in South Africa 
276.8 

North America 

Add area notation 7 to 27, e.g.. Christian church in Pennsylvania 
277.48 

South America 

Add area notation 8 to 27, e.g., Christian church in Brazil 278.1 

Other parts of world 

Add area notation 9 to 27, e.g.. Christian church in AustraUa 279.4 



233 



Decimal Classification 



Denomirmtions and sects 



280 Denominations and sects 

Scope: general historical and geographical treatment of, comprehensive 
works on specific denominations and sects and their individual local 
churches 

Use 280.01-280.09 for standard subdivisions 

(Optional: specific elements of specific denominations and sects, 
subarranged as below; prefer 230-270) 

To subarrange specific elements, divide each specific denomination, sect, 
group as follows: 

001-008 Standard subdivisions 

[009] Historical and geographical treatment 

Do not use; class in 07 
02 Basic textual sources 

Class Bible in 220 
03-06 Doctrinal and practical theology 

Divide like 230-260, e.g., the denomination and 

world order 061 87 
07 Historical and geographical treatment 

Divide Uke 270, e.g., 20th century 070 82 



[.1] 



.2 

.4 



281 



.1 



.2 



Ecumenicalism 
Class in 262.001 



280.2-280.4 Branches 

Class specific denominations and sects in 281-289 

Catholicism 

Protestantism [formerly 284] 

Primitive and Oriental churches 



281.1-281.4 Apostolic Church to time of great schism, 

1054 

Scope: works of apostohc and church fathers 

Class general history in 270.1-270.3, comprehensive works in 



281.1 



Comprehensive works 

For specific periods, see 281.2-281.4 



281.2-281.4 Specific periods 
Primitive Apostolic Church to 100 

^34 



281.3 

A 



.62 
.63 

.7 

.9 

.909 



.93 



Ante-Nicene chmrch, 100-325 
Post-Nicene chm:ch, 325-1054 

Oriental churches 

For specific Oriental churches, see 281.6-281.9 



.94-.99 



281.6-281.9 Specific Oriental churches 

Monophysite 

Including Eutychian 

Armenian 
Jacobite 

Coptic and Abyssinian 

Nestorian 

Eastern Orthodox 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
281.94-281.99 

Specific churches 

Greek, Russian, Syrian, Ukrainian, other 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 
281.94-281.99 

Treatment by continent, country, locality 
Add area notations 4-9 to 281.9 



282 Roman Catholic Church 



.09 



.4-.9 



Class Oriental churches in communion with Rome in 281.5-281.8 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 282.4-282.9 

Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 282 

^35 



i'i 



h. 



Decimal Classification 



Denominations and sects 



283 Anglican churches 

.09 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 283.4-283.9 

.3 Specific branches 

Including Reformed Episcopal Church and its affiliates 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 283.4-283.9 

.4_.9 Treatment by continent, coimtry, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 283 



284 



Protestant denominations of Continental origin 

Class comprehensive works on Protestantism [formerly 284] in 280.4 
For Baptist churches, see 286.1-286.5; Church of the New 
Jerusalem, 289.4; Mennonites, 289.7 :; ^ 

.1 Lutheran churches 

Scope: Scandinavian Lutheran churches [formerly 284.7] 

.109 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
284.14-284.19 

.13 Specific churches, branches, synods 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 284.14-284.19 

.14-. 19 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 284.1 

Calvinistic and Reformed churches in Europe 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
284.24-284.29 

Specific churches and branches 

For Huguenots, see 284.5; treatment by continent, country, 
locality, 284.24-284.29 

,24-.29 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 284.2 



.209 



.23 



284.3 



.5 



.6 



.609 



Hussites and Anabaptists 
Albigenses and Waldenses 
Huguenots 

Moravians 

For Hussites, see 284.3 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locahty in 
284.64-284.69 



,64_.69 Treatment by continent, country, locaUty 

Add area notations 4-9 to 284.6 

[.7 ] Scandinavian Lutheran churches 

Class in 284.1 

S Modern schisms in Catholic Church 

Including Old CathoUc, Gallican schismatics. Constitutional 



.84 



Church, Little Church of France 



Jansenists 



Arminianism and Remonstrants 



285 Presbyterian, American Reformed, Congregational 

churches 

Use 285.001-285.009 for standard subdivisions 
.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of Presbyterian churches 



285.1-285.2 Presbyterian churches 

(If option under 280 is followed, use 285.000 I - 285.000 9 for 
standard subdivisions of Presbyterian, American Reformed, 
Congregational churches, 285.001-285.008 for standard sub- 
divisions of Presbyterian churches, 285.02-285.07 for specific 
elements of Presbyterian churches) 



Decimal Classification 



Denominations and sects 



285.1 



United States origin 

Scope: Cumberland Presbyterian Church [formerly 285.3], United 
Presbyterian Church of North America [formerly 285.4], Reformed 
Presbyterian churches [formerly 285.5], other sects [formerly 
285.6] 



J09 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locahty in 
285.14-285.19 

.13 Specific denominations 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 285.14-285.19 

.131 United Presbyterian Church in the United States of 

America 

.132 Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 

.133 Presbyterian Church in the United States 

.134 United Presbyterian Church of North America 

,135 Cumberland Presbyterian Church 

J 36 Reformed Presbyterian churches 

.14-.19 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 285.1 

.2 British Commonwealth origin 

.209 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
285.24-285.29 

24-29 Treatment by continent, country, locaUty 

Add area notations 4-9 to 285.2 

For United Church of Canada, see 287.92 



[.3] 



[•4] 



Cumberland Presbyterian Church 

Class in 285.1 

United Presbyterian Church of North America 

Class in 285.1 

238 



[285.5] Reformed Presbyterian churches 

.. . Class in 285.1 

[.6] Other Presbyterian sects 

Class in 285.1 

,7 Reformed chvirches in America 

.709 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
285.74-285.79 

.73 Specific denominations 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 285.74-285.79 

.731 Christian Reformed Church 

,732 Reformed Church in America (Dutch) 

.733 Reformed Church in the United States (German) 

.734 EvangeHcal and Reformed Church 

.74_.79 Treatment by continent, country, locaUty 

Add area notations 4-9 to 285.7 

.8 Congregationalism 

.809 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
285.84-285.89 

.83 Specific denominations 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 285.84-285.89 

.832 Congregational Churches 

'For United Church of Canada, see 287.92 

.833 Congregational Christian Churches ■ - 

For Christian Church, see 286.63 

.834 United Church of Christ - 

For Evangelical and Reformed Church, see 285.734 

239 



h 



Decimal Classification 



Denominations and sects 



285.84-.89 



.9 



Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 285.8, e.g., United Church of Christ 
in Pennsylvania 285.874 8 

Puritanism 



286 Baptist, Disciples of Christ, Adventist churches 

Use 286.001-286.009 for standard subdivisions 
.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of Baptist churches 



u ^- 



.1 

.109 



.13 



.131 
.132 
.133 
.14-.19 



.2 
.3 
.4 



.5 



286.1-286.5 Baptist churches 

(If option under 280 is followed, use 286.000 1 - 286.000 9 for 
standard subdivisions of Baptist, Disciples of Christ, Adventist 
churches. 286.001-286.008 for standard subdivisions of Baptist 
churches! 286.02-286.07 for specific elements of Baptist 
churches ) 

Regular (Calvinistic) Baptists 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
286.14-286.19 

Specific denominations 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 286.14-286.19 

American (Northern) Baptist Convention 
Southern Baptist Convention 
National ( Negro ) Baptist Convention 
Treatment by continent, country, locahty 
Add area notations 4-9 to 286.1 

Freev>'ill Baptists 
Seventh-Day Baptists 
Old School Baptists 

Including Primitive, Antimission, Hard-Shell Baptists 

Other 

Including Dunkers, Church of the Brethren 

240 



286.6 

.609 



Disciples of Christ ( Campbellites ) 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 



286.64-286.69 



.63 



.64-.69 



.7 
.709 



73 



.74-79 



287 



•1 

.109 



Specific denominations 

Including Christian Church, Church of Christ 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 
286.64-286,69 

Treatment by continent, country, locality 
Add area notations 4-9 to 286.6 

Adventists 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
286.74-286.79 

Specific denominations 

Seventh-Day Adventists, Church of God (Adventists), Advent 
Christian Church 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 
286.74-286.79 

Treatment by continent, country, locality 
Add area notations 4-9 to 286.7 

Methodist churches 

Wesleyan Methodist Church 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
287.14-287.19 



i^ 



.14-.19 Treatment by continent, country, locaUty 

Add area notations 4-9 to 287.1 

.4 Primitive Methodist Church 

.409 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 



287.44-287.49 



241 



i 



i 



Decimal Classificotion 



Denominations and sects 



287.44-.49 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 287.4 



.6 

,609 



.63 



The Methodist Church 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
287.64-287.69 

Specific divisions 

For Methodist Protestant Church, see 287.7; treatment by 
continent, country, locality, 287.64-287.69 

Methodist Episcopal Church 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South 
Treatment by continent, country, locality 
Add area notations 4-9 to 287.6 

Methodist Protestant Church ; 

Negro Methodist churches in United States 

Specific denominations 

African Methodist Episcopal Church, African Methodist 
Episcopal Zion Church, Christian Methodist Episcopal Church 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 
287.84-287.89 



.84-.89 Treatment by continent, countiy, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 287.8 



.632 
.633 
.64-.69 



.7 
.8 
JSi 



.92 
.97 



> . 



Other Methodist churches 

United Church of Canada 

Other 

Including Free Methodist Church of North America, 
Congregational Methodist Church 



288 Unitarianism 

Scope: Socinianism, Anti-Trinitarianism 

.09 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 288.4-288.9 

.3 Specific denominations 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 288.4-288.9 

.32 Unitarian Universalist Association 

For Universalist Church, see 289.1 

.33 Unitarian Church 

.4-.9 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 288 

289 Other denominations and sects 



.1 

.109 



Universalist Church 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 



289.14-289.19 



14-.19 Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 289.1 

•2 [Permanently unassigned] 

If it is desired to give local emphasis and a shorter number to a 
specific denomination or sect not separately provided for, class it 
here 



242 



243 



^ 



* 



■ 



Decimal Classiiication 



Denominations and sects 



289.3 
.309 



.32 



.322 



.33 



.34-.39 



.4 

.409 



.44-.49 



.5 

.509 



Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locaUty in 
289.34-289.39 

Sources ( Sacred books ) 

Book of Mormon 

Specific branches 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Reorganized 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 

For treatmetvt by continent, country, locality, see 

289.34-289.39 

Treatment by continent, country, locality 
Add area notations 4-9 to 289.3 

Church of the New Jerusalem (Swedenborgianism) 
Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
289.44-289.49 

Treatment by continent, country, locality 
Add area notations 4-9 to 289.4 

Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science) 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locaUty in 
289.54-289.59 



.52 


Sources 


.522 


By Mary Baker Eddy 


.523 


Others 



.54-.59 Treatment by continent, country, locaUty 

Add area notations 4-9 to 289.5 



289.6 

.609 



.63 



.64-.69 



.7 

.709 



.73 



.74-.79 



•9 



Society of Friends ( Quakers ) 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
289.64-289.69 

Specific branches 

Orthodox and Hicksite 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 
289.64-289.69 

Treatment by continent, country, locality 
Add area notations 4-9 to 289.6 

Mennonites 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
289.74-289.79 

Specific branches 

Amish, Church of God in Christ, Defenceless Mennonites, 
General Conference Mennonites, Hutterian Brethren 

For treatment by continent, country, locality, see 
289.74-289.79 

Treatment by continent, country, locality 

Add area notations 4-9 to 289.7 , v .' , 

Shakers 

United Society of True Believers in Christ's Second Appearing 

Others 

Including Assemblies of God, Churches of God, Church of the 
Nazarene, Jehovah's Witnesses, Pentecostal Assemblies, New 
Thought, United Brethren, Unity School of Christianity 

If desired, class a specific denomination or sect requiring local 
emphasis in 289.2 

For Salvation Army, see 267.15 



244 



^45 






Decimal Classification 



Other religions and comparative religion 



290 Other religions and comparative religion 

Scope: ecclesiastic laws [forrmrly 348] 

291 Comparative religion 

[.012] Classification 

Do not use; class in 291.14 

SUMMARY 

291.1 Relationships and attitudes of religions 

^ Doctrinal theologies (Dogmas) 

Ji Forms of worship and other rites and ceremonies 

,4 Personal religion 

.5 Moral theology 

.6 Leaders and organization 

.7 Activities inspired by religious motives 

.8 Sources 

.9 Sects and reform movements 



•1 

[.12] 



.14 



.17 



.2 

.21 

.211 



< ' 



Relationships and attitudes of reUgions 

Religious emotions 
Class in 200.19 



13 Mythological foundations 



Constituent elements, growth, changes in form of rehgious 
myths 

Classification of religions 

Polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic .^, 

Social theologies 

Attitude of reUgions toward and influence on secular matters 

and other religions 

Divide hke 261, e.g., attitude of reUgions toward science 

291.175 

Doctrinal theologies ( Dogmas ) 
Objects of worship and veneration 

Attributes and functions 

Gods, goddesses, other divinities and deities 

Including animism, spiritism 
246 



291.212 

.213 

.214 
.215 

.216 
.218 

.22 



.23 



.3 



.32 



.33 
.34 
.35 



.36 

.37 
.38 



Nature 

Sun, water, fire, trees, sex, other natural phenomena 

Persons 

Ancestors, the dead, monarchs, heroes, saints 

Personified abstractions 
Angels and other good spirits 
Servants and messengers of divinity 

Devils, demons, other evil spirits 

Images of divinity . 

Man and his soul 

Creation, sin, salvation, repentance, atonement 

Eschatology 

Death, resurrection. immortaHty, other worlds, heaven, 
purgatory, hell, rewards, punishments, reincarnation 

Forms of worship and other rites and ceremonies 

For personal religion, see 291.4 

Divination 

Omens, oracles, prophecies 
Witchcraft 
Offerings, sacrifices, penances 

Sacred places 

Holy buildings, temples, shrines, pagodas, grottoes 

Sacred times 

Liturgic year, religious calendar, religious festivals 

Symbolism, symbolic objects, emblems 

Rites and ceremonies 

Liturgy, public prayer, public feasts and fasts, pilgrimages, 
processions 



^ 



I"-:.' 
VI 



K 



i: 



291.4 



.42 



.43 
.44 



J 



.61 



.62 



.63 



.64 



.65 



.7 



Decimal Classification 



Personal religion 

Religion as an inner experience and guide to daily living 
For moral theology, see 291.5 

Religious experience 

Mysticism, conversion, asceticism, self-discipline 

Private worship, prayer, meditation, contemplation 

Conduct of life 

Application of religious virtues to everyday living 

Moral theology 

Conscience, sins, vices, virtues, duties 

Leaders and organization 



291.61-291.64 Leaders and their v^^ork 

Priests, ministers, pastors 

Class messiahs [formerly 291.61] in 291.63 

Men endowed with supernatural power 

Thaumaturgists, sorcerers, magicians, exorcists 

Divinely inspired men 

Messiahs [formerly 291.61], founders of reUgions [formerly 
291.64], prophets 

Interpreters of religion 

Writers, reformers 

Class founders of religions [formerly 291.64] in 291.63 
For priests, ministers, pastors, see 291.61 

Organization and organizations 

Institutions, associations, orders, parties, congregations 
For laws and decisions, see 291.84 

Activities inspired by religious motives 

ReUgious wars, missions, religious training and instruction 

248 



Other religions and comparative religion 




.9 



Sources 

Sacred books and scriptures 
Oral traditions 
Laws and decisions 

Sects and reform movements 

Class a specific aspect of a specific sect or reform movement with 
the subject 



292 



292-299 Specific religions 

Divide as below, but, if it is desired to give local emphasis and 
a shorter number to a specific religion, place it first by use of a 
letter or other symbol, e.g., Hinduism 2H0 (preceding 220). 
or 29H (preceding 292); divide as provided under the appro- 
priate subdivision of 292-299, e.g., Shivaism 2H5.13 or 29H.513 

Classical ( Greek and Roman ) religion 

Use 292.001-292.009 for standard subdivisions 



292.07-292.08 By specific culture 

Class specific elements in 292.1-292.9 



.07 
.08 



Roman 
Greek 



,l-.9 Specific elements 

Divide like 291.1-291.9, e.g., classical gods and goddesses 292.211 

i 

293 Germanic religion 

Divide like 291, e.g., eschatology 293.23 

294 Brahmanism and related religions 



.1 


The Vedas 


.12 


Rigveda 


.13 


Samaveda 


.14 


Yajurveda 


.15 


Atharvaveda 



249 



Decimal Classification 



294.3-294.4 Heterodox movements 



294.3 



Buddhism 



[.300 2-.300 8] Doctrines, organization, activities, sources 

Class in 294.34-294.38 



[.31] 



[.32] 



.33 



Hinayana (Southern, Theravada) Buddhism 

Class comprehensive works in 294.391; doctrines, organization, 
activities, sources in 294.34-294.38 

Mahayana (Northern) Buddhism 

Class comprehensive works and sects and reform movements in 
294.392, doctrines, organization, activities, sources in 
294.34-294.38 

Relationships and attitudes 

Divide like 291.1, e.g., attitude toward other religions 294.337 2 



.34 



.35 



.36 



.361-.364 



.365 



.365 7 
.37 



294 34-294.38 Doctrines, organization, activities, 
sources Hormerly 294.300 2 - 294.300 8, 294.31, 294.32] 

Doctrines and practices 

Divide like 291.2-291.4, e.g., liturgy 294.343 8 



Moral theology 

Conscience, sins, vices, virtues, duties 

Leaders and organization 

Leaders 

Divide like 291.61-291.64, e.g., the Buddha 294.363 

Organization and organizations 

Including institutions, associations, parties, congregations 

Monasticism and monasteries 

Activities inspired by religious motives 
Missions, religious training and instruction 

250 



Other religions and comparative religion 



294.38 Sources 

.382 Sacred books and scriptures ( Tripitaka ) 

382 2 Vinayapitaka 

.382 3 Suttapitaka 

382 4 Abhidhammapitaka 

3g3 Oral traditions 

384 Laws and decisions 

.39 Branches 

Class a specific aspect of a specific branch with the subject 

391 Hinayana ( Southern, Theravada ) Buddhism 

[/ormerit/ 294.31] 

Mahayana (Northern) Buddhism [formerly 29 A. Z2\ 

Lamaism 
Zen 

Jainism 

Relationships, doctrines, organization, activities, sources 
Divide like 291.1-291.8, e.g., moral theology 294.45 

Sects and reform movements 

Class a specific aspect of a specific sect or refomi movement 
with the subject 

,492 Svetambara 

,493 Digambara 

.5 Hinduism 

.51 Relationships and attitudes 

Divide hke 291.1, e.g., attitude toward science 294.517 5 

.52 Doctrinal theology ( Dogma ) 

,521 Objects of worship and veneration 

Attributes and functions 
Divide like 291.21, e.g., avatara 294.521 1 



.392 
.392 3 
.392 7 
.4 
.41-.48 



.49 



.522-.523 



Man and his soul, eschatology 

Divide like 291.22-291.23, e.g., karma 294.523 
25^ 



I 



294.53 



.54 



.542-. 544 



.548 



.55 



[.552] 

.553 
[.554] 

.555 
.556 



Decimal Classijication 



Other religions and comparative religion 



Forms of worship and other rites and ceremonies 
Divide like 291.3, e.g., symbolism in Hinduism 294.537 
For personal religion, see 294.54 

Personal religion and moral theology 

Personal religion 

Hinduism as an inner experience and guide to daily living 
Divide like 291.42-291.44, e.g., Hindu asceticism 294.542 

Moral theology [formerly 294.598] 
Conscience, sins, vices, virtues, duties 
Including dharma 

Sects and reform movements 

Class a specific aspect of a specific sect or reform movement 
with the subject 

For heterodox movements, see 294.3-294.4 



.551 


Early 


.5512 


Vishnuism [formerly 294.554] 


.5513 


Shivaism 


.5514 


Shaktaism 


.5515 


Ganapataism 


.5516 


Shanmukaism 


.5517 


Sauraism 



Brahma Samaj, Arya-Samaj 
Class in 294.556 

Sikhism 

Vishnuism 

Class in 294.551 2 

Ramakrishna movement 

Reformed Hinduism 

Brahma Samaj, Arya-Samaj [both formerly 294.552] 
252 



294.56-.57 Leaders, organization, activities 

Divide like 291.6-291.7, e.g., gurus 294.561 



.59 


Sources 


.592 


Sacred books and scriptures 




For the Vedas, see 294.1 


.5921 


Upanishads 


.592 2 


Ramayana 


.592 3 


Mahabharata 




For Bhagavad Gita, see 294.592 4 


.592 4 


Bhagavad Gita 


.592 5 


Puranas 


.592 6 


Dharmasastras 


.593 


Oral traditions 


.594 


Laws and decisions 


[.598] 


Moral theology 




Class in 294.548 



295 



Zoroastrianism ( Mazdaism, Parseeism ) 

Divide like 291, e.g., virtues 295.5 



296 Judaism 



.1 



SUMMARY 

296.1 Sources 

.3 Doctrinal, moral, social theology 

.4 Public services, rites, traditions 

.6 Leaders, organization, activities 

,7 Personal and family religion 

.8 Sects and movements 



Sources 

For Old Testament, see 221 



253 



296.12 



296.120 4 
.120 5 



.120 6 



,120 7 



Decimal Classification 



Other religions and comparative religion 



Talmudic literature 

Use 296.120 01 - 296.120 09 for standard subdivisions 



296.120 4 - 296.120 7 General considerations 



296.120 4-296.120 5 Texts 

Scope: textual criticism 

For commentaries, see 296.120 7 

Hebrew and Aramaic 

Translations 

Divide like 420-490, e.g., English translations 296.120 52 

Intei-pretation and higher criticism 

Divide like 220.6, e.g., hermeneutics 296.120 63 
For commentaries, see 296.120 7 

Commentaries 

Criticism and interpretation arranged in textual order 



296.123-296.129 Specific works 

Add to each subdivision identiBed by * and divide like 
296.120 4- 296.120 7, e.g., commentaries on Mishnah 
296.123 07 



123 


*Mishnah 


124 


♦Palestinian Taliimd 


125 


♦Babylonian Talmud 


126 


Tosefta and Baraita 


126 2 


•Tosefta 


.126 3 


*Baraita 


.129 


Other Talmudic texts 



* Divide as instructed under 296.123-296.129 



296.14 



.140 4-.140 7 



.141 



.31 

.311 
.315 

.316 
.32 



Midrash 

Use 296.140 01 - 296.140 09 for standard subdivisions 

General considerations 

Divide like 296.120 4 - 296.120 7. e.g., Hebrew and 
Aramaic texts 296.140 4 






v4 
n 



296.141-296.142 Specific works 

Add to each subdivision identified by • and divide like 
296.120 4-296.120 7, e.g., criticism and interpretation of Hag- 
gadah 296.142 06 

•Halakah 



.142 


•Haggadah 


.16 


Cabala 


.17 


Early rabbinical writings to 1400 


.172 


Maiinonides 


.179 


Responsa 


.18 


Laws and decisions 




Scope: later Halakah 


.182 


Joseph Caro 


.19 


Later Haggadah 


.3 


Doctrinal, moral, social theology 



296.31-296.33 Doctrinal theology (Dogma) 

Spiritual world 

Attributes and functions 

God 

Angels 

Devils and demons 

Man and his soul 

Creation, sin, salvation, repentance, atonement 



* Divide as instructed under 296.141-296.142 

255 



254 



Decirnal Classification 



Other religions and comparative religion 



296.33 



.38 
.385 



.387 



.4 



.41 
.42 



.43 



.431 
.432 
.433 

.435 
.436 
.437 



.438 
.439 



Eschatology 

Death, resurrection, immortality, messianism 

Moral and social theology 

Moral theology 

Conscience, sins, vices, virtues, duties 

Social theology 

Attitude toward and influence on secular matters 
Divide like 261, e.g., attitude toward science 296.387 5 

Public services, rites, traditions 

Scope: liturgy, hymns, prayer, responsive reading, symbolism, 
ceremonies, comprehensive works on public and private worship 
and prayer 

For personal and family religion, see 296.7 

Sabbath 

Sermons and homiletics 

Class sermons on a specific subject with the subject 

Festivals, holy days, fasts 
For Sabbath, see 296.41 

RoshHashanah (New Year) 
Yom Kippur ( Day of Atonement ) 
Sukkoth ( Feast of Tabernacles ) 
Hanukkah (Feast of the Dedication) 
Purim ( Feast of Lots ) 
Pesach (Passover) 
Including Seder service 

Shabuoth ( Feast of Weeks, Pentecost) 

Other 

Including Tishah b'Ab, Lag b'Omer 



296.44 
.442 
.442 2 
.442 3 
.442 4 
.443 
.444 
.445 

.6 

.61 
.65 
.67 



.673 
.675 
.68 



.7 



.71 



.72 



.73 

.74 



Rites and customs for specific occasions 
Special rites for male Jew 

Berithmilah (Circumcision) 

Pidyon haben (Redemption of first-born male) 

Bar mitzvah 
Bathmitzvah 

Marriage and divorce rites and traditions 
Burial and mourning rites and traditions 

Leaders, organization, activities 
Leaders 

Synagogues 

Organization and organizations 
Institutions, associations, polity 

Young Men's Hebrew Associations 
Young Women's Hebrew Associations 

Religious education 

Sunday schools, afternoon weekday schools, parochial schools 

Personal and family religion 

For moral theology, see 296.385 






Religious experience 

Mysticism, conversion, asceticism, self-discipUne 

Daily devotions and worship 

Morning, afternoon, evening prayers, blessings at meals, 
meditation, contemplation 

Observance of dietary laws 

Conduct of life 

Application of rehgious virtues to everyday life 
For observance of dietary laws, see 296.73 



r 
1^ > 



256 



^S7 



» I 
t\ 



Decimal Classification 



Other religions and comparative religion 



296.8 



.81 



Sects and movements 

Class a specific aspect of a specific sect or movement with the 
subject 

Ancient 

Karaites, Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Samaritans, Hellenistic 
movement, Qumran community 



.82 


Medieval 




Including Sabbatianism 


.83 


Modern 


.832 


Orthodox Judaism 


.833 


Mystical Judaism 




Including modem Hasidisui 


.834 


Reform movements 


.834 2 


Conservative Judaism 


.834 4 


Reconstructionist Judaism 


.834 6 


Reform Judaism 



297 Islam and religions derived from it 

Use 297.001-297.009 for standard subdivisions 
.0I-.09 Standard subdivisions of Islam 



297.1 
.2 
.3 

.4 
,5 
.6 

.7 
.8 



SUMMARY 

SouTces, relationships, attitudes of Islam 

Islamic doctrinal theology ( Aqaid and Kalam) 

Islamic forms of worship and other rites and 

ceremonies 

Personal religion in Islam 

Islamic moral theology 

Islamic leaders and organization 

Islamic activities 

Islamic sects and other religions 



.1 



Sources, relationships, attitudes of Islam 



297.12 
.122 



.122 1 



.122 4 
.122 5 



.122 6 



.122 7 

.122 8 
,122 9 



297.12-297.14 Sources 
Sacred books and scriptures 
Koran 



297.122 1 - 297.122 8 General principles 
Origins and authenticity 



297.122 4-297.122 5 Texts 

Scope: textual criticism 

For commentaries, see 297.122 7 

Arabic 

Translations 

Divide like 420-490, e.g., Urdu translations 

297.122 591439 

Interpretation and higher criticism 

Divide Uke 220.6, e.g., historical criticism 297.122 67 
For commentaries, see 297.122 7 

Conmientaries 

Criticism and interpretation arranged in textual order 

Special subjects treated in Koran 
Individual suras and groups of suras 

Origins, authenticity, texts, criticism, interpretation, 

commentaries, special subjects 



.124 Hadith 

.124 01-.124 08 General principles 

Divide hke 297.122 1 - 297.122 8, e.g., origins 

297.124 01 



297.124 1 - 297.124 8 Specific Hadith 

Add to each subdivision identified by » and divide like 
297.122 1 - 297.122 8, e.g., Arabic text of Hadith of Al-Bukhari 
297.124 104 



2S8 



!^59 









pi 

hi 



.14 



.19 
.197 



21 

.211 
.215 
.216 
.22 



.23 



Decimal Classification 



Other religions and comparative religion 



297.124 1 


*A1-Bukhari 


.124 2 


*Abu Daud 


.124 3 


•Muslim 


.124 4 


•Al-Tirmidhi 


.124 5 


*A1-Nasai 


.124 6 


•Ibn Majah 


.124 7 


Other Sunni Hadith 


.124 8 


Hadiths of other sects 


.13 


Oral traditions 




For Hadith, see 297 A2A 



I- :■:■::. 



Laws and decisions (Fiqh) 
Religious and ceremonial 
Class Islamic law on other subjects in 340 

Relationships and attitudes 

Social theology 

Attitude toward and influence on secular matters and other 

religions 

Divide like 261, e.g., attitude toward Judaism 297.197 296 

Islamic doctrinal theology ( Aqaid and Kalam ) 

For Koran, see 297.122; Mohammad the Prophet, 297.63 

Spiritual world 

Attributes and functions 

God 

,■-'■ ' i 

Angels 

Devils and demons 

Man 

Creation, fall, sin, salvation, grace, faith, repentance, 
intercession 

Eschatology 

Death, intermediate state, resurrection, day of judgment, future 
life, eternity, heaven, hell 



• Divide as instructed under 297.124 1 - 297.124 8 

^6o 



297.3 



Islamic forms of worship and other rites and ceremonies 

For personal religion, see 297.4 



.301-.303 Specific sects 

Divide like 297.81-297.83, e.g., Sunni rites 297.301 



.32 


Divination 




Omens, oracles, prophecies 


.33 


Witchcraft 


.35 


Sacred places 




Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem 


.36 


Sacred times 


.38 


Rites and ceremonies 



A 



.51 

.52 
.53 
.54 
.55 



.61 



Public prayer, public feasts and fasts, pilgrimages 

Personal religion in Islam 

Rehgion as an inner experience and guide to daUy Hving 
Divide like 291.4, e.g., conduct of life 297.44 
For moral theology, see 297. S 

Islamic moral theology 

Conscience, sins, vices, virtues, duties 
For Jihad (holy tear), see 297.72 

Profession of faith 
Prayer five times daily 
Fasting 

Almsgiving (Zakat) 
Pilgrimage to Mecca 

Islamic leaders and organization 



297.61-297.64 Leaders and their work 

Functionaries 

Muezzins and imams 

261 



Decimal Classification 



Other religions and comparative religion 



297.63 
.64 
.65 



.7 

72 
Ji 



Mohammed the Prophet 
Mohammed's family and companions 
Organization and organizations 

Institutions, associations, orders, parties, congregations 

Including caliphate 

For laws and decisions, see 297.14 

Islamic activities 

Including missions, religious training and instruction 

Jihad (Holy war) 
Islamic sects and other religions 



297.81-297.85 Sects and reform movements 
Class a specific aspect of a specific sect or reform movement 
with the subject 

For Sikhism, see 294.553 



.81 


Suimites 


.811 


Hanafites 


.812 


Shafiites 


.813 


Malikites 


.814 


Hanbalites 




Including Wahhabis 


.82 


Shiites 


.821 


Twelvers (Ithna Ashirites) 


.822 


Seveners (Ismailites) 


.824 


Zaydites 


.83 


Other 


.835 


Kadarites 


.837 


Miirjiites 


.85 


Druzes 



297.87 
.88 
.89 



298 



297.87-297.89 ReHgions derived from Islam 
Religion of Black Muslims 
Babism [formerly 297.89] 

Bahai faith 

Divide like 291, e.g., duties 297.895 
Class Babism [formerly 297.89] in 297.88 

[Permanently unassigned] 

If it is desired to give local emphasis and a shorter number to a 
specific religion, class it here 



299 Other religions 

A-A Of Indo-European, Semitic, Hamitic, Ural-Altaic origin 

Divide like 491-494, e.g., Druidism 299.16 



.51 
.512 

,514 

.54 
.56 
.561 

.57-.59 



.6 

.7 
.8 
.9 



262 



Of East and Southeast Asian origin 
Chinese 

Confucianism 

Divide like 291, e.g., virtues 299.512 5 

Taoism 

Divide like 291, e.g., forms of worship 299.514 3 

Tibeto-Burman 

Japanese 

Shintoism 

Divide like 291, e.g., shrines 299.561 35 

Other 

Divide like 495.7-495.9, e.g., religions of Burmese origin 299.58 

Of African and Negro origin 

For religion of Black Muslims, see 297.87 

Of North American Indian origin 
Of South American Indian origin 
Of Austronesian and Oceanic origin 

263 



The social sciences 



300 



300 The social sciences 



The sciences that deal with social activities and institutions 

Use 300.1-300.9 for standard subdivisions 

Class social, political, economic, diplomatic, welfare aspects of a specific 

war with history of the war 



^ 301-309 General considerations 

301 Sociology 

The science that deals comprehensively with social activities and 
institutions 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions 

SUMMARY 

301.1 Social psychology 

.2 Cultural processes 

.3 Human ecology 

.4 Institutions and groups 

.5 Sociology of everyday activities and preoccupations 



.1 



.15 
.152 



.152 2 
.152 3 

.153 



Social psychology 

Interaction between personality, attitudes, motivation of 
individuals and stiructure, dynamics, behavior of groups 

Group behavior i' , 

For stability 

Social control by coercion, persuasion, custom, taboo 

Group morale and loyalty 
Control of opinion 

By public relations, pubhcity, indoctrination, rumor 



For change (Social movements) 

264 



V. 



301.154 

.155 
[.158] 

.16 



.18 
.181 
.182 
.183 

1 

.185 
.186 

2 



[.209] 



24 



.245 
.246 



H. 



In opinion formation 

Uses, measurement, effect of public opinion 

For leadership 

Behavior groups 
Class in 301.18 

Mass communication processes 

Including comprehensive works on mass communication 
[formerly 384] 

For control of opinion, see 301.152 3; effects of mass 
communication on cultural processes, 301.24 

Behavior groups [former Jj/ 301.158] 
The pubUc at large 
Crowds and mobs 
Associations and meetings 
Formation, structme, workings 

Cliques and gangs 

Pressure groups [formerly 301.43] 



Cultural processes 

Conflict, compromise, assimilation, acculturation, cooperation, 
communication, others 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 301.29 

Means and kinds 

Including effects of invention, discovery, war, technology, 
automation, mass communication 



301.245-301.246 Kinds 



Progress 
Regress 



265 



Decimal Classification 



The social sciences 



301.29 



.32 



.320 212 



[.320 9] 



.329 



.34 



Historical and geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 301.29. e.g., cultural processes of the 
Occident 301.291 821; then, for cultural processes and general 
relations between two countries, regions, areas, places, groups, 
add and again add area notations 1-9, e.g., cultural processes 
and general relations between Occident and Orient 
301.291 821 05 

Give priority in notation to the country, region, area, place, 
group requiring local emphasis, e.g., libraries in United States 
class culhiral processes and general relations between United 
States and Islamic world in 301.297 301 767. If the ^o require 
equal emphasis, give priority to the one coming first m the 
sequence of area notations 
Class cultural situation and progress in 901.9 

Human ecology 

Adaptation to spatial and temporal environment 

Population 

Density, increase, decrease, movement, characteristics 
Including migration within a country [formerly 325.1] 

Tables, formulas, specifications 
Class statistical tables in 312 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 301.329 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Add area notations 1-9 to 301.329 

Community organization and development 

Areal distribution, location, expansion, pattern of growth 

For planning social conditions, see 309.2; kinds of 
communities, 301.35-301.37 








301.35-301.37 Kinds of communities 


.35 


Rural 


.36 


Suburban and urban 


.362 


Suburban 


.364 


Urban 




Si66 



301.37 


State, provincial, national 


.372 


State and provincial 


.377 


National 



.4 



Institutions and groups 

Social characteristics and problems, impact on society as a whole 
Use 301.400 1 - 301.400 9 for standard subdivisions 
For behavior groups, see 301.18 



.402 


Small groups 


.403 


Large groups 


.404 


Informal organizations 


.405 


Formal organizations 


.406 


Institutionalisui 




SUMMARY 




301.41 The sexes 

.42 Marriage and family 
.43 Groups of specific ages 

.44 Systems and criteria of social distinction and 
stratification 




.45 Nondominant groups 

.47 Groups of persons with physical and mental 
illnesses and handicaps 


.41 


The sexes [formerly 301.424; 


.411 


Man 


.412 


Woman [formerly also 396] 




Scope: feminism, superiority 


.412 1 


Emancipation 


,412 2 


Careers 


.412 6 


In the home 


.412 9 


In history, public afiFairs, war 


.413 


Celibacy 


.414 


Courtship [/orm^rij/ 301.425] 




Including preparation for marriage [formerly 301.426] 




267 



A' 



301.415 



.42 

.421 

.422 



.423 



[.424] 



[.424 3] 



[.425] 



.426 



.427 



.428 



.428 4 
.428 5 



Decimal Classification 



The social sciences 



Sex life outside marriage ; 

Concubinage, premarital relations, adultery, prostitution, 
homosexuality and other perversions 

Marriage and family 

Structure and functions of family 

Nature and forms of marriage 

Monogamy, polygamy, polyandry; interracial, intercultural, 
interreligious marriage; marriage between kin 

Family and social change 

Including effects upon family of urbanization, mobility, 
technology, industrialization, war 

The sexes 

Class in 301.41 

Regulation and control of prostitution 
Class in 350.764 

Courtship 

Class in 301.414 

Husband-wife relationship 
Including planned parenthood 

Class preparation for marriage in 301.414, marriage and 
family counseling in 362.82 [both formerly 301.426] ^ 



Intrafamily relationships 

Including mutual responsibilities 

For husband-wife relationship, see 301.426 

Family disorganization, dissolution, adjustment 
Including death, separation 



„ ■'. r 



b riv-. 



Divorce 
Remarriage 



V 



301.43 



.44 



.441 



.442 
.443 
.444 
.445 
.446 
.447 
,448 

.45 



.451 



Groups of specific ages 

Class pressure groups [formerly 301.43] in 301.186 



.431 


Minors 


.4314 


Children 




Thru age eleven 


.4315 


Adolescents 




Ages twelve to twenty 


.434 


Middle-aged 


.435 


Aged (Social gerontology) 




Including retirement 



z68 



Systems and criteria of social distinction and 
stratification 

By economic status 

Wealth, property, income 

Including entrepreneur, self-employed, wage-earning status 
For systems and criteria by occupation, see 301.444 

By family and kinship 

By location and duration of residence 

By occupation 

By amount of education 

By rehgion 

By race 

By language 

Nondominant groups 

Scope: prejudice, discrimination, segregation, desegregation, 
integration; refugees and displaced persons 

Ethnic 

Indigenous and nonindigenous 

Divide like 420-490, e.g., Negroes 301.451 96; then add 
and add area notations 1-9, e.g., Negroes in South Africa 
301.451960 68 

269 



Decimal Classification 



The social sciences 



'i 



v 



L-'t 



301.452 
.452 1 
.452 2 

.452 3 



Socioeconomic and religious 

Distinctive because of cultural practices 
Distinctive because of condition of servitude 

Slavery [formerly 326], serfdom [formerly 323.34] 
Distinctive because of lovir economic status 

For groups distinctive because of condUion of servitude, 
see 301.452 2 



301.452 8 - 301.452 9 Distinctive because of religious beliefs 
,452 8 Christians 

.452 81-.452 89 Specific denominations and sects 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Mennonites in Ohio 
301.452 897 771 



.452 9 



.453 



.47 



.52 
.53 

.54 

.55 
.56 



Communicants of other reUgions 

Divide hke 292-299, e.g., Moslems 301.452 97; then add 
and add area notations 1-9, e.g., Moslems m India 
301.452 970 54 

Of specific national origin 

Add area notations 3-9 for country of origin to 301.453 e.g. 
groups from Switzerland 301.453 494; then add and add 
area notations 1-9 for place where located, e.g., groups from 
Switzerland in United States 301.453 494 073 
For et/inic groups, see 301.451 

Groups of persons with physical and mental iUnesses and 
handicaps 

Divide like 616-617, e.g., alcoholics 301.476 861 

Sociology of everyday activities and preoccupations 

Social characteristics and problems, impact on society 

Securing food 

Securing clothing 

Securing shelter ( Housing [formerly 33 1 .833 ] ) 

Working 



Securing education 



301.57 


Enjoying leisure and recreation 


.58 


Worshiping 


302 




303 




304 




305 




306 




307 




308 




309 


Social situation and conditions 



[.09] 



Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 309.1 



.1 Historical and geographical treatment 

.101-.104 Historical periods 

Divide like standard subdivisions 090 1 - 090 4, e.g., social 
situation in year 1000 309.102 1 

.11-.19 Geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 309.1 

4 Planning 

Development of programs to bring about desired change in 
conditions 

.22 International 

.223 Technical assistance 

.223 5 Peace corps 

.223 54-.223 59 By country of origin 

Add area notations 4-9 to 301.213 5 



.23 

.25 
.26 



270 



National 

State, provincial, county 

City 

271 



Decimal Classification 



Statistical method and statistics 



310-390 Specific social sciences 

The sciences that deal with specific social activities and 



institutions 



310 Statistical method and statistics 

Use 310.01-310.09 for standard subdivisions 



.1-.9 



311 



.01 



.2 



[.206] 



Standard subdivisions of statistics 

Class general statistics by continent, country, locality in modem 
world in 314-319 

Statistical method 

Science of analysis and presentation of quantitative or quaUtative 
data secured thru enumeration or experiment 

Class mathematical calculations in 519.6-519.9, statistical method 
applied to a specific subject in standard subdivision 018 2 

Philosophy and theory 
Class theories in 311^ 

Preparation of statistics 

Scope: principles and theories 

Organizations 

Do not use; class in 311.3-311.4 



21 



.212 
.214 



311.21-311.26 Specific elements 

SampUng 

Scope: reliabihty and vaUdity 

Random sampling 
Quality control 

Including relative sampling 



.22 



311.22-311.24 Treatment of data 
For graphic presentation of data, see 311.26 

Collection 

Questionnaires, field work, enumeration 

272 



311.23 



.24 



.25 



.26 



28 



3 

.31 

.39 



.4 



•1 



.22 



Analysis 

Including determination and interpretation of statistical 
constants 

Tabulation 

Arrangement, layout, construction of tables and series 

Coefiicients and ratios 

Including index numbers, skewness, correlation 

Graphic presentation of data 
Charts, graphs, nomograms 

Public opinion surveys and polls 

For specific elements of preparation, see 311.21-311.26 



311.3-311.4 Organizations preparing statistics 

Official 

International 

In specific countries and localities 
Add area notations 3-9 to 311.39 

Nonofficial 



^ 312-319 Statistics 

Class statistics of a specific subject other than populations with 
the subject 

312 Statistics of populations (Demography) 



312.1-312.4 Vital statistics 

On births 

Add area notations 1-9 to 312.1 

On deaths (Mortality) 

Maternal deaths in childbirth 

^73 



-■ « 
M 



312.23 



.24 
.26 



27 



A 



J9 



Decimal Classification 



Statistical method and statistics 



Infant deaths 

Statistics of deaths of persons after live birth and before 

attaining age of one year 

Add area notations 1-9 to 312.23 

Stillbirths 

Deaths caused by disease 

Divide like 616.1-616.9, e.g., statistics of deaths by pulmonary 

tuberculosis 312.262 46 

For infant deaths, see 31223 

Deaths caused by accidents and crimes of violence 
For infant deaths, see 312.23 





312.272-312.275 By accidents 


.272 


Home 


.273 


Industrial 


.274 


Traffic 


.275 


Recreational 


.276 


By crimes of violence 




Deaths by homicide and suicide 



On illness ( Morbidity ) 

Divide like 616.1-616.9, e.g., statistics on incidence of measles 
312.391 5 
On accidents and crimes of violence 

Divide like 312.27, e.g., statistics on incidence of traffic accidents 
312.44 

On marriage and divorce 

On physical features and measurements ( Somatology ) 
On density, increase, decrease, movement of populations 
On other specific characteristics of populations 

Age, sex, nationaUty, race, language, religion, education, 
occupation 



313 



314 



315 



316 



317 



318 



319 



314-319 General statistics by continent, 
country, locality in modem world 

Europe 

Add area notation 4 to 31. e.g., general statistics of England 314.2 

Asia 

Add area notation 5 to 31, e.g., general statistics of Japan 315.2 

Africa 

Add area notation 6 to 31, e.g., general statistics of Tanganyika 
316.782 

North America 

Add area notation 7 to 31, e.g., general statistics of British Columbia 
317.11 

South America 

Add area notation 8 to 31, e.g., general statistics of Buenos Aires 
318.21 

Other parts of world 

Add area notation 9 to 31, e.g., general statistics of Australia 319.4 



274 



275 



Decimal Classification 



Political science 



320 Political science 

The science that deals with the institutions and processes of 
governmental regulation and control of men living in society 

For public administration, see 350; law, 340 

.01 Philosophy and theory 

Class political theories and ideologies in 320.5 

.02-.09 Other standard subdivisions 

.1 The state ( The body politic ) 

.11 Theory of origin 

Source and basis of political authority 



.12 


Geopolitics 




Class geopohtics in international relations m 327 


.13 


National self-determination 


.15 


Nature, entity, concept of the state 


.155 


Emerging states (New states) 


.157 


Internal sovereignty 


^158 


NationaUsm and unity 


.159 


'Tan" movements 




Add area notations 1-9 to 320.159 


.18 


Symbolism and emblems of state 


.3 


Comparative government 




Comparison of general structure of governments 


.5 


Political theories and ideologies 


,51 


Liberalism 


.52 


Conservatism 


.53 


Collectivism 


.531 


Socialism 


.532 


Communism 


.533 


Fascism 


^ 


Political situation and conditions 



Add area notations 1-9 to 320.9 

Z76 



321 



Types and forms of states 

Use 321.001-321.009 for standard subdivisions 



.01 



321.01-321.08 Forms 

Based on location of sovereignty in government 

Unitary state 

state in which control over policy is centralized in national 
government 

Federal state ( Federalism ) 

state in which local units have stated powers of which they 
may not be deprived by action of central government alone 

For world state, see 321.04 



[.025-.028] Semisovereign and dependent states 

Class in 321.08 



.02 



.03 


Empires 


.04 


World state 


.07 


Ideal state 



.08 



.09 



A 

.12 

.14 



Anarchy [formerly 321.9], Utopias 

States with special limitations 

Including semisovereign and dependent states [formerly 
321.025-321.028] 

Change of form of state 



321.1-321.9 Types 

Based on evolution of government 

Primitive and despotic states 

Primitive 

Including tribal state [formerly 321.2] 

Despotic 

Before ISOOa.d. 

Including Caesarism [formerly 321.6] 

277 



Decimal Classification 



Political science 



[321.2] 

.3 
.4 
.5 



.6 



.7 

72 
74 
A 
J 



.92 
.94 



322 



.4 



Tribal state 

Class in 321.12 
Feudal system 
Pure democracy (Greco-Roman republicanism) 

States controlled by select few 

Aristocracy, oligarchy, theocracy, plutocracy 



321.6-321.9 Modem nation states 

Monarchical absolutism 

16th-18th centuries 

Class totalitarian states in 321.9, Caesarism in 321.14 [both 

formerly 321.6] 

Modem constitutionalism 

For representative democracy, see 321.8 

Constitutional or limited monarchy 

Socialistic state 
Representative democracy 
Totalitarian states [formerly 32 1 .6] 

Class anarchy as a type of state [formerly 321.9] in 321.07 

Bolshevik 
Fascist 

Relation of state to organized groups 

For political parties, see 329.02; relation of state to communities, 
323.35; relation of government to education, 379 

Christian church and other reUgious bodies (State and 
church) 

Labor movements and groups 
Business and industry 
Protest and pressure groups 
Including reform movements 

For relation of state to revolutionary and subversive groups, see 
323.2 

278 



323 



.1 

.109 



Relation of state to individuals and groups 

For relation of state to organized groups, see 322 

SUMMARY 

323.1 Nondominant groups ^ 

.2! Revolutionary and subversive groups and mdi- 

viduals 
3 Communities and social classes 

,4 Individuals 

^ Political rights 

jS Citizenship 

Nondominant groups 

Historical and geographical treatment 

' V Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 

323.13-323.19 



.11 

.111 

.112^.119 



12 



.13-.19 



.2 



323.11-323.12 Specific groups 
For slaves, serfs, see 323.3 

Socioeconomic, religious, ethnic 
Socioeconomic and religious 

Ethnic 
' Divide like 420-490, e.g., relation of state to Negroes 

323.119 6; then add and add area notations 1-9, e.g., 
relation of state to Negroes in United States 323.119 607 3 

Of specific national origin 

Add area notations 3-9 for country of origin to 323.12, e.g., 
relation of state to groups from Ireland 323.124 15; then add 
and add area notations 1-9 for place where located, e.g., 
relation of state to groups from Ireland in United States 
323.124 150 73 

For ethnic groups, see 323.112-323.119 

Treatment by continent, country, locality 
Add area notations 3-9 to 323.1 

For specific groups, see 323.11-323.12 i 

Revolutionary and subversive groups and individuals 

OrganizetJ and unorganized groups 

279 



Decimal Classification 



323.3 



.35 



.4 

.42 
.43 
.44 



Communities and social classes 

Including slaves [formerly 326], serfs 

Class sociology of serfdom [formerly 323.34] in 301.452 2 

Communities 

Divide like area notation 173, e.g., urban communities 323.352 

Civil rights 

Equality before the law 
Rights of personal security 
Personal liberty and freedom of press 
Including freedom of action and movement 

For right of assembly and association, see 323.47 



.442 


Freedom of conscience 


and religion 


.443 


Freedom of speech 




.445 


Freedom of press 




.46 


Right of private property 




A7 


Right of assembly and association 


.48 


Right of petition 




.49 


Limitation and suspension 
guarantees 


L of individual rights and 


^ 


Political rights 

Including representation 
For suffrage, see 324 




.6 


Citizenship 




[.61] 


Laws 

Class in 340 




.62 


Naturalization 




.63 


Nationality 




.631 


Aliens 


' 



.632 



Including rights and protection [formerly 323.67] 

Statelessness [formerly 323.64] 

280 



Political science 



323.634 Dual nationality 

^636 Marriage and nationaUty 

.64 Expatriation and repatriation 

Class statelessness [formerly 323.64] in 323.632 

.65 Duties and obligations of citizens 

j^ Passports and visas 

Class rights and protection of aliens [formerly 323.67] in 
323.631 

324 Suffrage 

.09 Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in modem world 
in 324.4-324.9 



.1 


Qualifications for voting 


.2 


Elections 


.2021 


Election returns 




Add area notations 1-9 to 324.202 1 


.21 


Electoral systems 


.22 


Basis of representation 



.23 



.24 



.241 

.242 
.25 



For representation in legishtive bodies, see 328.334 

Nomination systems 

For nominations of party candidates, see 329.022 

Voting 

Including voting machines [formerly 32425] 

Voter registration 

Voting procedm-es 

Ballot systems 

Class voting machines [formerly 324.25] in 32424 



281 



Decimal Classification 



Political science 



324.27 
.271 
.273 



.277 

.3 

.4-.9 



Corruption and irregularities in elections 

Electoral frauds ^ 

Irregular contributions and expenditures ' 

Class political contributions [formerly 324.273] in 329.025 

Contested elections 



Woman suffrage 



\:i. 



Treatment by continent, coimtry, locality in modem world 

Add area notations 4-9 to 324 '■ }.. ' 



325 International migration 



.09 



.109 



.209 



.21 
.22 
.23-.29 



Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in modem world 
in 325.4-325.9 

Immigration 

Entrance into a country for the purpose of permanent residence 
Class migration within a country [formerly 325.1] in 301.32 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in modem 
world in 325.4-325.9 

Emigration 

Departure from a country for residence elsewhere 

t 
Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
325.23-325.29 

Pohtical refugees 
Transfer of population 

Emigration from specific continents, countries, localities 

Add area notations 3-9 to 325.2, e.g., emigration from Japan 
325.252; then add 09 and add area notations 1-9 for place 
entered, e.g., emigration from Japan to United States 
325.252 097 3 

282 



325.3 

.309 



;■ .■), 



.31 



Colonization 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class colonization in specific places of modern world in 
325.4-325.9, colonization by specific countries in 
325.33-325.39 

Colonial administration and policies 

Class internal administration of specific colonies in 354 



,33-.39 Colonization by specific countries 

Add area notations 3-9 to 325.3, e.g., colonizaHon by United 
Kingdom 325.342; then add 09 and add area notations 1-9 for 
place colonized, e.g., colonization by United Kingdom in West 
Africa 325.342 096 6 

.4-.9- International migration by continent, country, locality in 
modem world 

Migration to and colonization in specific places 

Add area notations 4-9 to 325 

For emigration from specific continents, countries, localities, see 
325.23-325.29; colonization by specific countries, 325.33-325.39 



326 Slavery and emancipation 



[.1] 



[.92] 



327 



.09 



-», T:* 



Class relation of state to slaves in 323.3, sociology of slavery in 
301.452 2 [both formerly 326] 

Slave trade 

Class in 380.144 

Biography of slaves 

Class biographies of persons associated with a specific subject 
in standard subdivision 092, of persons not so associated in 920 

International relations 

AfiFairs of the world political community 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class foreign pohcies of specific nations in 327.3-327.9 



283 



Decimal Classification 



327.1 



.11 



.112 
.114 
.116 



.12 
.14 
.2 



.3-.9 



328 



.1 

3 



.309 



International politics 

Competition among states for power and influence 

Power politics 

Processes of finding and using the power necessary to reach 
selected goals 

Balance of power system 

Spheres of influence 

Collective security 

Class cooperation to promote peace and order in 341.1 

Espionage 

Conduct of propaganda and psychological warfare 

Diplomacy 

Conduct of negotiations between governments 

Class laws, rules, customs governing diplomatic conduct in 341.7 

Foreign policies of specific nations 

Attitudes, courses of action, objectives adopted by the government 
of a state in its relations with other states and regions 

Add area notations 3-9 to 327, e.g., foreign poUcy of United 
Kingdom 327.42; then, for foreign relations between two nations, 
add and again add area notations 3-9, e.g.. foreign relations 
between United Kingdom and France 327.420 44 

Give priority in notation to the nation requiring local emphasis, 
e.g., Ubraries in United States class foreign relations between 
United States and United Kingdom in 327.730 42. If the two 
nations require equal emphasis, give priority to the one coming 
first in the sequence of area notations 

Legislation 

Parliamentary rules and procedures Iformerly also 328.37] 

Legislative function 

Legislative branch of government 

Parhaments, congresses, assemblies 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in modern 
world in 328.4-328.9 

284 





Political science 




SUMMARY 


328.31 
.32 


Upper house 
Lower house 


.33 
.34 


Membership 

Prerogatives, powers, privileges 


.35 
.36 
.37 


Sessions 

Internal organization and discipline 

Enactment of bills and resolutions 


.39 


Forms and types 



328.31 
.32 



.33 

.333 
.334 

.334 5 
.334 52 
.334 54 
.334 55 
.334 7 

.34 



.341 
.345 
.346 

.347 
.348 

.35 



328.31-328.32 Specific houses 
For specific elements, see 328.33-328.37 



Upper house 
Lower house 



328.33-328.37 Specific elements 

Membership 

For discipline of members, see 328.366 

Compensation 

Representation 

Election districts 

Apportionment and reapportiormient 

Redistricting 
Gerrymandering 
Proportional representation 

Prerogatives, powers, privileges 
Including impeachment 

Power over revenue and appropriations 
Legislative investigation 
Treaty-making powers 
Privileges of legislators 
Immunities of legislators 



Sessions 



285 



! 



Decimal Classification 



Political science 



328.36 
.362 



.365 



.366 
.368 

.37 



Internal organization and discipline 

Officers and leaders 
Selection, appointment 

Committees 

Organization and operations 

Class committee hearings and reports on a specific subject 

with the subject 

Discipline of members 
Congressional lobbying 

Enactment of bills and resolutions 

Forms and procedures 

Class parhamentary rules and procedures [formerly 328.37] in 

328.1 



.373 


Bill drafting 


.375 


Passage of bills 


.377 


Resolutions 


.378 


Private bills 


.39 


Forms and types 




Unicameral, bicameral 



.4_.9 Legislative branch of government by continent, comitry^ 
locality in modem world 

Add area notations 4-9 to 328, e.g., United Kingdom Parliament 
328.42; then add further as follows, e.g., journals of United 
Kingdom Parhament 328.420 1 . , 

001-008 Standard subdivisions 
Journals 
Debates 
Abstracts 
Other documents 
Rules and procedures 

Including legislative manuals [formerly 08] 
The legislative body 

Divide like 328.3, e.g., compensation of members 

073 3 
Legislative manuals 

Class in 05 
History 

286 



01 
02 
03 

04 
05 

07 



[08] 



09 



329 



Practical politics 

For elections, see 324.2 



.001-.005 

.006 

.007-.009 

.01 



.02 

■ ■ ij. 

.021 
.021 1 
.0212 

.0213 
.0214 



.022 
.022 1 
.022 2 
.022 3 
.022 4 
.023 

.024 
.025 

.03 

.04 
.05 



Philosophy, miscellany, dictionaries, serial pubhcations 

Political organizations and institutions [formerly 363] 

Other standard subdivisions 

PoUtical propaganda 

Class presidential campaign literature of specific political 
parties of United States [formerly 329.01] in 329.1-329.8 

. it. 

Political parties 

Class specific parties in 329.1-329.9 

Party organization 

Political machines 

Party leadership 

Platforms and slogans 

Party caucus 

For nominations of party candidates by caucus, see 
329.022 2 



<■■* 



Nominations of party candidates 

By convention . r^ 

By caucus 

By direct primary 

Boss dictation 
Election campaigns 

Class campaign literature in 329.01 

Political patronage 

Political contributions [formerly 324273] and fund 
raising 
Pressure and other interest groups 
For congressional lobbying, see 328.368 

Political process 

Study of public opinion 

Content, origin, political influence 

287 



Decimal Classification 



329.1-329-9 Political parties of specific countries 

Divide as below; but, if it is desired to give local emphasis and a 
shorter number to parties of a speciBc country, place them first 
by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., pohtical parties of Pern 
329.P (preceding 329.1); arrange specific parties and divide 
each as instructed under 329.9 



329.1-329.8 Specific political parties of United States 

Scope: presidential campaign literature [formerly 329.01] 

If preferred, class in 329.9 

Add to each subdivision identified by • and divide like 
329.01-329.02, e.g., election campaigns of Democratic Party 
329.302 3 



329.1 


♦Federalist Party 


.2 


♦Anti-Federalist Party 


.3 


♦Democratic Party 


.4 


♦Whig Party 


.5 


♦American (Know-Nothing) Party 


.6 


♦Republican Party 


3 


Others 


.81 


•Socialist Party 


82 


•Communist Party 



Political parties of other countries 



(Optional: specific poUtical parties of United States; prefer 

329.1-329.8) 

Add area notations 3-9 to 329.9 

If desired, arrange specific parties of a specific country 
alphabetically, e.g.. Labour Party of Great Britain 329.942 L2, 
then add and divide like 329.01-329.02, e.g.. Labour Party 
leadership 329.942 L20 212 



* Divide as instructed under 329.1-329.8 



288 



Economics 



330 Economics 



The science that deals with production, distribution, consumption of 
wealth 

For commerce^ see 380 



.01 

.02-.09 

.1 

.12 

.122 

.124 

.15 



.151 

.152 
.153 
.154 
.155 

.156 
.159 



.16 



Philosophy and theory 

Class general theories in 330.1 

Other standard subdivisions 
General systems, principles, theories 

Systems of control 

Decentralized (Free-enterprise economy) 
Centralized ( Planned economy ) 

Integrated systems and schools 



330.151-330.156 Capitalist and free-enterprise 
Mercantilism 
Physiocracy 
Classicism and neoclassicism ( Individuahsm ) 

Historical school 

Universalism 

Romantic, institutional, ethical, social justice schools 

Keynesianism (The New Economics) 

CoUectivist 

(Optional; prefer 335 ) 

Divide like 335, e.g., Marxian systems 330.159 4 

Miscellaneous general theories 
For theories of property, see 330.17 



.161 


Of wealth 


.162 


Of value 


.162 2 


Marginal utility theory 


.163 


Of income 


.17 


Theories of property 




289 



Decimal Classification 



330.9 



.901-.904 



•91-.99 



331 



.01 

.011 

.012 

.013 



.1 



Economic situation and conditions 

Historical periods 

Divide like standard subdivisions 090 1 - 090 4, e.g., 
economic situation in 1960-1970 330.904 6 

Geographical treatment (Economic geography) 
If preferred, class in 910.1 
Add area notations 1-9 to 330.9 



331-333 Specific factors of production 

For entrepreneur ship, see 338.7 

Labor 

Utilization of manpower resources for production 

Philosophy and theory 
Right to work 
Satisfactions of labor 

Class classification of labor in 331.7 

Freedom, dignity, value of labor 





SUMMARY 


331.1 


Industrial relations 


.2 


Wages 


.3-.6 


Special classes of workers 


.3 


Specific age groups 


.4 


Women 


.5 


Substandard wage earners 


.6 


Other groups 


.7 


Labor by occupation 


.8 


Other topics 



[.109] 



Industrial relations 

Relations between labor and management 

For industrial relations of special classes of workers, see 
331.3-331.6; disputes between labor and management, 331.89 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 331.19 
290 





Economics 




SUMMARY 


331.11 


Labor force 


.12 


Labor stability and instability 


.13 


Unemployment and reemployment 


.15 


Conciliation practices 


.18 


Industrial relations in specific industries 


,19 


Historical and geographical treatment of industrial 




relations 



331.11 
.112 



.113 



.114 



.115 
.116 



331.11-331.15 Specific elements 
Labor force 
Labor market 

For labor stability and instability, see 331.12 

Discrimination in employment 

Consideration of workers on basis other than job 
qualifications 

Job qualifications of workers 

Physical and mental capacity, education, experience 

Obtaining employment [formerly also 371.425] 

Employment bargaining 

Collective negotiation and settlement of terms of 
employment between employers and workers 

For conciliation practices, see 331.15 



.1168 


In specific industries 


.116 81 


Service and professional 




Divide like 001-999, e.g., telephone industry 
331.116 813 846 


.116 82-.116 89 


Other 




Extractive, manufactunng, construction 




Divide like 620-690, e.g., clothing industry 
331.116 887 



.12 



197 



Labor stability and instability 

For unemployment and reemphyment, see 331.13 

Employment security and job tenure 

291 



331.126 



.127 



.13 

.134 
.137 



[.137 09] 



.137 2 



.137 3 
.137 4 
.137 7 



.137 8 



.137 81 



Decimal Classiiication 



Economics 



Turnover 

Causes, costs, incidence 

Mobility 

Transfer from one region to another 

Unemployment and reemployment 
Cancelation of labor contracts 
Unemployment 

Cyclical, seasonal, partial, technological 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 331.137 9 



.137 82-.137 89 



.137 9 



.138 



331.137 2-331.137 7 Specific elements 

Causes 

For cancelation of labor contracts, see 331.134 

Effects 

Distribution and incidence 

Prevention and relief 

For guaranteed-wage plans, see 331.23 

In specific occupations 

For specific elements, see 331.137 2 - 331.137 7 

Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., commercial artists 
331.137 817 416 

Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., automobile workers 
331.137 829 2 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Add area notations 1-9 to 331.137 9 
Reemployment 



331.15 



.152 



.154 



.155 



[.16] 



.18 



.181 



.182-.189 



19 



Conciliation practices 

Settlement of labor-management differences thru discussions, 
deliberations, recommendations of third party 

Use of labor-management committees 
Industrial democracy 

Mediation 

Non-compulsory recommendations by third party 

Arbitration 

Compulsory decisions by third party 

Labor courts 
Class in 347.9 

Industrial relations in specific industries 
For specific elements, see 331.11-331.15 

Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., railroad transportation industry 
331.181 385 

Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., chemical industries 331.186 

Historical and geographical treatment of industrial 
relations 

Add area notations 1-9 to 331.19 

Wages 

Compensation in money, goods, services, computed on hourly, 
weekly, monthly, annual, piece basis 

Including compensation of Christian clergymen [forinerly also 
254.8], of teachers [formerly 371.16], of physicians [formerly also 
614.25], fees and commissions in building contracting [formerly 
also 692.8] 

For wages of special classes of workers, see 331.3-331.6 

^93 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



331.201 



[.209] 



.21 
.215 



.218 



.22 

.23 

.25 
.252 

.255 



[.26] 



2S 



281 



Philosophy and theory 
Class theories in 331.21 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 331.29 



331.21-331.25 Specific elements 
Principles 

Fixing rates 

Minimums, maximums, incentives, differentials; relation of 
rates to supply and demand, to bargaining power, to 
production, to consumption and cost of living (adequacy) 

Plurality of v^^ages 

Thru plurality of employment of one person, of members of 
one family unit 



331.22-331.23 Wage contracts 
Wage scales 

Guaranteed-wage plans 

Fringe benefits 

Pension systems 

Including teachers' pensions [formerly 371.17] 

Other 

Health and welfare programs, paid vacations and sick leave, 
life insurance 



Laws 

Class in 340 



- * 



Wages in specific occupations 

For specific elements, see 331.21-331.25 

Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., wages of domestic workers 
[formerly 331.284 7] 331.281 647 

294 



331.282-.289 



.29 



.31 



.34 



.38 



.381 



Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 
Divide like 620-690, e.g., wages in building trades 331.289 
Class wages of domestic workers [formerly 331.284 7] in 
331.281 647 

Historical and geographical treatment of wages 
Add area notations 1-9 to 331.29 



331.3-331.6 Special classes of workers 

Industrial relations, wages, work periods, training and rehabili- 
tation programs, organizations, disputes, specific occupations 

Observe the following table of precedence, e.g., aged Negro 

women 331.398 

Specific age groups 

Women 

Substandard wage earners 

Other groups 

Specific age groups 



.382-.389 



331.31-331.34 Young people 
For young people in specific occupations, see 331.38 ^ 

Children 

Thru age thirteen 

Youth 

Ages fourteen to twenty 

Young people in specific occupations 
Children and youth 

Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., theatrical people 331.381 792 

Other ^ 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., textile workers 331.387 7 

295 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



331.39 


Other age groups 


.394 


Middle aged 


.398 


Aged 


.398 8 


In specific occupations 


.398 81 


Service and professional 




Divide like 001-999, e.g., librarians 331.398 810 2 


.398 82- 


.398 89 Other 



Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., agricultural workers 
331.398 83 



.4 



Women 



.42 
.43 

.48 



.481 



.482-.489 



.5 



.51 
.54 

.55 
.57 



331.42-331.43 Specific elements 

Wages 
Married women 

In specific occupations 

For specific elements, see 331.42-331.43 

Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., research workers 331.481 001 4 

Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., pulp and paper workers 331.487 6 

Substandard wage earners 

Scope: competition between substandard wage labor and other 
labor 

Convicts 

Contract workers 
Apprentices [formerly 331. S6] 

Drafted workers 

Emergency labor in war and peace 

296 



331.58 
.582 
.584 
.59 

S 

.62 



.63 



.66 
.67 

[.68] 

.69 



.7 



.702 
.71 



Slaves, political and war prisoners 

Slaves 

Political and war prisoners 
Workers suffering physical and mental handicaps 

Other groups 

Immigrants 

Add area notations 1-9 for place of origin to 331.62, e.g., 
immigrant workers from China 331.625 1; then add and add 
area notations 1-9 for place where located, e.g., immigrant 
workers from China in California 331.625 107 94 

For seasonal workers, see 331.66-331.67 

Native-bom nonindigenous ethnic groups 
Including Jews [formerly 331.68] 

Divide like 420-490, e.g., Negroes 331.639 6; then add and 
add area notations 1-9 for place where located, e.g., Negro 
workers in United States 331.639 607 3 
For seasonal workers, see 331.66-331.67 



331.66-331.67 Seasonal workers 
Sharecroppers 

Casual-migratory workers 

Jews 

Class in 331.63 

Indigenous ethnic groups 

Divide like 420-490, e.g., North American Indians 331.699 7 
For seasonal workers, see 331.66-331.67 

Labor by occupation 

Use 331.700 1 - 331.700 9 for standard subdivisions 

For a specific element of labor, see the subject, e.g., wages 
3312 

Choice of vocation [formerly 371.425] 

The professions 

For specific professional occupations, see 331.761 



Decimal Classijication 



331.76 



.761 



.762-.769 



.79 



.794 



.795 



.798 



A 



SI 



[.810 9] 

.818 
.8181 



Specific occupations 

(Optional: specific subjects as professions or occupations; 
prefer standard subdivision 023 ) 

Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., photography 331.761 77 

Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., food processing 331.766 4 

Specific groups of occupations 
For the professions, see 331.71 

Skilled crafts 

Public service 

Elected and appointed civil servants 

Unskilled work 

Other topics 

Class these topics in relation to special classes of workers in 



331.3-331.6 



SUMMARY 



331.81 Occurrence and duration of work periods 

.86 Training and rehabilitation programs 

,88 Labor organizations (Labor unions) 

.89 Disputes between labor and management 

Occurrence and duration of work periods 

Length of day and week, rest periods, shift systems, night work, 
overtime, leaves of absence 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 331.819 

In specific occupations 
Sei-vice and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., nursing 331.818 161 073 
298 



Economics 



331.818 2-.818 9 



.819 



[.82] 



[.823] 



[.83] 



[.833] 



[.85] 



.86 



.861 
.863 
.868 
.88 



[.880 8] 



Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., coal mining 331.818 223 3 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Add area notations 1-9 to 331.819 

Industrial hygiene 
Class in 613.62 

Accidents in industry 
Class in 614.85 

Welfare services to laboring classes 
Class in 362.85 

Housing 

Class in 301.54 

Workers' supplementary education 
Class in 374 

Training and rehabiUtation programs 
Class apprentices [formerly 331.86] in 331.55 

Apprenticeship 

Other on-the-job and in-service training 

Rehabilitation 

Labor organizations ( Labor unions ) 

Use 331.880 01 - 331.880 08 for standard subdivisions 

Union racketeering and gangsterism 
Class in 364.143 



.880 9 

.880 91 

.880 93-.880 99 



Historical and geographical treatment 
International unions 
Treatment by continent, country, locality 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



331.881 
.8811 



.881 2-.881 9 



.883 
.886 
,889 
.89 



.892 
[.892 09] 



In specific occupations 
Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., teachers' unions 
331.881 137 11 

Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide hke 620-690, e.g., garmentworkers' unions 
331.881 87 



331.883-331.886 Specific kinds 
For unions in specific occupations, see 331.881 

Company unions 

Revolutionary unions 

Open, union, closed shop 

Disputes between labor and management 



331.892-331.893 Retaliatory measures by labor 
Strikes (Walkouts) 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 331.892 9 



331.892 2 - 331.892 4 Kinds 
For strikes in specific occupations, see 331.892 8 



.892 2 


Organized 


.892 3 


Sympathetic 


.892 4 


Outlaw 


.892 7 


Picketing 


.892 8 


In specific occupations 


.892 81 


Service and professional 




Divide like 001-999, e.g., musicians' strikes 




331.892 817 8 




300 



331.892 82-.892 89 



.892 9 



.893 



.894 



.898 



332 



.024 



.06 



Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., strikes of rubber workers 

331.892 878 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Add area notations 1-9 to 331.892 9 



Other 

Sabotage, boycotts, sit-down strikes, injunctions, political 
action 

Retaliatory measures by management 

Lockouts, strikebreaking, blacklisting, whitelisting, 
injunctions, political action 

Government intervention 
Lucrative capital 

Former heading: Financial economics 

Theory, formation, manipulation, utilization, exchange of money. 

deposits, credits, evidences of ownership 

For public finance, see 336; cooperative systems, 334 

Personal finance 

Including thrift 

Organizations 

Class financial institutions in 332.1-332.3 

SUMMARY 

332.1 Banks and banking 

.2 Savings banks and banking 

.3 Credit and loan institutions and their functions 

.4 Money 

.5 Noncommodity money and other mediums of 

exchange 
,6 Investment finance 

.7 Credit 

.8 Interest and discount 

.9 Counterfeiting, forgery, alteration 

301 



.1 






Decimal Classification 



Economics 



332.1 



.IP 



.12 



.13 

[.14] 

.15 
.152 



.153 



.154 
.155 

.16 



.17 

.172 



332.1-332.3 Financial institutions and their functions 

For clearing houses, see 332.78 

Banks and banking 



V •• % 



332.11-332.15 Specific kinds of banks and their 
functions 

Central 

Including banks of issue, implementation of national monetary 
policies 

Commercial (Deposit) 

For savings banks and banking, see 332.2 

Private (Unincorporated) 

Trust services 
Class in 332.178 

International 

For monetary stabilization and balance of payments 
Including International Monetary Fund [formerly 332.43] 

For development of resources and production 

Including International Bank for Reconstniction and De- 
velopment (World Bank), International Finance Corpora- 
tion, International Development Association 

For promotion of trade 

For international settlements 

Including Bank for International Settlements 

Multiple banking 

Branch and chain banking, syndicates, mergers 

Bank units 

Departmentalization 

302 



332.175 



.178 



.2 

.22 
.24 

[.27] 

.3 

.31 



.32 

.34 
.35 



.401 



i ' -^ 



332.175-332.178 Functions and services 

Class functions and services characteristic of specific kinds of 
banks in 332.11-332.15, 332.2 

General 

Deposits, reserves, loans, investments 

Special 

Including trust services [formerly 332.14], safe-deposit 
services [formerly 332.27] 

Savings banks and banking 

Mutual and stock 

Postal savings banks 

Savings departments of commercial banks 
Safe-deposit services 
Class in 332.178 



Credit and loan institutions and their functions 

\ Agricultural institutions 
Including land banks 



Building and loan associations 

Pawnshops 

Personal loan and sales finance institutions 



332.4-332.8 Forms of lucrative capital 

Instruments and functions 

Money 

For noncommodity money, see 332.5 

Theories 

Including quantity theory, circulation and velocity theory, 
equation of exchange theory 



303 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



[332.409] 

.41 
.413 



.414 



.42 



.422 



.423 



.424 



.425 



.427 



.428 



[.43] 



Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 332.49 

As a medium of exchange (Legal tender) 

Value fluctuations 

Relationship of monetary values and prices 

Volume fluctuations 

Including deflation, inflation 

As a standard of value 

Scope: international standards {formerly 332.43], nonmetallic 
standards [formerly 332.56] 



332.422-332.425 Commodity standards 
Monometallism (Single standard) 
Gold coin and bullion 

Bimetallism ( Double standard ) 
Gold and silver coins and bullion 
Class symmetallism [formerly 332.423] in 332.424 

Symmetallism [formerly 332.423] 
Combination of metals 

Composite commodity money 

Staple commodities in predetermined proportions 



332.427-332.428 Noncommodity standards 

Free ( Inconvertible ) 

Foreign exchange relatively unrestricted 

Controlled 

Foreign exchange strictly regidated 

International agreements 

Class International Monetary Fund in 332.152, international 
standards in 332.42 



332.45 



.46 



.49 



.5 

.52 
.53 
.55 

.56 



.6 



.61 



Foreign exchange 

International monetary systems 
Minting policies and practices 

Including token money [formerly 332.54] 
Historical and geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 332.49 

Noncommodity money and other mediums of exchange 

Scope: credit (fiduciary) currency 

Fiat money 
Paper money 
Barter instruments 

Nonregulated commodities 
Managed currency and social credit money 

Class nonmetallic standards [formerly 332.56] in 332.42 

Investment finance 





SUMMAIIY 


332.61 


Securities exchanges 


.62 


Brokerage firms 


.63 


Securities ( Evidences of ownership ) 


.64 


Exchange of securities (Trading procedures) 


.65 


International exchange of securities 


.66 


Investment banking 


.67 


Investment and investments 


.68 


Lotteries 



Securities exchanges 

Stock and commodity 



.62 


Brokerage firms 


.63 


Securities ( Evidences of ownership ) 




Description, evaluation (price yield, prospects for growth) 


.632 


Specific forms 


.632 2 


Stocks 


.632 23 


Common 


.632 25 


Preferred 




305 



Economics 



Decimal Classification 



332.632 3 


.632 4 


.632 7 


.632 8 


.633 


.633 2 


.633 3 


.64 



.642 

.643 

.644 

.645 

.65 

.66 



.67 

.670 28 

.672 
.673 
.673 09 



.673 3-.673 9 






.678 



Bonds 

Mortgages 

Mutual funds 

Commodities 
Specific classes 

Public 

Private ^ 

Exchange of securities (Trading procedures) 
Class regulation [formerly 332.64] in 350.825 

For international exchange of securities, see 332,65 

On organized exchanges 

Over the counter 

Commodity exchange transactions 

Speculation 
International exchange of securities 

Investment banking 

Long-term financing by banks and syndicates thru public issue, 
underwriting, purchase and resale 

Investment and investments 

Apparatus and equipment 
Class techniques in 332.678 

Domestic 
Foreign 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class foreign investments by specific countries in 
332.673 3-332.673 9 

By specific countries 

Add area notations 3-9 to 332.673, e.g., British foreign 
investments 332.673 42; then add and add area 
notations 1-9 for place of investment, e.g., British foreign 
investments in Brazil 332.673 420 81 

Investment practices and techniques 
Including forecasting, formula plans 
306 



332.68 



.7 



.71 

.72 

.74 
.742 

.743 



.75 
.754 



.78 
.8 



.82 
.83 
.84 

.9 



Lotteries 

Including lists of drawings 



Credit 



.76 



77 ' 



332.71-332.74 Specific kinds 

Agricultural 

Loans for promoting agricidtmral operations 

Real-estate 

Including mortgage loans 

Other 

Commercial, mercantile, industrial 

Personal loans 

Including chattel mortgages, consumer credit 

Credit collapse and restrictions 
Insolvency and bankruptcy 



332.76-332.77 Credit instruments 

Deposit transfer instruments 

Checks and money orders 

Other 

Commercial paper, promissory notes, drafts, letters of credit 

Clearinghouses 

Interest and discount 

Class interest and discount tables in 511.802 12 

Legal interest 

Usury 

Discount and rediscount 

Counterfeiting, forgery, alteration 

Of currency, securities, credit instruments 

307 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 






333 Land ( Natural resources ) 



.001 

.002-.009 

.01 

.012 



.13 
14 
.16 
2 



.3 



.32 



.322 



Philosophy and theory 
Class theories in 333.01 
Other standard subdivisions 

Theories 

Economic rent [former?!/ 333.5] 

Ricardo's theory of payment for use of land in terms of its 
relative productivity 





SUMMARY 


333.1 


Public land (Public domain) 


.2 


Common land 


.3 


Private land 


.4 


Absentee ownership 


.5 


Rental 


.6 
.7 


Urban rent 

Surface resources and general conservation 


.8 


policies 

Subsurface (Mineral) resources 


.9 


Other natural resources 



333.1-333.6 Specific forms of control 

For control of specific types of natural resources, see 333.7-333.9 

Public land (Public domain) 

Land over which government exercises sole right of control 

Expropriation 

Nationalization 

Free disposal ( Land grants ) 

Common land 

Land over which each member of an association exercises equal 
rights of control 

Private land 

Land over which single owner exercises right of control 

Types (Land tenure) 

For absentee ownership, see 333.4 



Feudal tenure 




.332 



.333 
.334 



^3 



Individual ownership (Alodium) 

Corporation ownership 

Real estate 

Class management of real-estate business [formerly 333.33] in 



658 



For subdivision and development, see 333.38 



333.^o<i-333.334 Specific kinds of transactions 
For specific types of real estate, see 333.335-333.339 

Valuation 

Appraisal, effect of specific factors, price determination 

Sale and transfer 
Rental 



333.335-333.339 Specific types of real estate 
Appraisal, sale, transfer, rental 



.335 


Agricultural 


.336 


Industrial 


.337 


Urban 


.339 


Other 


[.34] 


Titles and deeds 




Class lavjr in 340, public administration in 350.825 


[.351 


Inheritance 




Class in 340 


J8 


Subdivision and development 


.4 


Absentee ownership 


.5 


Rent 



308 



Class economic rent [formerly 333.5] in 333.012 
For urban rent, see 333.6 

Tenancy 

For relations between landlord and tenant, see 333.54 

309 



, -1 
t 



333.54 



.55 

.6 
.62 



.63 



.7 

.72 



J3 



J4 
75 



.76 



.77 
.78 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



Landlordism 

Including relations between landlord and tenant 

Agricultural rent 

Urban rent 

Ground rent 

Rent of land for building and industrial development 

Building rent 



333.7-333.9 Specific types of natural resources 

Ownership, control, economic importance, settlement, utiliza- 
tion, conservation policies 

Surface resources and general conservation policies 

General conservation policies 

Class conservation poUcies of specific types of terrestrial 
resources in 333.73-333.92 



333.73-333.78 Surface land resources 

Wastelands 

Including arid and semiarid lands 

Pasture lands 

Forest lands 

Including forest policy [jormerly 634.925], forest resources 
[/ofmeWy 634.927] 

Agricultural lands 

For pasture lands, see 333.74; forest lands, 333,75 r 



4-- 



Urban lands 
Recreational lands 

Parks, playgrounds, wildlife refuges 

Subsurface (Mineral) resources 

310 



333.9 
.91 



.910 2 
.910 4 



.912 



.913 
.914 
.915 



334 



.1 
.2 



Other natural resources 

Water and land adjoining it 

Use 333.910 01 - 333.910 09 for standard subdivisions 

Surface water 

Ground (Subsurface) water 



333.912-333.915 Water for specific uses 
For industrial and domestic use 
Including potable water 

For irrigation 
For power 
For navigation 



333.916-333.918 Specific kinds of water and land 
adjoining it 

For water for specific uses, see 333.912-333.915 



.916 


Sea water 


.917 


Shorelands 




Including littoral and riparian rights 


.918 


Submerged lands and tidelands 


.92 


Air 


.94 


Space 



334-335 Special methods of organization for 
production, distribution, consumption 

Cooperative systems 

Joint ownership and operation of economic enterprises and activities 
by voluntary groups for their own benefit 

Building and housing 

Banking and credit 

Including credit unions 



I 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



334.5 Distribution (Consumers' cooperatives) 

For housing, see 334.1 

JS Production 

.68 In specific industries 

.681 Service and professional 

Dmde like 001-999, e.g., cooperative medical services 
334.681 61 

For banking and credit, see 334.2; building and housing, 
334.1 

.682-.689 Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., cooperative cattle production 

334.683 62 



.7 



335 



.02 



Benefit societies 

Friendly, mutual-aid, benevolent, provident 

CoUectivist systems and schools 

Integrated assertions, theories, aims of economic and 
politicoeconomic ideologies 

If preferred, class in 330.159 

Use 335.001-335.009 for standard subdivisions 

For political theories and ideologies of collectivism, see 320.53 

Utopian systems and schools 
Voluntary association 
Class specific Utopian systems in 335.1-335.3 



335.1-335.3 Utopian and humanitarian systems 

For Utopian and humanitarian socialist and anarchist com- 
munities, see 335.9 



.1 


Of English origin 


.12 


Utopian socialism 




Including Owenism 


.14 


Fabian sociaHsiii 


.15 


Guild socialism 




312 



335.2 Of French origin 

Including Fourierism { Phalansterianism ) [formerly 3Z5. 3] y 
Babouvism, Icarianism, Saint-Simonism 

Ji Of American origin 

Class Fourierism (Phalansterianism) [formerly 335.3] in 335.2 

.4 Marxian systems 

.401 Philosophy and theory 

Class basic concepts in 335.41 

.41 Basic concepts 

,411 Philosophic foundations 

Dialectical materialism, historical materialism, Marx's ma- 
terialism and theory of knowledge, theory of class struggle, 
labor theory of value 

.413 Aims 

Dictatorship of the proletariat, world revolution, interna- 
tionalism, classless society 

,42 Scientific sociahsm 

Including First International, Second International, Vienna 
International 

,43 Revolutionary sociahsm ( Communism) 

For communist international organizations, see 335.44 

.432 Methods of propagation 

.437 Comparative studies 

Comparison with capitalism, cooperation, other forms of 
collectivism 

.438 Attitude toward and influence on odier subjects 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., attitude toward and influence on 
religion 335.438 2 

.44 Communist international organizations 

Including Third International (Comintern), Cominfoim 

3^3 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



i: 






335.5 



.6 



.7 



.8 

.82 

.83 



336 



.02 



State socialism and social democracy 

Nationalization of key industries 
For Fabian socialism, see 335.14 

Nationalist socialism 

Including fascism, nazism, Falangism 

Christian socialism 

Including Catholic socialism 

For Christian socialist and anarchist communities, see 335.9 

Other systems 

Syndicalism 

Anarchism 

For anarchist communities, see 335.9 

Utopian, humanitarian. Christian socialist and anarchist 
commimities 

Add area notations 3-9 to 335.9 

Public finance 

Financial transactions of governments and their units 

Scope: local government finance [formerly 352.1] 

Use 336.001-336.008 for standard subdivisions 

Class financial administration of governments in 350.71-350.72 

Revenue 

Add area notations 1-9 to 336.02 

Class specific forms of revenue in 336.1-336.2 

.09 Historical and geographical treatment 

.091 Regions, areas, places, groups in general 

.091 6 Associations of sovereign states [formerly 

341.11-341.18] 

.091 62 League of Nations 

.091 63 United Nations 

.091 68 Regional associations 

3^4 . 



336.093 
[.094-.099] 



.1 



.11 

.12 

.15 

.16 

.17 

.18 

.182 

.185 



,188 
.19 



.202 

.202 2 
.202 4 

.203 



The ancient world 

Continents, countries, localities in modem world 
Do not use; class in 336.4-336.9 



336.1-336.3 Specific elements 



336.1-336.2 Revenues 
Class comprehensive works in 336.02 

Nontax (Commercial and voluntary) 

For fees, see 336.273; licenses, 336.274 

From rents and franchises 

From sale of government property 

From deposits, investments, loans 

From gifts and fines 

From lotteries 

Inter- and intragovemmental revenues 

From reparations and interest on war loans 
From one government unit to another 

Grants from higher units, technical assistance funds 

From international grants 
From government services, industries, monopolies 

Taxation ( Compulsory revenues ) 

Scope: taxation of motor land vehicles [formerly 629.213] 
Use 336.200 1 - 336.200 9 for standard subdivisions 
Class tax administration [formerly 336.2] in 350.724 



336.202-336.204 Types of taxes by base 
On wealth 

Property taxes 
Death taxes 



On income 



3^5 



n 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



■ ^ 



IP':- 



336.204 


On activities 


.204 2 


Production 


.204 3 


Distribution 


.204 4 


Consumption 


.204 8 


Civic J 


activities 

SUMMARY 




336.21 


Direct taxes 




.22 


Real property taxes 




.23 


Personal property taxes 




.24 


Income taxes 




.25 


Poll taxes 




.26 


Customs taxes (Customs duties) 




.27 


Other taxes 




.29 


General principles 



.21 



.22 



.23 



.24 



.242 
.243 

.25 

.26 
.263 



336.21-336.27 Specific taxes and kinds of taxes 

Direct taxes 

Class a specific direct tax with the subject 

Real property taxes 

On real estate, land, buildings, permanent improvements 

Personal property taxes 
Tangible and intangible 
Including capital levies [formerly 336.25] 

Income taxes 

From wages, salaries, rents, investments 

For estate, inheritance, gift taxes, see 336.276 

Personal 
Corporation 

Including surplus and excess profits taxes 

Poll taxes 

Class capital levies {formerly 336.25] in 336.23 

Customs taxes (Customs duties) 

Export and transit taxes 

3^6 



336.264 

.265 

.266 

27 
.271 



.274 



.276 

.278 



.29 



.293 



Import taxes 

For import tax schedules, see 336.265 

Import tax schedules 

For import taxes on specific commodities, see 336.266 

Import taxes on specific commodities 

Divide hke 001-999, e.g., taxes on paintings 336.266 75 

Other taxes 

Indirect 

For customs duties, see 336.26; taxes on specific 
commodities and services, 336.278 



.2711 


Excise, sumptuary, luxury 


.2713 


Transaction (Turnover) 


.271 32 


Sales 


.271 35 


Use 


.272 


Stamp taxes and revenue si 


.273 


Fees 



For government services conferring special benefits 

Licenses 

To engage in specific acts, businesses, professions 

Estate, inheritance, gift taxes 

Taxes on specific commodities and services 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., taxes on theater tickets 

336.278 792 

Class a specific kind of taxes on a specific commodity with 

the subject, e.g., import taxes 336.266 

General principles 

Qass types of taxes by base in 336^02-336.204, specific taxes 
and kinds of taxes in 336.21-336.27 



Rates 



3V 



h\ 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



K'? 



W 



336.294 



.294 2 
.294 3 
.294 4 
.295 
.3 



.31 



.32 



M 



.346 

.36 

.363 



Incidence 

Scope: distribution, exemptions, double taxation 

On persons 

On corporations and business firms 
On other organizations 
Economic eflFects 
Credit, borrowing, expenditure 



336.31-336.36 Credit and borrowing 



336.31-336.32 Public securities 
Class public securities as investments in 332.633 2 

Funded debts 

Interest-bearing long-term government securities and bonds 
Including credit bonds 

Unfunded debts (Floating debts) 

Short-term securities usually held in treasury bills 

Public borrowing and public debt 

Theory, character, bases, burden, economic effect 



.343 


By sources and borrowing units 


.343 1 


Local 


.343 2 


State and provincial 


.343 3 


National 




Borrowing from own citizens 


.343 5 


International 


.344 


Flotation of loans 



Compulsory and voluntary loans, subscriptions, allotments, 
marketability 

limitation of public indebtedness 

Liquidation of public debts 

Repayment and redemption 

3^8 



336.368 Repudiation and abrogation 

Including public insolvency 

.39 Expenditure 

Character, principles, classification, justification 

.4-.9 Public finance by continent, country, locality in modem 
world 

Add area notations 4-9 to 336 

[337] TariflE 

Class comprehensive works in 382, government regulation and control 
of international trade in 350.827 

338 Production 

Creation of wealth as form utility thru extraction and manufacture, as 

place utility thru transportation, as time utility thru storage, as 

ownership (possession) utihty thru exchange, as personal service 

utility 

Scope: specific firms and enterprises 

Class marketing in 380.1, public administration aspects of government 

control and regulation of production in 350.82 [both formerly 338] 

.001 Philosophy and theory 

Class general principles and theories in 338.01 



.002 
.002 5 
.003-.008 

.01 
[.010 9] 

.012 



.013 



Miscellany 

Directories of producers 
Other standard subdivisions 
General principles and theories 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 338.019 

Factors of production 

Relative importance, interrelations of land, labor, capital, 
entrepreneurship 

For specific factors, see 331-333 

Costs of production 

Class a specific cost with the subject • 

3^9 



Decimal Classiiication 



Economics 



338.016 



*■' 



.018 
.018 2 
.018 3 



.018 5 
.018 6 
.019 



.02 
.06 
.064 
.09 



Laws of production 

Including supply and demand, diminishing returns, marginal 
utility, comparative advantage 



Methods 

Diversification and specialization 

Change 

Conversion from one kind of economy to another, e.g., 
agricultural to manufacturing, from production of one 
commodity or group of commodities to another 

Cooperation and competition 

Control 
Historical and geographical treatment of general 
principles and theories 

Add area notations 1-9 to 338.019 

Lists of commodities and services 
Machines in production [formerly 338.45] 

Automation 
Historical and geographical treatment 

Industrial situation, existing and potential resources for 

production 

Scope: industrial surveys, location of industries, productivity 

Class a specific resource with the subject, e.g., water for power 
333.914 



SUMMARY 

338.1-,3 Primary (Extractive) industries 

,1 Agricultural 

^ Mineral 

J Other 

.4 Secondary industries 

J Prices and business cycles in relation to 

production 

JS Systems 

,7 Organization and structure 

•8 Combinations 

,9 Production programs and policies 

320 



338.1 



.12 



.13 



.15 



.16 



.17 



.19 



338.1-338.4 Specific kinds of industries 

Production of specific kinds of goods and services 

For systems and oTganization of production, see 338.6-338.8 

338.1-338.3 Primary (Extractive) industries 

Scope: machines in production [formerly 338.45] 
Agricultural 

338.12-338.16 Specific elements 

Control 

Class collectivist farms [formerly 338.12] in 338.762-338.769 

Financial considerations 
Costs, valuation, prices 
Including prices of specific products [formerly 338.17] 

Maladjustments in production 
Surpluses and shortages 

For food supply, see 338.19 

Machines in production 
Scope: automation 

Divide like 633-638, e.g., machines in production of wheat 
338.163 11 

Specific products 

Divide like 633-638, e.g., rice 338.173 18 
Class prices of specific products [formerly 338.17] in 338.13 
For specific elements, see 338.12-338.16 

Food supply [formerly also 641.3] 
Add area notations 1-9 to 338.19 

Mineral 



.22-.25 



338.22-338.26 Specific elements 
Control, finance, maladjustments 

Including cost of irrigation water [formerly also 631.75] 
Divide like 338.12-338.15, e.g., shortages 338.25 

321 



lit 






338.26 



27 



.3 



.32-.35 



.36 



.37 



.372 



.4 



.42-.43 



.45 



.454 



Decimal Classification 



'Economics 



Machines in production 

Scope: automation 

Divide like 553, e.g., machines in extraction of bitmninous coal 



338.262 4 



Specific products 

Divide like 553, e.g., water 338.277 

For specific elements, see 338.22-338.26 



Other 



338.32-338.36 Specific elements 
Control, finance, maladjustments 

Divide like 338.12-338.15, e.g., shortages 338.35 

Machines in production 
Including automation 

Specific products 

For specific elements, see 338.32-338,36 

Hunting and fishing products 

Divide like 592-599, e.g., sponges 338.372 34 

Secondary industries 



338.42-338.45 Specific elements 

For maladjustments in production, see 338.49 

Control and finance 

Divide like 338.12-338.13, e.g., control 338.42 

Machines in production 

Class comprehensive works in 338.06, machines in production 
in primary industries in 338.1-338.3 [both formerly 338.45] 

Automation 

For automation in specific industries, see 338.456 
322 



338.456 



.4561 



.456 2-.456 9 



.46 



.47 



.49 



.52 



522 



.523 



In specific industries 
Scope: automation 

Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., machines in hairdressing 
338.456 164 672 4 

Other 

Manufacturing and construction 

Divide like 620-690, e.g., machines in textile manufac- 
ture 338.456 77 



338.46-338.47 Goods and services 
For specific elements, see 338.42-338.45 

Professional services 

For specific services, see 338.47 

Specific goods and services 

Including medical economics [formerly 61425], economics of 

pharmacy [formerly 615.406 5] 

Divide Uke 001-999, e.g., textile manufacture 338.476 77 

Maladjustments in production [formerly 338.542] 
Surpluses and shortages 

Prices and business cycles in relation to production 

For specific kinds of goods and services, see 338.1-338.4 

Prices 

Wholesale and retail 



338.522-338.526 Determination 
In competitive free markets 

Prices based on costs, on supply and demand 

In monopolistic markets 

Prices based on intra-industry agreements 
Including price leadership 
3^3 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



I 



I : 



338.526 



.528 



.54 
.542 



.544 



.6 

.63 



.64 



.65 



.7 



.72 



By outside control 

Class price control legislation [formerly 338.526] in 340 

Levels 

Statistics, index numbers, Fisher's ideal index, price 
movements 

Business cycles 

Causes 

Including maladjustments in production 

Class maladjustments in production of secondary industries 
[formerly 338.542] in 338.49 

Business forecasting 



338.6-338.8 Systems and organization of production 

Systems 

Cottage industries 

Household, family, domestic system: assigning major steps of 
manufacture for performance at home by family unit 

Including specific cottage industries 

Small industries 

Handicrafts, skilled trades, modem guilds 
Including specific small industries [formerly 338.76] 

Large industries 

Factory systems utilizing assembly-line and continuous methods 
Including specific large industries [formerly 338.76] 

Organization and structure 

Scope: entrepreneurship 

For organization and structure of combinations, see 338.8 



338.72-338.74 Specific kinds of organization and 
structure 

For specific industries, see 338.76 

Individual proprietorships 

3^4 



338.73 
.74 
.76 



.761 



.762-.769 



.8 



Partnerships and unincorporated companies 
Corporations 

In specific industries 

Scope: individual proprietorships, partnerships, companies. 

corporations 

Class specific small industries in 338.64, specific large industries 

in 338.65 [both formerly 338.76] 

Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., law 338.761 34 

Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, construction 
Including collectivist farms [formerly also 338.12] 
Divide hke 620-690, e.g., agriculture 338.763 

Combinations 

Organization and stmcture for massive production and control of 
production 



,82 

.826 

.8261 



338.82-338.86 Within one country 

Monopoly and monopolies 
In specific industries 
Service and professional 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., in telephone communication 
338.826 138 46 



826 2- 


-.826 9 


Other 

Extractive, manufacturing, 


construction 








Divide like 620-690, e.g., 


in gem diamond 


mining 






338.826 223 82 






.85 




Trusts 






.86 




Holding companies 







.88 



International 

Divide like 338.82-338.86, e.g., international trusts 338.885 

3^5 



Decimal Classification 



Economics 



338.9 Production programs and policies 

Scope: control, subsidies, grants by government; nationalization 
Use 338.900 1 - 338.900 9 for standard subdivisions 
For specific kinds of industries, see 338.1-338.4 

.902 Autarky (Self-suflSciency) 

,903 Interdependence 

.91 International 

Foreign economic policies, relations, assistance 

Add area notations 3-9 to 338.91, e.g., British foreign economic 
policy 338.914 2; then, for foreign economic relations between 
two countries, add and again add area notations 3-9, e.g., 
economic relations between Great Britain and France 
338.914 204 4 

Give priority in notation to the country requiring local empha- 
sis, e.g., libraries in United States class foreign economic rela- 
tions between Great Britain and United States in 338.917 304 2. 
If the two countries require equal emphasis, give priority to the 
country coming first in the sequence of area notations 

.93-.99 National, state, provincial, local 

Add area notations 3-9 to 338.9 

339 Distribution of capital goods and consumption of 

consumer goods 

Former heading: Income and wealth 

For special methods of organization for distribution and 
consumption, see 334-335 

.2 Distribution and accounting of income and wealth 

Social and national accounting, economic budget 

For personal income, see 339.41; national income accounts, 
339.3 

21 Functional distribution of income 

Rent, wages, interest, profits 

J23 Input-output accounts ( Interindustry accounts ) 

Accounts and analysis of goods and services provided by each 
industry for all other industries and consuming units 

.26 Flow-of -funds accounts 

326 



339.3 



.4 

.41 

.42 
[.420 7] 

.43 

.46 



.47 



.48 



.49 



National income accounts 

Gross and net national product by expenditure or cost; valuation of 
income, wealth, capital 

Add area notations 3-9 to 339.3 

Consumption and conservation of income and wealth 

Personal income 
Cost and standard of living 
Consumer education 
Class in 640.73 

Deferred consumption (Savings) 
Underconsumption 

Economic aspects of poverty, hoarding 
For deferred consumption, see 339.43 

Control of consumption 

Personal, social, government restrictions 
Including rationing 

Consumption of specific commodities 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., constunption of agricultural products 
339.486 3 

Conservation of national resources 
Add area notations 1-9 to 339.49 

For conservation policies for natural resources, see 
333.7-333.9 



3^7 



Decimal Classification 



Law 



340 Law 



.1 



PriHciples and regulations emanating from government and applicable to 

the people, in the form of legislation, custom, policies recognized and 

kept in force by judicial decision 

The editors anticipate the preparation at a future date of a completely 

revised schedule 340, which will provide for all law, including law o 

specific subjects. Such a schedule wiU virtually eliminate the use of 

standard subdivision 026 except as an option. For the present, class m 

340 without subdivision aU branches of law not specifically provided for 

in subordinate numbers 

Class here the foUowing topics formerly provided for as indicated: 



Library laws 

Press law 

Prohibition 

Laws on Sunday observance 

Laws on citizenship 

Laws on wages 

Law of real estate titles and deeds 

Inheritance of real estate 

Price control legislation 

Administrative law 

Correctional courts 

Insurance law 

School laws and regulations 

Legal status of women 

Laws, regulations, legal aspects of public health 

Laws and regulations on engineering 

Laws on electrical installations 

Laws and regulations on mining engineering 

Rules of the road in seamanship 

Law on motor land vehicles 

Copyright 

Building laws 

Plumbing laws 

Laws and regulations on area planning 

Zoning laws and regulations 



[021.89] 

[070.13] 

[178.5] 

[263.8] 

[323.61] 

[331.26] 

[333.34] 

[333.35] 

[338.526] 

[351.94-351.95] 

[364.5] 

[368] 

[379.14] 

[396.2] 

[614] 

[620.07] 

[621.300 7] 

[622.007] 

[623.88] 

[629.213] 

[655.6] 

[692.9] 

[696.9] 

[711.17] 

[711.51] 



340.3 



A 
.5 
.6 

[.9] 



341 



Antiquities 

Torture, trial by ordeal, trial by duel, benefit of clergy, right of 
asylum 

Trial by jury 

Comparative legislation 

Medical jurisprudence ( Forensic medicine ) 

Anecdotes 

Class in 800 

International law ( Law of nations ) 

Laws, procedures, institutions that govern public relations between 
sovereign states, private relations between their citizens, in peace and 
war; international cooperation and international responsibility of 
states 

Including jurisdiction on land and sea, in air and space 



.1 



[.106] 



If preferred, class law of a specific subject in standard subdivision 026 



.01-.09 



Standard subdivisions 
Class theories in 340.1 

Theories 

Including law of nature (natural law) 



.11 





SUMMARY 


341.1 


Cooperation to promote peace and order 
Treaties 


J 


Law of war 


.4 


Criminal law 




Special topics 

Pacific settlement of disputes 

Diplomacy 

Consular systems 



Cooperation to promote peace and order 

¥of pacific settlement of disputes, see 341.6 

Organizations 

Do not use; class in 341.11-341.18 



3^^ 



341.11-341.18 Associations of sovereign states 
Class comprehensive works in 341.11 

Class public finance of associations of sovereign states [formerly 
341.11-341.18] in 336.0916 

Comprehensive works 

Class general international organizations [formerly 341.11] in 
060 

For specific associations, see 341.12-341.18 
3^9 



Decimal Classification 



341.12 



.13 

.132 

.133 

.135 

.137 



.139 



.18 



341.12-341.18 Specific associations 
Class divisions dealing with a specific subject with the subject 

League of Nations 

Divide like 341.13, e.g.. League of Nations charter 341.122 

United Nations 
Charter 

General Assembly and general committees 
Security Council and its committees 

Secretariat 

Executive ofiBce, departments, personnel 

Relationship to specific countries and regions 
Add area notations 1-9 to 341.139 

Regional associations 

Associations of states of specific regions, associations to promote 
peace and order in specific regions 

Add area notations 1-9 for specific regions to 341.18, e.g., 
Organization of American States 341.181 812 

Treaties 

Scope: process of treaty making, texts of treaties 

Add area notations 3-9 to 341.2, e.g., treaties of Great Britain 
341.242; then, for treaties between two nations, add and again 
add area notations 3-9, e.g., treaties between Great Britain and 
France 341.242 044 

Give priority in notation to the country requiring local emphasis, 
e.g., libraries in United States class treaties between Great Britain 
and United States in 341.273 042. If the two countries require 
equal emphasis, give priority to the country coming first in the 
sequence of area notations 



330 



341.3 



Law 



Law of war 



341.31_341.37 War between nations 



.31 



.32 
.33 



.35 



.36 



.37 



.39 



.4 



.41 

.49 



341.31-341.35 General principles 

Scope: law of land warfare 

For law of sea warfare, see 341.36; of air warfare, 341.37; 
of use of space for belligerent purposes, 341.52 

Belligerency and belligerents 

Commencement, conduct, termination of war; reprisals, spies, 
atrocities, amnesty, blockade, invasion; rights of civiUans, 
noncombatants, combatants 

For prisoners of war, see 341.33 

Occupation by military forces 

Prisoners 

Capture, internment, treatment, repatriation, exchange of pris- 
oners of war; internment of belligerents by neutral nations 

Neutrality and neutrals 

Including commerce of neutral nations, contraband of war, 
right of visit and search, armed neutrality, nonintervention 

Law of sea warfare 

Including privateering, prizes of war, prize courts, letters of 
marque 

Law of air warfare 

Including aerial attack on cultural objects, open cities 

Civil war 

Relation of other nations to nation undergoing civil war 

Criminal law 

Including law of extraterritorial crime 

Trials of war criminals 

Jurisdiction, procedure, extradition, immunity 
For extraterritoriality, see 341.7 

33^ 



Decimal Classijication 



341.5 

.52 



.57 



.59 



.6 



.63 



.65 



.67 

.672 
.674 
.675 
.7 



.8 



Special topics 

Law of outer space 

Including sovereignty, economic rights, liability, use for 
commerce, for belligerent purposes 

Commercial law [formerly also 380] 
Commerce by land, sea (maritime law), air 
Including freedom of the seas, open seas, coUisions at sea, 
shipwreck 

For law of war. see 341.3; law of use of outer space for 

commerce, 341.52 

Private international law 

Conflicts of laws of different countries affecting private interests 

applicable to persons 

Including regulation of jurisdictions 

Pacific settlement of disputes 

Negotiation, good offices, conciliation and commissions of inquiry, 
outlawry of war 

Arbitration and mediation 

Including judicial settlement, courts of international arbitration 

Compulsive measures short of w^ar 

Sanctions, pacific blockade, embargo, economic boycott, 
intervention, international police 

Reduction, limitation, control of armaments 
Scope: disarmament, demilitarization 

Nuclear weapons 
Gas weapons 
Biological weapons 

Diplomacy 

Laws, rules, customs governing conduct of official relations be- 
tween governments 

Including capitulations, extraterritoriaUty, diplomatic privileges 
and immunities, protocol 



Consular systems 



33^ 



Law 



342 



.01 
.02 
.03 
.08 

.09 

.1-.9 



343 



.09 



342-349 Municipal (Internal) law 
Constitutional law 

Fundamental law of states 

Use 342.001-342.007 for standard subdivisions 



342.01-342.09 Comparative 

Texts 

Conventions 

Systems, commentaries, cases, digests 
Collections and anthologies 
Historical treatment ( Constitutional history) 
Class geographical treatment in 342.1-342.9 

Geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 342, e.g., constitutional law of France 
342.44; then add and divide like 342.01-342.09. e.g., constitu- 
tional history of France 342.440 9 

Criminal law 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 343.09, e.g., criminal law of France 
343.094 4; then add further as follows, e.g., penal codes in 
France 343.094 401 

01 Penal codes 

02 Reports 

03 Procedure, trials, evidence 

04 Handbooks and outlines 



.1 



[.109] 



343.1-343.2 General principles 
For specific kinds of offenses, see 343.3-343.7 

Procedure, trials, evidence 

Including cross-examination, trial practice, instructions to juries, 
bail 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 343.09 

333 



Decimal Classification 



Law 



343.2 Punishments 

.3-.7 Specific kinds of ofiFenses 

Procedure, trials, evidence, punishments 
Divide like 364.13-364.17, e.g., homicide 343.52 

344 Martial law 

MiUtary authority to carry on government functions in times of war or 
emergency 

^ 345-346 United States and British statutes and 

cases 

If preferred, class in 349.4-349.9 

345 United States 

.1 Session lav^^s and statutes at large 

.11 Federal government 

.12 States 

Arrange alphabetically by name of state 

.2 Codes and revised statutes 

Divide like 345.1, e.g.. Federal codes and revised statutes 345.21 

^ Law digests 

Divide like 345.1, e.g., law digests of states 345.32 

.4 Reports 

Including Supreme Court reports. Attorney General's opinions 

.41 Federal circuit and district courts 

.415 Regions and groups of states 

.42 Specific states 

Arrange alphabetically by name of state 

J Digests of cases 

Divide like 345.1, e.g., digests of cases of states 345.52 



346 British 

United Kingdom and all parts of Commonwealth 
Divide like 345, e.g., revised statutes 346.2 

347 Private law and judicial system 

Including common law 

Use 347.001-347.009 for standard subdivisions 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of private law 



•1 
.2 
.3 

.4 

.42 

.5 

.6 

.65 

.7 

.75 
.8 

.9 



.91 



347.1-347.8 Private law 

Persons 
Real property 
Personal property 
Contract and quasi contract 

Sale 
Tort, negligence, damage 
Domestic relations and succession 

Succession (Probate law) 
Commercial law Iformerly also 380] 

Including agency law 

Maritime law 
Equity (Chancery) 

Including courts of equity and chancery 

Judicial system 

Scope: courts of limited jurisdiction, e.g., labor courts [formerly 

331.16] 

Class criminal system in 343, administrative system in 340 



334 



347.91_347.96 Procedure, trials, rules 

For procedure, triak, rules of specific courts and couH systems, 
see 347.99 

Trials 

Including cross-examination, trial practice, instructions to 
juries, bail 

335 



Decimal Classification 



347 92 

.93 

.94 



.95 



.96 



.97 

.972 
.973 

.974 
.98 



.99 



[348] 



Pleading 

Including briefs, arguments, declarations 

Forms 
Evidence 

Physical (circumstantial) evidence; evidence of witnesses thru 
testimony, afiBdavits, depositions 

Remedies 

Civil and judicial remedies, appellate procedure 

Local and auxiliary legal oflBcers 

Including justices of the peace, sheriffs, notaries pubUc 

347.97_347.99 Courts 
For courts of equity and chancery, see 347.8 

Organization 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 347.99 

Courts and court systems of national governments 

Courts and court systems of state and provincial 

governments 

Courts and court systems of local governments 

Jurisdiction 

Including domestic conflicts of laws 

Class treatment by continent, country, locaUty in 347.99 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Organization, jurisdiction, history, procedure, trials, rules 
Scope: specific courts and court systems 
Add area notations 1-9 to 347.99 

Religious lav*^ 

Class Christian church law in 262.9, ecclesiastic laws in other 
religions and in comparative reUgion in 290 



336 



Law 



349 



.1 



Statutes and cases other than United States and 

British 

By regions, areas, places, groups in general 

Add area notation 1 to 349, e.g.. Islamic statutes and cases 
349.176 7 



.37 
.371 



.372 



349,3-349.9 By continent, country, locality 

.3 Ancient 

.31-.36 China, Egypt, Palestine, India, Mesopotamia, Europe 

Add area notations 31-36 to 349 



.374 
.374 2 
.374 4 
.375 
.376 
.38-,39 



Rome ( Roman law ) 
Pre-Justinian 

Including the Twelve Tables 

Justinian Code (Corpus juris civilis) 

For Institutes and Code, see 349.374; Digest, 349.375; 
Novels, 349.376 

Institutes and Code 
Code (Codex) 
Institutes (Institutiones) 
Digest (Digesta, Pandectae) 
Novels (Novellaeconstitutiones) 
Greece and other parts of ancient world 
Add area notations 38-39 to 349 



,4-.9 Modem 



(Optional: United States and British statutes and cases; prefer 

345-346) 

Add area notations 4-9 to 349, e.g., statutes and cases of France 

349.44; then add and divide like 345, e.g., code of France 

349.440 2 



337 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



350 Public administration 

Structure and operation of agencies charged with conduct of 

governmental affairs 

Use 350.000 1 - 350.000 9 for standard subdivisions 

For legislative branch of government, see 328; judicial system, 347.9 



.001 
.002 
.003 



.003 2 
,003 4 
.003 5 
.003 6 



.003 7 
.003 72 
.003 73 
.003 9 

.004 



.005 
.007 
.009 

.009 1 
.00912 



350.001-350.009 The executive 

Bureaucracy 

Separation of powers 

Executive branch 

Class component agencies in 350.004-350.005, 350.009 



350.003 2 - 350.003 6 The chief executive 

Powers, functions, privileges 

Term of office 

Executive messages, speeches, writings 

Impeachment, abdication, resignation 



350.003 7 - 350.003 9 Other aspects of executive branch 
Relationship to other branches of government 
To legislature 
To judiciary 
Relationship to fundamental instrument 
Constitution, charter, basic law 

Departments and ministries 

Class specific executive departments and ministries in 
350.01-350.08 

For cabinet, see 350.005 

Cabinet, cabinet systems, coimcils of state 
Conflict of interest 

Special commissions, corporations, agencies, 
quasi-administrative bodies 

Regulatory agencies 

Independent commissions and boards 
33S 



350.009 13 
.00914 
.009 2 



.01 
.02 
.03 
.05 
.06 
.08 



.09 
.091 
.092 
.093 



.1 



.102 



Agencies headed by plural board 
Agencies headed by single administrator 
Government corporations 



350.01-350.08 Specific executive departments and 
ministries 

Foreign afiFairs 

Finance 

Home affairs (Interior) 

Justice 

Defense 

Other 

Divide like 350.82-350.87, e.g., administration of departments 
of labor 350.083 

Intergovernmental administration 

Between central governments of same level 
Between central governments of different levels 
Between central governments and local governments 
Class central government control of local units in 352.002 2 



350.1 

a 

A 

.7 



SUMMARY 

Personnel management 
Registers of personnel 
Civil service examinations 
Government career service 
Pensions 

Civil service system 
Finance and public welfare 
Other regulations and controls 
Governmental accountability 



350.1-350.4 Civfl service 

For civil service system, see 350.6 

Personnel management 

Procedures by which employees are hired, managed, replaced 
Use 350.100 1 - 350.100 9 for standard subdivisions 



Supervision 



339 



Decimal Classification 



350.12 



.122 
.123 

.123 2 
.123 22 
.123 23 
.123 3 
.125 

.13 
.131 
.132 
.132 2 
.132 3 
.132 4 
.132 42 
.132 43 

.14 

.142 

.143 

.144 

.145 

.15 

.152 

.153 



350.12 

.13 
.14 
.15 
.16 
.17 
.18 



SUMMARY 

Position and wage classificarion and payroll 
administration 

Recruitment and selection of personnel 
Evaluation and placement of personnel 
Training of personnel 
Conditions of employment 
Employer-employee relationships 
Separation from service 



Position and wage classification and payroll 
administration 

Position classification 
Classified pay plans 
Salaries 

Adjustments 
Deductions 
Wage incentives 
Payroll administration 

Recruitment and selection of personnel 
Recruitment 

Qualification requirements 
Personal 

Professional and occupational 
Special 

Loyalty oaths 
Veterans' preference 

Placement and evaluation of personnel 
Performance rating 
Promotion 
Demotion 
Transfer 

Training of personnel 
Orientation 
In-service training 



Public administration 



350.16 
.162 


Conditions of employuient 

Promotion of personnel welfare, satisfaction, efficiency 


.162 2 


Health and safety progiams 


.162 3 


Welfare services 




Housing, transportation, food services, discounts 


.162 5 


Counseling services 


.162 6 


Educational programs 

Including occupational rehabilitation, adjusUiient to 
automation 


.163 


Days and hours of work 


.164 


Leaves of absence 


.167 


Discipline 


.17 


Employer-employee relationships 


.172 


Employee representation in management 


.173 


Employee organizations 


.174 


Collective bargaining 


.175 


Employee morale 


.176 


Grievances and appeals 


.18 


Separation from service 


.182 


Retirement 


.183 


Dismissal 


.184 


Retrenchment 


a 


Registers of personnel 


ji 


Civil service examinations 




Class examinations on a specific subject with the subject 


A 


Government career service 


Ji 


Pensions 


•6 


Civil service systeni 




Origin and development 




34^ 



Decimal Classification 



350.7 



.71 
.711 

.712 



350.7-350.9 Specific administrative activities and 
responsibilities 

Finance and public welfare 

SUMMARY 

350.71 Supply administration 

,72 Fiscal responsibility 

,74 Police organization and management 

.75 Maintenance of public order and seciuity 

,76 Regulation and control of public morals 

.77 Regulation and control of public health 

.78 Fire and accident protection 

350.71-350.72 Financial administration 
Supply administration 
Execution of contracts 

Procurement 

Acquisition of property, equipment, supplies needed in 
administration 



.713 


Utilization and disposal 


.714 


Records management 


.72 


Fiscal responsibility 


.721 


Fiscal policy 


.722 


The budget 




OfBcial estimates submitted by chief executive 


.722 2 


Formulation and preparation 


.722 3 


Adoption 


.722 4 


Revision 




Supplementary and deficiency budget ' 


.723 


Accounting and auditing 


.723 1 


Accounting 


.723 2 


Auditing 



34^ 



Public administration 



350.724 



Tax administration [formerly 336.2] 

Use 350.724 001 - 350.724 009 for standard subdivisions 





350.724 01 - 350.724 03 General principles 


.724 01 


Assessment 


.724 011 


Equalization 


.724013 


Valuation and appraisal 


.724 02 


Collection 


.724 022 


Liens 


.724 023 


Avoidance 


.724 03 


Appeals 



350.724 2 - 350.724 7 Specific kinds of taxes 

Divide each subdivision identified by * like 350.724 01 
350.724 03, e.g., income tax avoidance 350.724 423 



.724 2 


•Real property 


.724 3 


•Personal property 


.724 4 


•Income 


.724 5 


•Poll 


.724 6 


•Customs 


.724 7 


Other 


.724 71 


Indirect 


.724 711 


•Excise, sumptuary, luxury 


.724 713 


Transaction (Turnover) 


.724 713 2 


•Sales 


.724 713 5 


•Use 


.724 76 


•Estate, inheritance, gift 


.725 


Fiscal relations between jurisdic 



.74 



350.74-350.78 Public welfare administration 
Police organization and management 



* Divide as instructed under 350.724 2 - 350.724 7 

343 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



35075 



.751 
.752 
.753 
.754 
.755 
.756 

.76 

.761 

.762 

.764 

.765 

77 



.78 

.782 
.783 

J6 



Maintenance of public order and security 

For regulation and control of public morah, see 350.76 

Protection of freedom of information 
Protection of freedom of association 
Control of explosives and firearms 
Disaster and emergency planning 
Civil defense [formerly 355.232] 
Prevention of public violence 

Regulation and control of public morals 

Of liquor traffic 

Of gambling 

Of prostitution [formerly 301.424 3] 

Of drug traffic 

Regulation and control of public health [formerly also 
614] 

For regulation and control of water supply, see 350.871 

Fire and accident protection 
Fire protection and prevention 
Accident prevention (Safety measures) 

Other regulations and controls 







SUMMARY 




350.82 


Of production, commerce, consumption 




.83 


Of labor 




.84 


Of social welfare 




.85 


Of education, culture, religion 




.86 


Of public works 




.87 


Of public utilities 




.88 


Of justice 




.89 


Of foreign affairs and defense 


.82 


Of production [formerly 338] , commerce, consumption 


.821 


Weights 


and measures 


.822 


Money 


344 



350.823 

.824 
.825 



.85 

.86 

.862 
.863 
.864 
.865 

.87 



Primary industries 

Agriculture, mining, hunting, fishing 

Secondary industries 

Financial institutions and transactions 

Insurance companies Hormerly 368], banks, savings and 
loan associations, loan companies 

Including land titles and deeds [formerly 333.34], exchange 
of securities [formerly 332.64] 



.826 


Domestic trade 


.827 


International trade [formerly 337] 


.829 


Consumption (Rationing) 


.83 


Of labor 


.84 


Of social welfare 



Including reformatories [formerly 364.76], prisons [formerly 
365.6] 

Of education [formerly 379.15], culture, religion 

Of public works 
Public buildings 
Park and recreational structures 
Roads, bridges, tuimels 
Housing 

Of public utilities [formerly 380] 

Use 350.870 01 - 350.870 09 for standard subdivisions 





350.870 2 - 350.870 6 General principles 


.870 2 


Control 


.870 3 


Finances 


.870 4 


Public ownership 


.870 5 


Privileges 


.870 6 


Obligations 




345 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



^ 



Si 



^ 350.871-350.878 Specific public utilities 

Divide each subdivision identified by * Uke 350.870 2- 
350.870 6, e.g., public ownership of water supply 350.871 04 

350.871 Water supply 

.871 02-.871 06 •General principles 

For concentration of service, see 350.871 07 - 
350.871 08 



.871 07 
.871 08 
.8715 
.8716 

.872 
.872 2 



350.87107-350.87108 Concentration of service 

Urban 

Rural 
Pollution 
Purification 

Power and gas 
Electric power 



.872 202-.872 206 



^General principles 

For concentration of service, see 350.872 207 
350.872 208 



350.872 207 - 350.872 208 Concentration of service 

.872 207 Urban 

.872 208 Rural 

.872 3 Gas 

.872 302-.872 306 •General principles 



350.873-350.874 Communication 



.873 



MaU 



.874 Telecommunication 

Divide like 384.1-384.7, e.g., radiobroadcasting 350.874 54; 
then add and divide further like 350.870 2 - 350.870 6, e.g., 
public ownership of radiobroadcasting 350.874 540 4 

.875-.878 Transportation 

Including registration, licensing, inspection of motor land 
vehicles [all formerly 629.213] 

Divide like 385-388, e.g., rapid transit 350.878 4; then add 
and divide further hke 350.870 2 - 350.870 6, e.g., pubhc 
ownership of rapid transit 350.878 404 
Divide as instructed under 350.871-350.878 

34^ 



350.88 


Of justice 


.89 


Of foreign affairs and defense 


.892 


Foreign affairs 


.895 


Defense 




Including civil-military relations 


.9 


Governmental accountability 


.91 


Liability 




Of state for mal-, mis-, nonfeasance of oflScials 


.92 


Control of internal administration 


.99 


Administrative responsibility 



.991 
.992 
.993 



351 



Personal liability of government officials to the state and to 
individuals for torts committed in office 

Abuse of administrative responsibility 
Investigation of public officials 
Impeachment 

Central governments 

National, state, provincial 

Use 351.000 1 - 351.000 9 for standard subdivisions 

For administration of specific national, state, provincial 
governments, see 353-354; military administration, 355-359 



.001-.009 



.01-.08 



The executive 

Divide Uke 350.001-350.009, e.g., bureaucracy [formerly 
351.1J 351.001 

Specific executive departments and ministries 

Divide like 350.01-350.08, e.g., administration of defense 
department 351.06 



351.1-351.4 Civil service 

For civil service system, see 351.6 

Personnel management 

Procedures by which employees are hired, managed, replaced 
Divide like 350.1, e.g., discipline [formerly 351.4] 351.167 
Class bureaucracy [formerly 351.1] in 351.001 

347 



m 



1. 



1*4 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



35L2 



.4 



.6 



Registers of personnel 
Civil service examinations 

Class examinations of local governments in 352.005, on a specific 
subject in standard subdivision 076 [both formerly 351.3] 

Government career service 

Class employee discipline [formerly 351.4] in 351.167 

Pensions 

Civil service system 

Origin and development 



.7 
.71-.72 



.74 



[.79] 



[.792] 



.8 



.9 
.91 



35L7-351.9 Specific administrative activities and 
responsibilities 

Finance and public welfare 

Financial administration 

Divide like 350.71-350.72, e.g., tax administration 351.724 

Police organization and management [formerly also 

351.79] 

Class management of private police services [formerly 351.744] 
in 658 



.75-.78 Other aspects of public welfare administration 

Divide like 350.75-350.78, e.g., fire and accident protection 
351.78 



Police organization and management 
Class in 351.74 

United States Coast Guard 
Class in 359.97 

Other regulations and controls 

Divide like 350.8, e.g., of labor 351.83 

Governmental accountability 

Liability 

Of state for mal-, mis-, nonfeasance of ofiScials 



351.92 
[.94-.95] 

[.98] 

.99 



.991 

.992 
.993 



Control of internal administration 
Administrative law 
Class in 340 

Investigation of public oflBcials 
Class in 351.992 

Administrative responsibility 

Personal liability of government officials to the state and to 
individuals for torts committed in office 

Abuse of administrative responsibility 
Investigation of public oflBcials [formerly 351.98] 
Impeachment 



352 Local units of government 

Counties, urban and rural municipalities, special districts 
Use 352.000 1 - 352.000 8 for standard subdivisions 



.000 9 



Historical and geographical treatment [formerly 
352.03-352.09] 

Class specific local units in 352.03-352.09 



.002 
.002 2 
.002 9 



.003 
.004 
.005 



352.002-352.006 General principles 
For forms of administration, see 352.007-352.009 

Control and accountability 

Central government control of local units 

Governmental accountability 

Divide like 350.9, e.g., abuse of administrative 
responsibdity 352.002 991 

Municipal incorporation 

Elections 

Civil service 

Including civil service examinations [formerly 351.3] 
Class examinations on a specific subject with the subject 



.006 



Annexation 



349 






Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



r 



352.007 
.007 2 
.007 3 

.008 



.008 2 
.008 3 
.008 4 
.008 5 

.009 



352.007-352.009 Forms of administration 
Class specific local units in 352.03-352.09 

Rural units [formerly 352.008] 
Rural municipalities (Townships) 
Counties 

Urban municipalities 

Cities, boroughs, villages, incorporated towns 

Class administration of rural units in 352.007, of special 

districts in 352.009 [both formerly 352.008] 

Mayor-council with weak mayor 

Mayor-council with strong mayor 

Council-manager ' r 

Commission 

• -■,.-■* 

Special districts [formerly 352.008] 
Special-purpose authorities 



1* /; 



.009 2 


Economic 


.009 3 


Urban-service 


.009 4 


Metropolitan 



.03-.09 General administration of specific local units 

Add area notations 3-9 to 352.0, e.g., administration of New 
York City 352.074 71 

Class historical and geographical treatment [formerly 
352.03-352.09] in 352.000 9 



352.1 



.12 



.17 
.4 



352.1-352.9 Specific administrative activities 

SUMMARY 

352.1 Financial administration 

^ Police organization and management 

J Fire and accident protection 

.4 Regulation and control of public health 

J Of public buildings 

.6 Of sanitary engineering 

.7 Of other public works 

S Licensing 

.9 Other activities 

Financial administration 

Class local government finance [formerly 352.1] in 336 

The budget 

Official estimates submitted by chief executive 



.13 


Tax administration 


.131 


Assessment 




For special assessments, se 


.1312 


Equalization 


.1313 


Valuation and appraisal 


.133 


Collection 


.134 


Special assessments 


.16 


Procurement 



Acquisition of property, equipment, supplies needed in 
administration 

Accounting and auditing 

Police organization and management 

Fire and accident protection 

Regulation and control of public health 

Including coroners [formerly 352.9] 
For sanitary engineering, see 352.6 



350 



352.5-352,7 Regulation and control of public works 

Of public buildings 

Including community centers [formerly 352.7] 

35^ 



|1 

■I 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



352.6 



.7 



.91 



.92 



.922 
.923 
.926 
.93 



.94 



Of sanitary engineering 

Water-supply, sewage- and refuse-disposal structures 

Of other public works 

Class community centers [formerly 352.7] in 352.5 



.72 


Cemeteries 


.73 


Park and recreational structures 


.74 


Roads, bridges, tunnels 


.75 


Housing 


.8 


Licensing 


.9 


Other activities 



Class coroners [formerly 352.9] in 352.4 

Regulation and control of public utilities 
Divide like 350.87, e.g., electric power 352.912 2 

Regulation of construction 

Scope: permits, codes, inspections, standards 

Building construction [formerly 692.9] 

Electrical installations [formerly 621.300 7] 

Plumbing [formerly 696.9] 
Maintenance and regulation of public order, security, 
morals 

Divide like 350.75-350.76, e.g., civil defense 352.935 5 

Regulation and control of economic, welfare, cultural 
activities 

Divide Uke 350.82-350.85, e.g., labor 352.943 



.95 


Waste and refuse collection 


.96 


Planning 


.961 


Zoning 


.962 


Land subdivision 


.98 


Regulation and control of justice 




352 



p. 353-354 Administration of specific national, 

state, provincial governments 

353 United States federal and state governments 

If preferred, class in 354 

Use 353.000 01 - 353.000 08 for standard subdivisions 

.000 l-.OOO 9 Standard subdivisions of federal government 

.001-.009 Civil service, specific administrative activities, 

governmental accountability in federal government 

Divide like 350.1-350.9, e.g., fiscal policy 353.007 21 

.01-.09 The executive in federal government 

Divide like 350.001-350.009, e.g., executive branch 353.03 



.1 

a 

•3 

.4 

.6 



.62 

.63 

.7 

.8 

.81 

.82 

.83 

.84 

.85 



353.1-353.8 Specific executive departments in federal 

government 

Department of State 

Department of the Treasury 

Department of the Interior 

Post Office Department 

Department of Justice 

Department of Defense 

Class Department of the Navy in 353.7 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Air Force [formerly 358.4] 

Department of the Navy 
Other departments 

Department of Agriculture 
Department of Commerce 
Department of Labor 

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 
Department of Urban Affairs and Housing (Proposed) 

353 



i 



ihi': 






Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



353.9 



State governments 



.91 



.92 


.921-.928 


.929 


.9291 


.929 2 


.929 3 



.93 



.94-.99 



353.91-353.93 General principles 
For specific states, see 353.94-353.99 

The executive 

Divide like 350.001-350.009, e.g., powers of governors 
353.913 2 

Specific kinds of executive departments and 
intergovernmental administration 

Specific kinds of executive departments 

Divide like 350.01-350.08, e.g., labor departments 353.928 3 

Intergovernmental administration 

Between states 

Interstate agreements, cooperation, disputes 

Between states and federal government 
Between states and local governments 

Civil service, specific administrative activities, 
governmental accountability 

Divide like 350.1-350.9, e.g., state civil service systems 353.936 

Specific states 

Add area notations 4-9 to 353.9, e.g., administration of 
government of Hawaii 353.996 9; then add further as follows: 

000 1-000 9 Standard subdivisions 

001-009 Civil service, specific administrative activities, 
governmental accountability 

Divide like 350.1-350.9, e.g., civil service 

system 006 

01-09 The executive 

Divide hke 350.001-350.009, e.g., executive 

branch 03 
1-8 Specific executive departments 

Divide hke 350.01-350.08, e.g., labor department 

83 

9 Intergovernmental administration 

Divide like 350.09, e.g., relation between state and 
local government 93 

354 



354 Other central governments 

Scope: administration of air force departments [formerly 358.4] 
(Optional: United States federal and state governments; prefer 353) 

.1 International 

.3-.9 National, state, provincial 

Add area notations 3-9 to 354, e.g., government of Canada 354.71; 
except for Germany add further as follows: 

000 1-000 9 Standard subdivisions 
001-009 Civil service, specific administrative activities, 
governmental accountability 

Divide like 350.1-350.9, e.g., civil service 

system 006 

01-09 The executive and its specific departments 

01-05 Specific aspects of the executive 

Divide like 350.001-350.005, e.g., cabinet 05 
06 Specific executive departments and ministries 

Divide like 350.01-350.08, e.g., ministry of foreign 

afl^airs 061 
07-09 Otiier specific aspects of the executive 

Divide like 350.007-350.009, e.g., government 

corporations 092 



.43 



Germany 

Use 354.430 001 - 354.430 009 for standard subdivisions 



.430 01-.430 09 



Civil service, specific administrative activities, 
governmental accountabihty 

Divide like 350.1-350.9, e.g., civil service system 
354.430 06 



.4301 


Bureaucracy 


.430 2 


Separation of powers 


.430 3 


Executive branch 


.430 5 


Cabinet and cabinet system 


.430 6 


Specific ministries 




Divide like 350.01-350.08, e.g., ministry of foreign affairs 




354.430 61 



355 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



355 



355-359 Military administration 

Military art and science and their application to conduct of 
defense and warfare 

Class general principles in 355, administration of defense 
departments in 350.06, civil-military relations in 350.895 

General principles 

Scope: application to land warfare, to combined warfare 

Use 355.000 1 - 355.000 9 for standard subdivisions 

Class application of general principles to air warfare in 358.4 to 

space warfare in 358.8, to sea warfare in 359, to specific kinds of land 

forces in 356—357 



.001-.009 



Standard subdivisions of general principles of land 
warfare 



355.02-355.07 Basic considerations underlying military 
administration 

.02 War and warfare 

.02 1 Overall concepts 

,021 3 Militarism and antimilitarism 

.021 5 Limited and total war 

,021 7 Nuclear and conventional warfare 

.021 8 Scope 

021 82 Warfare between and among states 

021 84 Insurgent, revolutionary, resistance warfare 

.022 Sociology 

For sociological causes of war, see 355.027 4 

,023 Economics 

Costs and benefits 

For economic causes of war, see 355.027 3 



.027 


Causes 


.027 2 


Political and diplomatic 


.027 3 


Economic 


.027 4 


Sociological 


.027 5 


Psychological 




356 



355.028 

.03 

.031 



.032 



.033 
.033 2 

.033 5 



.07 



.1 



Results 

Occupation, dislocation, reconstruction 

Defense 

Mutual security pacts 

Central Treaty Organization, North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, Warsaw 
Pact 

Military missions and assistance 

Add area notations 3-9 for country visited or assisted to 
355.032, e.g., military assistance to Vietnam 355.032 597 

Military situation and policy 

Situation 

Add area notations 1-9 to 355.033 2 

Policy 

Add area notations 1-9 to 355.033 5 
Class combat strategy in 355.43 

Military research and development 



355.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 
.7 
.8 



SUMMARY 

Military life and postmilitary benefits 

Military resources 

Organization and personnel of military forces 

Attack and defense plans and operations 

Training maneuvers, exercises, drills 

Central administration 

Military installations and land reservations 

Military equipment and supplies (Materiel) 



Military life and postmilitary benefits 

Use 355.100 1 - 355.100 9 for standard subdivisions 



.101-.109 Standard subdivisions of military life 



357 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



355.11 
.111 
.112 
.113 



.114 



.115 
.115 1 
.1152 
.115 4 



.115 6 

.12 

.123 
.129 



.129 2 
.129 3 



.129 4 
.129 5 



355.11 
.12 
.13 
.14 
.15 
.16 
.17 



SUMMARY 

Service periods and their termination 

Living conditions and customs in peace and war 

Discipline, honor, remuneration 

Uniforms as costume 

Colors and standards 

Celebrations 

Ceremonials 



Service periods and their termination 

Length of service 

Promotion 

Inactive periods 

Leaves, furloughs, reserve status, status during captivity or 
internment 

Termination of service 

Retirement, resignation, discharge, reinstatement 

Veterans' rights and benefits 
Pensions 

Education and training 
Employment and reemployment 

For veterans' preference in civil service personnel 
selection, see 350.132 43 

Rehabilitation 

Living conditions and customs in peace and war 

Servicemen's morale 
In specific situations 

For servicemens morale, see 355.123 

In garrison 

In the field and on the march 

For living conditions in battle, see 355.129 4 

In batde 

In prison and prison camp 
358 



355.13 



.133 



.133 2 



.133 4 
.134 



.135 
.14 



.219 



.22 



.223 



Discipline, honor, remuneration 
Including etiquette 

Class military ethics [formerly 355.13] in 174.9 
For etiquette of uniforms, see 355.14 

Discipline and law 

Including judge advocate general's corps, military police 

Courts-martial and courts of inquiry 

Organization, jurisdiction, procedure of general, special, 
summary courts-martial and of military tribunals 

Offenses 
Rewards and privileges 

Salutes, honorary insignia, decorations, medals, badges, 
orders, gifts, special privileges and bonuses 

Remuneration and allowances 

Uniforms as costume 

Including identifying insignia, etiquette 
Class issue and use of uniforms in 355.81 



.15 


Colors and standards 


.16 


Celebrations 




Commemorations, anniversaries, jubilees 


.17 


Cerempnials 


2 


Military resources 


2\ 


Value and availability 



Readiness for mobilization 



Sabotage and its prevention 



355.22-355.27 Mobilization of specific resources 
Military manpower and womanpower 



355.223-355.225 Specific elements 
Enlistment, conscription, commissioning 

359 



Decimal Classiiication 



Public administration 



SH' 



u 



355.224 


Conscientious objectors 


.225 


Compulsory service 




For conscription, see 355.223 


.225 5 


Universal training and service 


.229 


Womanpower 




For specific elements, see 355.223-355.225 



.23 



[.232] 



.24 
.26 
27 
.28 



.29 

.3 

.31 



Civilian manpower and womanpower 

Including allocation, duties, morale, internment 

Civil defense 

Class administration in 350.755; services in 363.35 

Raw materials 

Industrial resources 

Transportation and communication facilities 

Requisitions 

Effective mobilization of resources thru application of emer- 
gency powers, calls to arms, commandeering of property, 
establishment of military zones 

For mobilization of specific resources, see 355.22-355.27 
Demobilization 

Organization and personnel of military forces 

Units organized for administrative purposes 

Army groups, armies, corps, divisions, regiments, smaller units 

Including foreign legions, parade and inspection units, other 
special units and formations 



.33 


Hierarchy 




Including line-and-staff functions 


.331 


Leadership and command 


.332 


OflBcers 


.338 


Enlisted personnel 




360 



355.34 



.341 
.342 
.343 
.343 2 

.343 3 

.343 4 
.343 7 

.345 
.346 



.347 
.348 

.35 

.351 

.352 

.356 

.357 



^7 



Special services 

Units and services responsible for noncombatant functions and 
activities 

Administrative and supply services 

Public information services 

Unconventional warfare services 

Intelligence 

Including mapping, cryptanalysis services 

Counterintelligence 

Including security classification services 

Psychological warfare (Propaganda) 
Subversion and sabotage 

Health services 

Medical, dental, nursing, veterinary 

Recreational services 

Athletic games and sports, arts and crafts, music, dances, 
library services 

Religious and counseling services 
Women s services 

Class a specific service with the subject 

Combat units according to field of service 
Home guards and frontier troops 
Colonial and expeditionary forces 
Allied and coalition forces 

International forces 

Troops under unified command acting by supemational 
authorization 

Reserves 



361 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



355.4 



.409 



.423 

.424 
.425 
.426 



.43 



.430 5 
.430 7 



Attack and defense plans and operations 

Scope: deception and camouflage 

Historical treatment 

Class geographical treatment in 355.47 



Debarkation and landing, skirmishing, attacks, 
counter attacks, retreats 

Including commando (hit-and-run) tactics 



355.423-355.426 Under specific conditions 
For siege warfare, see 355.44; defense of home territory, 355.45 
In specific kinds of terrain, climate, weather 
Using animals 
In guerrilla warfare 

In cities 

Tactics in street fighting, house-to-house fighting, quelling 
riots 

Strategy 

General plan of combat, evaluation and deployment of 
resources 

Use 355.430 01 - 355.430 09 for standard subdivisions 

For siege warfare, see 355.44; defense of home territory, 
355.45 

Limited and total war 
Nuclear and conventional warfare 
362 



355.44 



.45 



.41 
.411 


Logistics and field service ■ 
Tactics of troop movements 9 


.47 


.412 
.413 


Encampment tactics I 
Reconnaissance tactics ■ 


.48 


.415 


Troop-support tactics 1 

Tactics of communication, supply, medical service, prisoner ■ 
handling 1 


.5 

.52 


.42 


Battle tactics I 


.54 


.422 


General ■ 





.544 



.547 
.548 

.55 
.58 



.6 



.61 

.611 



Siege warfare 

Tactics and strategy 

Defense of home territory 

Tactics and strategy of defense of frontiers, coasts, industrial 
areas, strategically valuable positions 

Tactical and strategic geography 
Add area notations 1-9 to 355.47 

Technical analyses of military events 
Real and imaginary wars, campaigns, battles 

Training maneuvers, exercises, drills 

Grand maneuvers 
Basic training of units 
Including tactical exercises 

Camp and fortification operations 

Setting up, repairing, dismantling camps, temporary 
fortifications, batteries, obstacles, field kitchens 

Small arms and bayonet practice 

Self-defense 

Unarmed combat and combat with knife 

OflBcers' maneuvers and exercises 
Maneuvers involving civil population 

Warning and intelligence service, rescue maneuvers, safety 

activities, demonstrations 

Central administration 

Military administration at top level 

For organization of military forces, see 355.3 



355.61-355.63 Overall control 
For specific elements, see 355.64-355.69 

General 

Adjutant general's department 

3^3 



.6213 
.622 
.622 3 
.63 



.64 



.65 
.66 
.67 
.69 



.7 



.71 



.n 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



355.613 


Personnel management 


.613 3 


Military 


.613 6 


Civilian 


.614 


Issuance of orders 


.62 


Financial 


.621 


Supply adniinistration 


.621 1 


Execution of contracts 


.6212 


Procurement 



Acquisition of property, equipment, supplies needed in 
administration 



Utilization and disposal 
Fiscal responsibility 

Accounting and auditing 
Inspectional 



355.64-355.69 Specific elements 
Paymaster's department 

Administration of pay, allowances, pensions 

Subsistence department 
Clothing and equipment department 
Lodging administration 
Other central administrative services 
Including graves registration service 

Military installations and land reservations 

Description, operation, use 



355.71-355.75 Permanent and quasi-permanent 
installations 

Quarters for personnel 

Barracks, camps, post exchanges, canteens, prisons 

Medical installations 

3^4 



355.73 



.74 

.75 

.79 



.81 
.82 



.83 



356 



.1 



•11 



.15 



Artillery installations 

Arsenals, ordnance factories and depots, target ranges, artillery 
schools 

Engineering installations 
Depots and testing grounds 

Supply depots and installations 
Land (Natural resources) 

Military equipment and supplies (Materiel) 

Description, issue, operation, use, packing, shipping 

Food, clothing, camp equipment 

Ordnance 

For combat vehicles, see 355.83 

Transportation equipment 

Trucks, trains, ships, planes, combat vehicles, fuel 



356-359 Specific kinds of technical and combat 
forces 

Units and services 



356-357 Land forces 

Class conduct of air warfare in 358.4, of sea warfare in 359, 
comprehensive works on land warfare in 355 

For armored and technical land forces, see 358.1-358.3 

Foot forces 

Infantry 



356.11-356.16 Units 

Regular 

Including motorized infantry 

Irregular 

Self-organized infantry, guerrillas, brigand troops 



357 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



356.16 Special formations 

Including light infantry, sharpshooters, machine gunners, 
grenadiers 

. 1 64 Ski and mountain troops 

,166 Paratroops 

.18 Training, plans, operations, equipment, supplies, 

installations 

For units, see 356.11-356.16 

[.182] Training drills 

Class in 356.184 

.183 Attack and defense plans and operations 

.184 Training drills [formerly 356.182] , maneuvers, 

exercises 

.186 Equipment and supplies ( Materiel ) 

.187 Installations 

J2 Specialized foot forces 

Mounted forces 
,1 Horse cavalry 

For remount and training services, see 357.2 

.18 Plans, operations, training, installations, equipment, 

supplies 

.184 Attack and defense plans and operations 

.185 Training maneuvers, exercises, drills 

.187 Installations 

.188 Equipment and supplies (Materiel) 

JZ Remoimt and training services 

Training cavalry mounts, remount depots, breeding and care of 
cavalry mounts, horsemanship 



357.5 



Mechanized cavalry 



.52 
.53 
.54 
.58 



357.52-357.54 Specific kinds 

Bicycle 

Motorcycle 

Automobile 

Plans, operations, training, installations, equipment, 

supplies 

Divide hke 357.18, e.g., equipment and sapphes 357.588 

For specific kinds of mechanized cavalry, see 357.52-357.54 



358 Armored and technical land forces, air and space 

forces 

Use 358.001-358.009 for standard subdivisions 



.01-.09 



Standard subdivisions of armored and technical land 
forces 



358.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.8 


SUMMARY 

Artillery and armored forces 
Engineer forces 
Other technical forces 
Air forces 
Space forces 



358.1-358.3 Armored and technical land forces 
Artillery and armored forces 



.12 



.13 
.16 
.17 



366 



358.12-358.17 Artillery 
Field 

Including antitank artillery [formerly 358.18] 

Antiaircraft 

Coast 

Guided (Strategic) missile 

Divide like 623.451 94 - 623.451 96, e.g., long-range 
surface-to-surface missile-launching forces 358.175 4 

3^7 



Decimal Classification 



Public administration 



h 



** 



358.18 



.22 
.23 

.24 

.25 
3 



.34 
.38 
.39 
.4 



.403 
.407 
.41 



Armored forces 

Tanks and tank warfare 

Class antitank artillery [formerly 358.18] in 358.12 

Engineer forces 

Scope: pioneers 

Construction 

Roads, railroads, bridges, tunnels, docks, airports 

Demolition 

Including sappers, torpedo troops 

Communications (Signals and signaling) 
Including military cryptography 

Transportation 

Other technical forces 

Including services connected with construction of military build- 
ings, camouflage, manufacture of war materiel, munitions, powder 

Gas warfare 
Biological warfare 
Nuclear warfare 

Air forces 

Scope: conduct of air warfare 

Use 358.400 1 - 358.400 9 for standard subdivisions 

Class administration of United States Department of the Air Force 

in 353.63, of other air force departments in 354 [all formerly 

358.4] 

Class conduct of land warfare in 355, of sea warfare in 359 

Situation and policy 
Research and development 
Functions and organization 

For specific forces, see 358.42-358.46 



,41 1-.413 Military life, resources, forces 



Divide like 355.1-355.3, e.g., air force uniforms as costume 
358.4114 

368 



358.414 



.4141 

.414 12 
.414 15 



.414 2 



.414 3 



.414 5 



.414 7 

.414 8 

.415 
.415 4 
.415 5 
.415 8 



Attack and defense plans and operations 
Scope: deception and camouflage 

For bombing, see 358.42; fighting, 358.43 

Logistics 

For transportation, see 358.44; reconnaissance, 358.45 

Encampment tactics 
Troop support tactics 

Tactics of supply, medical service, prisoner handUng 
For communications, see 358.46 

Battle tactics 

For defense of home terntory, see 358.414 5 

Strategy 

General plan of combat, evaluation and deployment of 
resources 

For defense of home terntory, see 358.414 5 

Defense of home territory 

Tactics and strategy of defense of frontiers, coasts, 
industrial areas, strategically valuable positions 

Tactical and strategic geography 
Add area notations 1-9 to 358.414 7 

Technical analyses of military events 

Real and imaginary wars, campaigns, battles 

Training maneuvers, exercises, drills 
Basic training of units 
OfiBcers' maneuvers and exercises 
Maneuvers involving civil population 



.416-.418 Central administration, installations, materiel 

Divide Uke 355.6-355.8, e.g., air proving grounds 358.417 4 



369 



358.42 



.43 



Decimal Classification 



358.42-358.46 Specific forces 
Administration, military art and science, services, units 

Bombing 

Including air-to-surface, air-to-underwater guided (strategic) 
missile-launching forces 

Pursuit and fighting 

Including air-to-air guided (strategic) missile-launching forces 



.44 


Transportation 


.45 


Reconnaissance 




Including weather reconnaissance 


.46 


Coniiiiunications 


.8 


Space forces 




Conduct of space warfare 



359 



.03 
.07 
.1-.2 



3 

.31 



.32 



Sea ( Naval ) forces 

Scope: conduct of sea warfare 

Use 359.001-359.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class conduct of land warfare in 355, of air warfare in 358.4 

Situation and policy 
Research and development 
Naval life and resources 

Divide like 355.1-355.2, e.g., judge advocate general's corps 
359.133 

Organization and personnel of naval forces 

Units organized for administrative purposes 

Fleets, squadrons, flotillas, crews, divisions, smaller units 

Types of ships 

Divide like 623.825-623.826, e.g., cruisers 359.325 3 



.33-.37 Other 

Divide like 355.33-355.37, e.g., supply services 359.341 

370 



Public administration 



359.4 



.41 



.42 



.43 



.45 



.47 



.48 



.5-.8 



.9 

.96 

.97 

.98 



.981 



Attack and defense plans and operations 

Scope: deception and camouflage 

Logistics 

Divide like 355.41, e.g., reconnaissance tactics 359.413 

Battle tactics 

For defense of home territory, see 359.45 

Strategy 

General plan of combat, evaluation and deployment of 
resources 

For defense of home territory, see 359.45 

Defense of home territory • 
Tactics and strategy 

Tactical and strategic geography 
Add area notations 1-9 to 359.47 

Technical analyses of naval events 

Real and imaginary wars, campaigns, batdes 

Training, central administration, installations, materiel 

Divide like 355.5-355.8, e.g., naval procurement 359.621 2 

Specialist forces 

Marine 

Coast guard 

Including United States Coast Guard [formerly also 351.792] 

Technical 

Including underwater demolition teams, communication 
services 

Artillery 

Including surface, underwater guided (strategic) 
missile-launching forces 



.982 



Engineering 



37^ 



Decimal Classification 



Welfare and association 



360 Welfare and association 

Use 360.01-360.09 for standard subdivisions 



.1-.9 



Standard subdivisions of welfare 



361 



[.009] 



.02 



.04 



.4 



.5 

.51 

.52 



361-365 General welfare 

Public and private services, activities, methods intended to 
promote social well-being 

Class a specific activity of general welfare not provided for 
here with the subject, e.g., education 370 

361-362 Social welfare 

Assistance to the disadvantaged 

Organization and practice of social welfare work 

Use 361.001-361,008 for standard subdivisions 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 361.9 

Free assistance 

Charities, philanthropy 

Paid assistance 

Assistance for which the recipient pays all or part of the cost 

Planning 
Casework 

Croup work 

Social adjustment of individuals promoted by participation in 
voluntary groups and with assistance of group leader 

Disaster relief 

From earthquakes and volcanic eruptions 

From floods 



36L53 

•54 
.55 
.56 
.57 



.58 



.7 



73 



•8 



.9 



[.09] 



From effects of war 

Relief of displaced persons, refugees, prisoners of war 

From epidemics and pandemics 

From famines 

From fires, explosions, mine and nuclear accidents 

From storms 
Snow, rain, wind 

From transportation accidents 
Land, sea, air, space 

Public welfare work 

Class a specific subject or kind of public welfare work with the 
subject 

Private welfare work 

Class a specific subject or kind of private welfare work with the 
subject 

For parochial welfare work, see 258 

Fund raising 

Charitable bazaars, drives, donations, subscriptions 

Community organization 

Coordination thru social service exchanges, community chests, 
united charities 

Historical and geographical treatment of social welfare 
work 

Add area notations 1-9 to 361.9 



362 Welfare services to special groups 



37^ 



Scope: rehabilitation 

Class welfare services to criminals and deUnquents in 364.6-364.8 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 362.9 

373 



Decimal Classification 



11 

.12 
.13 
.14 



362.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 

.5 
.6 

.7 
.8 
.9 



SUMMARY 

To the physically ill 

To the mentally ill 

To the mentally retarded 

To those suffering physical handicaps and 

disablements 

To the poor 

To the aged and infirm, to survivors and 

dependents 

To the young ( Child welfare ) 

To other groups 

Historical and geographical treatment of welfare 

services to special groups 



362.1-362.4 To those suffering illnesses and handicaps 

For services to the aged and infirm, see 362.61; to the young, 
362.7 



362.1 To the physically ill 



Scope: medical social work, preparation and maintenance of 
medical records 



362.11-362.14 Nonspecialized services 

For services of general convalescent, nursing, rest homes, see 
362.16; ambulance service, 362.18 

Services of general hospitals, infirmaries, contagious 
wards 

Services of dispensaries, clinics, medical centers 
Services of general sanitariums for incurables 
Services provided at home 



.15 

.16 
.18 



Services of maternity hospitals 

Class homes for unmarried mothers [formerly 362.15] in 362.83 

Services of general convalescent, nursing, rest homes 
Ambulance service 



374 



362.19 



Welfare and association 



Services to specific kinds of illness 

Scope: services of hospitals, clinics, sanitariums, nursing homes 
for specific diseases 

Divide like 616-618, e.g., services to cancer patients 
362.196 994 

Class services of hospitals and alUed institutions for specific 
physical diseases of the young [formerly 362.19] in 362.781 9 

For services of maternity hospitals, see 362.15 



.21 

.22 
.23 

.24 
.29 



.292 



.293 



A 

.41 
.42 
.43 



.58 



To the mentally ill 

Scope : psychiatric social work 



362.21-362.24 Nonspecialized services 
Seivices of psychiatric hospitals 
Services of psychiatric clinics 
Services of sanitariums and nursing homes 
Services provided at home 
Services to the addicted 

Services of hospitals, cUnics, sanitariums, nursing homes 

Alcoholics 

Including services of AlcohoUcs Anonymous 

Narcotics addicts 

To the mentally retarded 

Including services of hospitals, custodial homes, aUied institutions 

To those suflFering physical handicaps and disablements 

Blind and partially sighted persons 
Deaf, deaf-mute, hard-of -hearing persons 

Crippled persons 

Paralytics, spastics, paraplegics, amputees 

To the poor 

Class a specialized service with the subject 



Legal aid 



375 



Decimal Classification 



Welfare and association 



362.6 To the aged and infirm, to survivors and dependents 

.61 To the aged and infirm 

Class services of homes and asylums to survivors and 
dependents [both formerly 362.61] in 362.62 

.61 1-614 To those suffering illnesses and handicaps 

Divide like 362.1-362.4, e.g., services provided at home to 
the physically ill 362.611 4 

.615 Services of homes and asylums 

For services to those suffering illnesses and handicaps, see 
362.611-362.614 

jSZ To survivors and dependents 

Including services of homes and asylums [both formerly 
362.61], pensions for widows and orphans 

For services to those suffering illnesses and handicaps, see 
362.1-362.4 

.7 To the young ( Child welfare ) 

Infants, children, adolescents 

71 Thru aid to mothers 

Including day nurseries, foster day care 
Class services to unmarried mothers in 362.83 

[.72] To illegitimate children 

Class in 362.73 

.73 To illegitimate [formerly 362.72] and abandoned 

children and orphans 

For pensions for orphans, see 362.62 



.731 


Placement 


,732 


Institutional care 




Services of homes and asylums 




Including houseparents 


.733 


Foster home care 


.734 


Adoption 




376 



362.74 
.742 
.743 
.745 
.78 



.8 

.82 



.83 

.84 

.85 

.88 
.9 



363 



07 



To maladjusted children 

Services of child guidance clinics 

Services of schools 

Services of junior repubUcs 
To those suffering illnesses and handicaps 

Divide like 362.1-362.4, e.g., services of hospitals and allied 
institutions for specific physical diseases [formerly 362.19] 
362.781 9 

To other groups 

To families 

Including marriage and family counseling [formerly 301.426], 
visiting housekeepers 

To unmarried mothers 

Including homes [formerly 362.15] 

To minority groups 

To laboring classes [formerly also 331.83] 
Including migratory workers 

To victims of crimes of violence 

Historical and geographical treatment of welfare services 
to special groups 

Add area notations 1-9 to 362.9 

Other services 

Class political organizations and institutions [formerly 363] in 
329.006 



SUMMARY 



363.2 
.4 
.6 



Police services 

Services in support of order and security 

Services for control of public morals 

Public works services 

Public utility services 

Police services 

For services in support of order and security, see 363.3 

Personnel 

Responsibilities, qualifications, grades 

377 



Decimal Classification 



363.23 



.232 



.233 

.234 
.236 



24 

.242 
.243 
.244 
.245 



.245 4 



.248 

:3 



.31 

.32 

.33 

.34 

.35 

.351 

.352 

.353 

.356 

.36 

.4 



Operational services 

For prevention of crime and delinquency, see 364.4 

Patrol 

Traffic control 

Pursuit and apprehension 

Self-defense 

Unarmed and armed combat 

Auxiliary services 

Records and communications 

Jails 

Laboratories 

Buildings and equipment 

For jails, see 363.243; laboratories, 363.244 

Weapons 

For armed combat, see 363.236 

Dogs 
Services in support of order and security 

For services for control of public morals, see 363.4 

Protection of freedom of information 
Protection of freedom of association 
Control of explosives and firearms 
Disaster and emergency planning 
Civil defense [formerly 355.232] 
Training 

Protection of population 
Protection of property 
Detection and warning systems 
Prevention of violence 
Services for control of public morals 

Divide like 350.76, e.g., services for control of gambling 363.42 

378 



Welfare and association 



363.5 



.6 



364 



[.09] 



Public works services 

Class a specific service with the subject 

Public utility services {formerly 380] 

Class communication and transportation services in 380 



.61 


Water supply 


.612 


Activities 


.613 


Facilities 


.62 


Electric power 




Divide like 363.61, e.g., facilities 363.623 


.63 


Gas 




Divide like 363.61, e.g., facilities 363.633 



Criminology 

Scope: comprehensive works on criminology and criminal law 
For criminal law, see 343; penology, 365 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 364.9 



364.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 



.6 
.7 
.8 
.9 



SUMMARY 

Offenses 

Causes of crime and delinquency 

Offenders 

Prevention of crime and delinquency 

.6-.8 Correction of crime and delinquency 

Punishment and other methods 

Institutions 

Discharged offenders 

Historical and geographical treatment of criminology 



Offenses 



364.12 



.13 
.14 
.IS 
.16 
.17 



SUMMARY 

Detection 

.13-. 17 Specific kinds of offenses 

Against constituted authority 
Against public health, safety, order 
Against the person 
Against property 
Against public morals 

379 



Decimal Classification 



364.12 



.121 



.122 



[.123] 



.125 



.127 
.127 4 
.127 6 
.127 9 

.128 



.13 



.131 



Detection 

Investigation of crime, collection and interpretation of 
evidence, identification of criminals 

Physical (Circumstantial) evidence 

For documents, see 364.122; physical human characteristics, 
364.125 

Documents 

Including analysis of handwriting and typing 

Lie detection 
Class in 364.127 9 

Physical human characteristics 
Criminal anthropometry 
Including fingerprints 

Evidence of witnesses 
Secret agents 
Informers 
Interrogation 

Including lie detection [formerly 364.123] 

Interception of communication 

Including wiretapping 



364.13-364.17 Specific kinds of offenses 

Scope: case studies 

Class offenders by kind of offense [formerly 364.13-364.17] 
in 364.3 

For military offenses, see 355.133 4 

Against constituted authority 

Class offenses against public health and safety [both formerly 
364.13] in 364.14 

For offenses against public order, see 364.14 

Against the state 

Treason, espionage, conspiracy, seditious libel, subversion, 
incitement, rebellion, sabotage 

380 



Welfare and association 



364.132 



.133 

.134 

.135 
.138 

.14 



.140 6 

.142 
.143 



Against public administration 

Graft, bribery, illegal voting, offenses against postal laws 
For offenses against administration of justice, see 364.134 

Against public revenue 

Counterfeiting, smuggling, bootlegging, tax evasion 

Against administration of justice 

Perjury, collusion, contempt of court, lynching 

Piracy 

War crimes 

For genocide, see 364.151 

Against public health, safety [both formerly 364.13] , 

order 

Use 364.140 01 -364.140 09 for standard subdivisions 

For lynching, see 364.134; offenses against public morals, 
364,17 

Illegal organizations 
Including Mafia 

Against public health 

Against public order 

Rioting, unlawful assembly, disorderly conduct, carrying 

weapons 

Including union racketeering and gangsterism [formerly 

331.880 8] 



.147 


Against traffic and communications safety 


.148 


Vagrancy 


.15 


Against the person 


.151 


Genocide 


.152 


Homicide and suicide 




For genocide, see 364.151 


.152 2 


Suicide 


.152 3 


Murder 



381 



Decimal Classification 



364.152 4 
.152 5 
.153 

.154 
.155 



.156 



.163 



.164 



.17 

.172 

.173 

.174 

.178 

J2 



.24 



Assassination 
Manslaughter 
Sex offenses 

Rape, adultery, prostitution, seduction 

Abduction 

Other offenses tending to harm physically 
Robbery, assault and battery, criminal abortion 
For traffic in drugs, see 364.157 

Offenses tending to harm psychologically 
Criminal libel, invasion of home and privacy 
For burglary, see 364.162 



.157 


Traffic in drugs 


.16 


Against property 


.162 


Larceny 




Including burglary 




For robbery, see 364.155 



Frauds 

Forgery, embezzlement, extortion, blaclonafl, swindles 
Including fraudulent degrees 

Wilful damage and destruction (Vandalism) 
Arson, explosion, depredation 

Against public morals 
Gambling 
Public drunkenness 
Obscenity and pornography 
Cruelty to animals 
Causes of crime and delinquency 
Environmental and hereditary 

Characteristics of the individual 

Factors of age, sex, health, mental superiority and inferiority, 
emotional instability, physical abnormalities 

382 



Welfare and association 




.255 



.256 



.26 



.3 



.32 



.35 



.36 



.363 

.364 

.37 

•4 

.42 



.43 



Social factors 
Cultural factors 

Influence of theater, motion pictures, art, literature, comic 
books, radio, television 

Leisiu'e and recreation 

Influence of amusement and public parks, pubUc dance 
halls, poolrooms, bars, cabarets, automobiles 

Social conflicts 

Individual social maladjustments, immigration, class hatreds, 
racial conflicts, feuds, vendettas 

Economic factors 

Industry, labor, capital, employment, unemployment, strikes, 
standards and cost of living, poverty 

Offenders 

Scope: offenders by kind of offense [formerly 364.13-364.17] 
Class causes of crime and delinquency in 364.2, prevention in 
364.4, correction in 364.6-364.8 

Criminal types 

Recidivists, habitual and professional offenders, occasional 
offenders, single offenders 

Predelinquents 

Potential, near, quasi-delinquents 

Juvenile delinquents 

Including incorrigibihty 

Boys 

Girls 

Adults 

Prevention of crime and delinquency 

Control of population 

Thru eugenic practices, immigration, emigration, segregation 

Control of economic conditions 

383 



Decimal Classification 



Welfare and association 



364.44 



.46 
[.5] 



.6 



.61 



.62 

.63 
.64 
.65 

.66 

.67 

.68 

.682 

.683 

.684 

.7 



.72 



.75 



Law enforcement 

Use of government, legislation, community, home, church, 
school 

Preventive police work 
Correctional courts 

Class in 340 



364.6-364.8 Correction of crime and delinquency 
Punishment and other methods 

Scope: welfare services to offenders 
For correctional courts, see 340 

Deprivation of liberty 

Imprisonment, detention, deportation 



364.62-364.65 Conditional release 
Parole and indeterminate sentence 
Probation, suspended sentence, reprieve 
Pardon and amnesty 
Commutation of sentence 

Capital punishment 

Corporal punishment 

Deprivation of economic, civil, political rights 

Fines 

Loss of citizenship 

Loss of franchise 

Institutions 

Reformatories, houses of correction 
Including institutions for adults 

For juveniles 

Industrial and training schools, colonies, truant schools 

Plant 

Grounds, buildings, equipment 

384 



364.76 Treatment of inmates 

Including labor and welfare services 

Class administration of reformatories [formerly 364.76] in 

350.84 

.8 Discharged offenders 

Rehabilitation, other welfare services 

,9 Historical and geographical treatment of criminology 

Add area notations 1-9 to 364.9 

365 Penology 

[.09] Historical and geographical treatment 

Do not use; class in 365.9 

.2 Prison systems 

Congregate, soUtary confinement, silent, progressive 

,3 Kinds of penal institutions 

Prisons, penitentiaries, jails, detention homes, workhouses, penal 
farms and colonies, road camps, concentration camps 

Class specific institutions in 365.9 

For reformatorieSy houses of correction, see 364.7 

.4 Prisons for special classes of offenders 

Including juveniles, women, mentally ill (criminally insane), 
political prisoners, debtors 

Class specific institutions in 365.9 

.45 Prisoners of war 

Combatants, noncombatants, civihans 

^ Prison plant 

Grounds, buildings, equipment 

•6 Inmates 

Class administration of prisons [formerly 365.6] in 350.84 



3S5 



Decimal Classification 



365.64 


Treatment 




Including escapes 


.642 


Reception and classification 


.643 


Discipline 



.644 
.647 

.65 



.66 



.7 



.9 



Rules and regulations, routine, rights of inmates, restrictions, 
privileges 

Punishments of refractory inmates 
Release and discharge 

Convict labor 

Employment of inmates, lease system, chain gangs, contract 
system 

Welfare services 

Educational work, religious and character training, health, 
recreation 

Reform of penal system 

Historical and geographical treatment of penology 

Scope; specific institutions 
Add area notations 1-9 to 365.9 



366-369 Association 

Organization for common purposes of a fraternal nature or for 
mutual assistance 

Class comprehensive works in 366 

For cooperative systems for production and distribution, 
see 334 



366 Comprehensive works 

.OOl-.OOS Standard subdivisions 

[.009] Historical and geographical treatment 

Do not use; class in 366.9 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of esoteric associations and 
societies 

3S6 



Welfare and association 



366.1 
.17 
.18 



J2 
.3 
.38 
.4 

.9 



366.1-366.5 Esoteric (Secret and semisecret) 
associations and societies 

Class standard subdivisions in 366.01-366.09 
For orders of knighthood, see 929.71 

Freemasonry 

Order of DeMolay 
Women in Freemasonry 

Including Order of the Eastern Star 

Knights of Pythias 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows 

Daughters of the Rebekah 
Rosicrucians 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks 

Historical and geographical treatment of association 

Add area notations 1-9 to 366.9 



367 Social clubs 

[.09] Historical and geographical treatment 

Do not use; class in 367.9 

Ji Historical and geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 367.9 



368 Insurance 

Association to spread risk 

Including insurance of libraries [formerly also 022.2] 

Class marketing of insurance in 658.8, government regulation and 

control of insurance companies in 350.825, insurance law in 340 [all 

formerly 368] 

.001-.009 Standard subdivisions 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in modem 
world in 368.9 



Decimal Classification 



368.01 



.011 
.012 



.014 



.014 5 

.015 

.016 



.06 



.062 
.063 

.07 



.08 



.09 
.092 
.093 
.096 



General principles 

Scope: actuarial science 

Rates and rate making 

Underwriting 

Including reinsurance 

Claims 

Adjustment of claims, settlement of losses 

Fraudulent claims 
Finance 
Lapsation, persistence, termination 

For adjustment of claims, see 368.014 



368.06-368.08 Specific forms of risk 

Property risks 

Risk of loss from impairment or destruction of property 

Tangible 
Intangible 

Personal risks 

Risk of loss of income or augmented expenditure due to hazards 
to the person 

Other 

Including risk of consequential loss 

Conventional comprehensive sales groupings 
Automobile insurance [formerly 368.572] 
Aviation insurance [formerly 368.576] 
Real property insurance 



388 



Welfare and association 





SUMMARY 


368.1 


Against damage to and loss of property 


.2 


Against damage to and loss of property in transit 




( Transportation insurance ) 


J 


Against death, old age, illness, injury 


.4 


Against poverty 




.5-.8 Against casualties (Casualty insurance) 


J 


Liability 


.6 


Class breakage 


.7 


Industrial casualty 


.8 


Other 


.9 


Insurance by continent, country, locality in modern 




world 



p. 368.1-368.8 Specific kinds of insurance 

Use 001-009 for standard subdivisions under each subdivision 
identified by * 

Add 01 to each subdivision identified by * and divide like 
368.01, e.g., underwriting life insurance 368.320 12 

368.1 *Against damage to and loss of property 

For transportation insurance, see 368.2; casualty insurance, 
368.5-368.8 



.11 

.12 

.122 

.125 
.129 
.14 



.22 



*Fire insurance 

♦Allied fire insurance lines 

•Disaster insurance 

Against damage and loss from storms, earthquakes, floods 

*Riot and civil commotion insurance 
•Extended coverage insurance 
*War risk insurance 

*Against damage to and loss of property in transit 
(Transportation insurance) 

Scope: insurance against damage to and loss of instrumentalities of 
transportation 

Including postal insurance 
•Ocean marine insurance 



* Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 368.1-368.8 

389 



Decimal Classification 



Welfare and association 



368.23 



.232 



.233 
.24 



.32 

.36 

.362 
.363 
.364 



* Inland marine insurance 

Class airport insurance [formerly 368.23] in 368.24 
For air transportation insurance, see 368.24 

•Automboile insurance 

Including truck and bus insurance 

*Raikoad insurance 
*Air transportation insurance 

Including aircraft insurance [formerly 368.576], airport 
insurance [formerly 368.23] 

*Against death, old age, illness, injury 

For social insurance, see 368.4 

♦Life instirance 

For special fields of life insurance, see 368.36 

Special fields of life insurance 
•Industrial life insurance 
•Fraternal insurance 
*War risk life insurance 

Including National Service Life Insurance 

Class war risk accident insurance [formerly 368.364] in 
368.384 



.37 


•Annuities 


.375 


•Variable annuities 


.38 


•Accident and health insurance 


.382 


•Prepaid health care 


.382 2 


•Medical and surgical 


.382 3 


•Dental 


.382 7 


•Hospital 



• Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 368.1-368.8 



368.384 



.386 
.4 

.41 



.42 

.424 
.426 
.43 



.44 



•Accident insurance 

Including war risk accident insurance [formerly 368.364], 
air travel accident insurance [formerly 368.576], other 
travel accident insurance 

•Disability income insurance 

*Against poverty 

Government-sponsored social insurance: social security 

•Workmen's compensation insurance 

Protection against losses inciurred thru disablements caused by 
the job 

•Accident and health insvirance 

For workmen's compensation insurance, see 368.41 

•Maternity insurance 

•Accident and health insurance for the aged 
•Old-age and survivors' insurance 

For accident and health insurance for the aged, see 368.426 

•Unemployment insurance 



390 



► 368.5-368.8 Against casualties (Casualty insurance) 

^ *Liability 

.56 Miscellaneous lines 

Livestock, owners', landlords', tenants', contractual, elevator, 
personal 

.57 •Instrumentalities of transportation 

.572 •Automobile 

Class comprehensive automobile insurance [formerly 
368.572] in 368.092 

.576 •Aviation 

Class comprehensive aviation insurance in 368.093, aircraft 
insurance in 368.24, air travel accident insurance in 368.384 
[all formerly 368.576] 

* Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 368.1-368.8 



Decimal Classification 



368.6 



.7 



.81 
.815 



.82 
.83 



.84 



.85 



.852 
.853 
,854 

.87 



.88 



*Glass breakage 

Plate glass, windows, neon and fluorescent signs and lamps 

♦Industrial casualty 

Boiler, machinery, power-plant, nuclear-accident, power- 
interruption insurance 

Other 

♦Business insurance 

♦Business interruption insurance 
Including strike insurance 

•Burglary, robbery, theft insurance 

♦FideUty bonds 

Guarantee against loss to employers because of dishonesty of 
employees 

♦Surety bonds 

Guarantee against loss due to failure to perform an obhgation 
or fulfil a contract 

Other guarantees 

For credit insurance, see 368.87; title insurance, 368.88 

♦Mortgage insurance 

♦Investment guarantees 

♦Bank deposit insurance 

♦Credit insurance 

Insurance of creditor against loss due to debtor's insolvency 

♦Title insurance 

Insurance by continent, country, locality in modem world 

Add area notations 4-9 to 368.9 



♦ Make standard subdivisions and divide as instructed under 368.1-368.8 



39^ 



Welfare and association 



369 Other kinds of associations and societies 

.1 Hefeditary, military, patriotic societies of United States 

If preferred, class in 369.23-369.29 

.11 General 

Military and naval orders. Medal of Honor Legion, Military 
Order of Foreign Wars of the United States, Veterans of 
Foreign Wars 

.12 Colonial 

Society of Colonial Wars, Colonial Dames, Mayflower 
Descendants 



.13 



.135 

.14 

.15 



.16 
.17 



.18 

.181 
.186 
.1861 
.186 2 
.186 3 



Revolutionary 

Including Society of the Cincinnati, Sons of the American 
Revolution 

Daughters of the American Revolution 
Commemorating events of 1789-1861 

Union Civil War 

Grand Army of the Republic, Society of the Army of the 
Cumberland 

Auxiliary Union societies of Civil War 

Confederate Civil War 

United Confederate Veterans, United Daughters of the 
Confederacy 

Wars of 1898 and later 

Spanish- American War 

World Wars I and II and Korean War 

American Legion 

Amvets 

Disabled American Veterans 



393 



Decimal Classification 



369.2 Hereditary, military, patriotic societies other than United 

States 
21 International 

23-29 Specific countries 

(Optional: United States; prefer 369.1) 
Add area notations 3-9 to 369.2 



•4 


Young people's societies 


.42 


Boys' 




For Boy Scouts, see 369.43 


.43 


Boy Scouts 


.46 


Girls' 




For Camp Fire Girls, see 369.47 


.463 


Girl Scouts and Girl Guides 


.47 


Camp Fire Girls 



Service clubs 

Including Rotary, Kiwanis, Lions 



394 



Education 



370 Education 

Class study and teaching of a speciHc subject at elementary level in 
372.3-372.8, at higher levels with the subject 

.1 Philosophy, theories, principles 

.11 Aims, objectives, value 

J 12 Humanistic education 

.114 Moral, ethical, character education [all formerly 

3772] 
.12 Classification and other philosophical foundations 

Including ideaUsm, realism, pragmatism 

.13 Scientific aspects 

Divide like 510-590, e.g., somatological aspects 370.137 3 
Class psychological aspects in 370.15, value in 370.11 

.15 Educational psychology 

Investigation of psychological problems involved in education, 
together with practical application of psychological principles 
to education 

.18 Research methodology 

,183 Siuveys and appraisals of educational systems 

Class surveys and evaluation by central government in 
379.152 2 

,19 Sociological aspects 

Class psychological aspects in 370.15 

.193 Educational sociology 

Educational objectives and organization within the frame- 
work of group life as a whole 

.193 1 Community and school relations 

Including parent-teacher associations [formerly 371.103] 
Class relation of teachers to community in 371.104 

.193 3 Role of school in fostering society 

.193 32 Education for individual fulfihnent 

.193 34 Education for social responsibility 

395 






Decimal Classification 



370.193 4 Social problems affecting school organization 

Racial, cultural, environmental factors 

.193 42 Integration of specific groups 

Including racial groups [formerly 371.97] 

.193 44 Segregation of specific groups 

Including racial groups [formerly 371.97] 

.193 46 Rural education 

,193 48 Urban education 

.194 Fundamental education 

Preparation of educationally underprivileged children and 
adults for effective participation in community life 

.195 Comparative education 

.196 Intercultural education 

Programs to promote mutual understanding among nations 
and cultures thru exchange of instructional materials, 
techniques, students, teachers, technicians 

.7 Study and teaching of education 

.71 Professional education of teachers 

Including training classes [formerly 370.75], teachers' meetings 
Class schools and courses in 370.73 

.712 For specific grades or levels 

.712 2 Kindergarten and elementary 

.712 3 Secondary 

.712 4 College and university 

.72 Teachers' conferences, institutes, v^^orkshops 

Class research in 370.78 

.73 Institutions of higher education 

.730 1-.730 9 Standard subdivisions 

.732 Covu-ses and programs 

.732 6 For specific grades or levels 

,732 62 Kindergarten and elementary 

39^ 





Education 


370.732 63 


Secondary 


.732 64 


College and university 


.733 


Practice teaching 




Facilities and programs 


[.75] 


Training classes 




Class in 370.71 




Class collecting and collections of objects in 370.775 



.76 Professional education of administrators 

Class review and exercise in 370.776 

.77 Miscellany 

.775 Collecting and collections of objects 

,776 Review and exercise 

,777 Programed teaching and learning 

.778 Use of apparatus and equipment 

.78 Educational research 

Divide like standard subdivision 072, e.g., historical research 
370.782 

Class use of apparatus and equipment in 370.778 

371 The school 

Organization and administration 

Use 371.001-371.009 for standard subdivisions 

For organization and administration of the school at a specific 
level, see the level, e.g., the elementary school 372.11-372.18 

.01 The public school 

The tax-supported school providing free education 
Class public education in 379.2 

.02 The private school 

Known also as the public school (in Great Britain) 
Class nonpublic education in 379.3 



397 



Decimal Classification 



371.1 



102 



.103 



.104 
.104 2 

.104 4 

.104 6 

.11 

.12 

.13 

.132 

.133 

.14 

.141 

.1412 

.1414 

.142 



SUMMARY 

371.1 Teaching and teaching personnel 

.2 Educational administration 

.3 Methods of instruction and study 

.4 Guidance and counseling 

.5 School discipline 

.6 Physical plant 

.7 School hygiene 

.8 The student 

,9 Special education 

Teaching and teaching personnel 

Use 371.100 1 - 371.100 9 for standard subdivisions 
Class personnel management in 658,3 

Class nonteaching personnel [formerly 371.1] in 371.201-371.202 
For methods of instruction, see 3713 

Teacher-student relation 

Effectiveness and influence of teacher 
Including classroom control [formerly 371.5] 

Teacher-parent relation 

Class parent-teacher associations [formerly 371.103] in 
370.193 1 

Relation of teaching and teachers to community 
Rights and obhgations of teachers 
For academic freedom, see 371.104 4 

Academic freedom 
Public status of teaching and teachers 
Personal qualifications 
Professional qualifications 
Examination and certification 
Examination 

Certification and registration 
Organization of teaching force 
Duties and responsibilities 
Teaching load 
Nonteaching activities 
Exchange of teachers 

398 



Education 



[371.16] 



[.17] 



.2 



.204 



Compensation of teachers 
Class in 3312 

Teachers* pensions 
Class in 331.252 

Educational administration 

Use 371.200 1 - 371.200 9 for standard subdivisions 



371.201-371.202 Nonteaching personnel [formerly also 
371.1] 

Duties and responsibilities 



.201 


Administrative 


.2011 


Superintendents 


.2012 


Principals 


.2013 


Supervisors 


.202 


Nonadministrative 



Standards and accreditation 

For central government supervision of school standards and 
accreditation, see 379.152 1 





SUMMARY 


371.21 


Matriculation 


.22 


Tuition 


.23 
.24 
.25 
.26 


School year 

School day 

Grouping of pupils for instruction 

Educational tests and measurements 


.27 
.28 


Evaluation of pupils' progress 
Promotion and retardation 


.29 


Other topics 


Matriculation 



21 

[.211-.212] Elementary schools 

Class in 372.11-372.18 



[.213] 



[.214] 



Secondary schools 
Class in 373.12-373.18 

Colleges and universities 
Class in 378.105 

399 



Decimal Classification 



371.216 


Admission 




Methods and standards 


.217 


Entrance requirements 


.218 


Articulation 


.219 


School enrollment 




Add area notations 1-9 to 371.219 



.22 



Tuition 



.23 


School year 


.232 


Summer school 


.235 


School calendar 


.236 


All-year school 


.24 


School day 


.242 


Schedules and scheduling 




Individual, class, all-school 


.2421 


Class schedules and periods 


.242 2 


Homeroom periods 


.242 4 


Activity periods 


.244 


Length of school day 


,25 


Grouping of pupils for instructi 


.251 


Class size 


.252 


Heterogeneous grouping 



Without consideration for interests, abilities, achievements 



.254 



^55 



Homogeneous grouping 

On basis of similar interests, abihties, achievements 

Grouping plans using a combination of factors 



400 



Education 



371.26 



^60 13 


.262 


.264 


.264 2 


.264 4 


.264 41 


.264 42 


.264 6 



Educational tests and measurements 

Measurement of students' growth in subject areas by use of 
standardized achievement tests 

Administration, interpretation, use 

Class credit systems [formerly 371.26] in 371.281 

Validity and reliability of tests 

Tests to determine general education and scholarship 

Tests for special purposes 
Educational quotient 

Assessment of achievement 

Academic prognosis 

Placement testing 

Educational guidance 
Vocational interests 



.27 



.271 



.272 



Evaluation of pupils' progress 

Measurement of growth in subject areas by examination based 
on specific courses of study or curriculums 

Tests and examinations 

Types, value, methods of construction 

Marking systems 

Methods used for recording and reporting the achievement 
of pupils in school studies 



.2721 


Grades and grading 


.272 2 


Reporting progress to parents 




Thru school marks and conferences 


.28 


Promotion and retardation 


.281 


Credit 



.282 



Including credit systems [formerly 371.26] 

Student failures [formerly also 371.291 3] 

401 



Decimal Classification 



371.29 
.291 
.2912 
.2913 



.2914 
.3 

.302 8 
.302 81 
.302 82 
.307 8 



.307 81 
.307 82 



.32 



.33 



.331 
.332 
.333 
.333 1 



Other topics 

Student mobility 

Graduation and commencement 
Dropouts 

Retention versus withdrawal 

Class student failures [foTmerly 371.291 3] in 371.282 

Transfers 
Methods of instruction and study 

Techniques 

Study techniques [formerly also 029.1] 

Classroom techniques 
Teaching aids and devices 

Class textbooks in 371.32, audio-visual materials in 
371.33 

Curriculum laboratories 
Courses of study 





SUMMARY 


371.32 


Textbooks 


.33 


Audio-visual materials for teaching 


.36 


Project or unit method 


.37 


Discussion methods 


.38 


Laboratory method 


.39 


Other methods 


Textbooks 




Value and 


use 



Class textbooks on a specific subject at elementary level in 
372.3-372.8, at higher levels with the subject 

Audio-visual materials for teaching 

Methods and use 

Class lecture method [formerly 371.33] in 371.396 

Coordination of use 

Dramatic method of teaching 

Auditory materials and devices 

Radio 

402 





Education 


371.333 2 


Phonograph and phonograph records 


.333 3 


Tape recorder and recordings 


.335 


Visual materials and devices 


.335 2 


Pictures 


.335 22 


Slides and filmstrips 


.335 23 


Motion pictin:es 


.335 6 


Bulletin boards 


.335 8 


Television 



.36 

[.365] 

.37 
.371 
.372 
.373 

.38 
.381 



.382 
.383 
.39 
.391 
[.393] 

.394 
.394 2 
.394 3 
.394 4 



371.36-371.39 Methods of organizing learning 
experiences 

Project or unit method 

Special day programs in schools 

Class in 371.895 

Discussion methods 

Seminars 

Buzz groups 

Conferences 

Laboratory method 

Field trips 

Including educational trips, excursions, visits [all formerly 
371.393] 

Work-study programs 
Field w^ork 
Other methods 

Student exchange programs 
Educational trips, excursions, visits 
Class in 371.381 

Individualized instruction 
Honors v^ork 
Independent study plans 
Programed learning 

Auto-instructional methods 
403 



Decimal Classification 



371.396 
.4 



.42 

.422 
.425 



Lecture method [formerly 371.33] 

Guidance and counseling 

Formal and informal 

Educational and vocational guidance 
Intellectual and educational 

Vocational 

Class comprehensive works on choice of vocation in 331.702, 
on obtaining employment in 331.115 [both formerly 
371.425] 



,4251 


Job selection 


.425 2 


Placement 


.425 3 


Follow-up 


[.426] 


Trade and vocational education 



.46 

.48 



.53 



.54 



Class trade and vocational education in secondary schools in 
373.246, adult vocational education in 374.013 

Social guidance 
Group guidance 

School discipline 

Class classroom control [formerly 371.5] in 371.102 

Rewards 

Class competitions, prizes, literary contests [all formerly 
371.53] in 371.891 

Punishments 

Including specific punishments [formerly 371.55-371.56] 



[.55-.56] Specific punishments 

Class in 371.54 



.59 

.6 

.61 



Student government 

Physical plant 

Locations, sites, grounds 

404 



Education 



371.62 



.621 

[.622] 

.623 



.624 



.625 



.626 
.627 
.628 
.63 



Buildings 

Requirements based on specific functions 
Scope: apparatus, equipment, supplies 

For architecture of buildings for educational purposes, see 
727 



371.621-371.625 Rooms and buUdings for specific 
purposes 

Scope: furnishings 

Study rooms, assembly rooms, classrooms 

Libraries and museums 

Class Ubraries in 022, museums in 069.2 

Laboratories, observatories, machine shops 

Including laboratory equipment and supplies [both formerly 
371.66] 

Gymnasiums and swimming pools 

Including apparatus, equipment, supplies [all formerly 
371.67] 

Other 

Student society houses, premises, rooms [all formerly 
371.86], dormitories, infirmaries, cafeterias 



371.626-371.628 General principles 

For rooms and buildings for specific purposes, see 
371.621-371.625 

Plumbing facilities 
Lighting and use of color 
Heating and ventilation 

Furnishings 

For furnishings in rooms and buildings for specific purposes, see 
371.621-371.625 



405 



Decimal dassification 



' 



I 



[371.66] 



.67 



.7 

.71 

.712 



.716 



[.72] 



[.73] 



[.732 2] 



[.74] 



[.75] 



[.76] 



Laboratory equipment and supplies 
Class in 371.623 

Apparatus, equipment, supplies 

Class apparatus, equipment, supplies for gymnasiums and 
swimming pools [all formerly 371.67] in 371.624 

For apparatus, equipment, supplies based on specific 
functions, see 371.62 

School hygiene 

Student health 

Promotion and maintenance 

Health programs 

Services, control, conditions 

Including care of students' eyes [formerly 371.72] 

Nutrition 

Lunch and milk programs 

Care of students' eyes 
Class in 371.712 

Physical education 
Class in 613.7 

At elementary level 
Class in 372.86 

Intramural athletics, games, programs 

Class intramural athletics and games in 796, intramural 
programs in 371.892 

Interscholastic athletics, games, programs 

Class interscholastic athletics and games in 796, interscholastic 
sports programs in 371.893 

Health education 

Class at elementary level in 372.37, comprehensive works in 
613.07 

406 





Education 


37L77 


Safety programs 


.774 


Fire prevention 


.775 


Safety precautions 


.8 


The student 




Nonacademic life and welfare 



.805 



[.806] 



.81 



.83 
.84 



.85 
.852 



.854 

.855 

.856 
[.857] 

[.86] 



Student periodicals 

Class school joumaHsm [formerly 371.805] in 371.897 

Organizations 

Do not use; class in 371.83-371.85 

Attitudes and behavior 

For school discipline, see 371.5; guidance and counseling, 371.4 



371.83-371.85 Organizations 

General 

In specific fields 

Divide like 001-999, e.g., literary societies 371.848 

For Greek-letter societies in specific fields, see 371.854 

Greek-letter societies and fraternities . 

Honorary 

Not in a specific subject field 

In specific fields 

Divide hke 001-999, e.g., social sciences 371.854 3 

Men s social societies and fraternities 
Women's social societies and sororities 
High school Greek-letter societies 
Class in 373.12-373.18 

Student society houses, premises, rooms 
Class in 371.625 



407 



Decimal Classification 



371.87 
.871 
.872 
•89 



.891 



.892 



.893 



.894 



.895 



.897 
.9 



.91 

.911 

.912 

.914 

.916 



Housing and transportation of students 
Housing 
Transportation [/ormer/y 379.175] 

Activities 

Programs and events sponsored or formed by schools or student 
organizations, carrying partial or no academic credit 

Nonathletic contests 

Including competitions, prizes, literary contests [all formerly 
371.53] 

Social and recreational activities 

Including intramural atMetics and games programs 
[formerly Z71J^] 

Activities for public entertainment 

Interscholastic sports programs [formerly 371.75], marching 
bands, dramatic groups 

School service activities 

For student government, see 371.59; school iournalism, 
371.897 

Special school festivals and celebrations 

Including special day programs in schools [formerly 
371.365] 

Class school plays in 800, school pageants in 791.62, school 
dramatics in 792.022-792.028 [all formerly 371.895] 

School journalism [formerly 371.805] 

Special education 

Education employing nonstandard curriculums for exceptional 
students 

Students with physical handicaps 

Blind and partially sighted 

Deaf and hard-of-hearing 

Speech defectives [formerly 371.927] 

Crippled 

408 



Education 



371.92 
[.927] 

.93 



.94 
.95 
.96 



.97 



.98 



372 



[.09] 



Students w^ith mental deficiencies 

Speech defectives 
Class in 371.914 

Delinquent and problem students 
Students whose conduct is troublesome 

Emotionally disturbed students 
Gifted students 

Students exceptional because of class distinction 
Socially deprived, nobility, royalty 

Students exceptional because of race 

Class integration of racial groups in 370.193 42, segregation of 
racial groups in 370.193 44 [both formerly 371.97] 

Students exceptional because of national origin 
Elementary education 

Scope: elementary education of girls [formerly 376] 
For special education, see 371.9 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 372.9 



SUMMARY 

372.1 The elementaiy school 

,2 Levels of elementary education 

.3 Science and health 

,4 Reading 

^ Creative and manual arts 

J6 Language arts (Communication skills) 

,7 Mathematics 

Ji Other studies 

,9 Historical and geographical treatment of elementary 

education and schools 



4og 



Decimal Classification 



Education 



372.1 

[.109] 

.11-.18 



.19 



.24 



.241 



.242 



The elementary school 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 372.9 

Organization {formerly 372.2] and administration 
Including matriculation [formerly also 371.211-371.212] 
Divide like 371.1-371.8, e.g., elementary school day 372.124 

Curriculums 

Class courses of study in specific elementary school subjects in 
372.3-372.8 

Levels of elementary education 

Class elementary school organization [formerly 3722] in 
372.11-372.18 



.21 


Preschool education 


[.214] 


Storytelling 




Class in 372.64 


[.215] 


Songs 




Class in 372.87 


.216 


Nursery schools 


.218 


Kindergartens 




When not considered part of elementary grades 



Elementary grades 

Preschool thru upper elementary 

For preschool education, see 372.21 

Primary 

Thru grade 3 

Upper elementary 

Grades 4 thru 6, grades 7 and 8 when not part of junior high 
school 



410 



[.51] 



.6 



.61 

.62 



372.3-372.8 Elementary school subjects 

Methods of instruction, courses of study, textbooks 



372.3 


Science and health 


.35 


Science 


.357 


Nature study 


.37 


Health [/ormerZj/ 371.76] and hygiene 


.4 


Reading 


.41 


Methods and techniques 


.412 


Textbooks 


.413 


Remedial reading 


[.415] 


Phonetics and speech 




Class in 372.62 


[.42] 


Spelling 




Class in 372.63 



Creative and manual arts 

Class drama [formerly 372.5] in 372.66 

Handwriting and lettering 





Class in 372.6 


.52 


Drawing, painting, design 


.53 


Modeling and sculpturing 


.54 


Sewing 


.55 


Handicrafts 




For sewing, see 372.54 



Language arts (Communication skills) 

Oral and written 

Including handwriting and lettering [both formerly also 372.51] 

For reading, see 372.4 

Grammar 

Phonetics and speech [formerly also 372.415] 

411 



Decimal Classification 



Education 



:l't 



372,63 


Spelling [formerly also 372 A2' 


.64 


Storytelling [formerly 372.214" 


.65 


Foreign languages 


.66 


Drama [formerly also 372.5] 


.7 


Mathematics 


72 


Arithmetic 


.73 


Other 


.8 


Other studies 


.83 


Social studies 




Study of people and their environment 




For history and geography, see 372.89 


.832 


Civics 


.86 


Physical education [formerly 371.732 2] 


.87 


Music 




Including songs [formerly 372.215] 


.89 


History and geography 


.891 


Geography 



.9 



.09 



Historical and geographical treatment of elementary 
education and schools 

Add area notations 1-9 to 372.9 



373 Secondary education 



For special education, see 371.9 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 
373.3-373.9 



^ 373.11-373.18 Organization and administration 

373.11 Teaching and teaching personnel 

Divide like 371.1, e.g., professional qualifications of teachers 
373.112 

.12-.18 Other elements 

Including high school Greek-letter societies [formerly also 

371.857], matriculation [formerly also 371.213] 

Divide like 371.2-371.8, e.g., secondary school day 373.124 

,19 Curriculums 

For courses of study in specific subjects, see 375.01-375.99; 
educational programs of secondary schools of specific curricular 
types, 373.24 

.2 Types of secondary schools 

.22 Types as to control 

.222 Nonpublic 

Known also as public (in Great Britain) 
Including boarding schools, day schools 

For church-supported schools, see 377.8-377.9 

.224 Public 

•23 Types as to organization 

.231 Organizational plans 

According to grades covered by elementary, junior high, 

senior high levels 

.236 Junior high schools 

.238 Senior high schools 

Including community colleges when considered part of high 
school system 



,1 

109 



The secondary school 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in 373.3-373.9 
412 



4^3 



Decimal Classification 



373.24 

.241 
.242 



.243 
.246 



.246 3 
.246 4 
.246 5 
.246 7 

.3-.9 



Types as to curriculum 

Based on and including educational programs 
College preparatory (Academic) 

Classical (Traditional) 

Including Latin grammar schools 



373.243-373.246 Specialized high schools 
Military academies 

Trade and vocational [both formerly also 371.426] 
Designed for terminal education 

Agriculture 

Home economics 

Business and commerce (Distributive education) 

Industrial arts 

Comprehensive high schools 

Secondary education and schools by continent, country, 
locality 

Add area notations 3-9 to 373 



374 Adult education 

Voluntary, purposeful eflForts toward self -development of adults, 
conducted apart from formal education by public and private 
agencies 

Scope: workers' supplementary education [formerly 331.85] 
Use 374.001-374.008 for standard subdivisions 
For special education, see 371.9 

.01 Aims and objectives 

.012 Remedial 

To fill gaps in prior education, reduce illiteracy 

,013 Vocational [formerly also 371.426] and occupational 

.014 Liberal and recreational 

To enrich interests, resources, leisure 
414 



Education 



[374.09] 
.1 

.21 
.22 

[.24] 

.26 
.27 
.28 

.29 



.291 
.292 

.292 2 
.292 3 
.292 4 

A 

.409 



Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 374.9 

Self -education 

Croup education 

Methods and programs 

Special interest groups 

Reading and discussion [formerly also 374.24] groups 

Discussion groups 
Class in 374.22 

Use of radio 

Use of motion pictures and television 
Community centers for adult education 
Institutions and agencies 

Including institutes and workshops [both formerly 374.8] 

Class schools in 374.4-374.8 

Private 
Governmental 

Federal and national 

State and provincial ; 

County and local 

Correspondence schools and instruction 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in modem 
world in 374.44-374.49 



.44_.49 Treatment by continent, countr)% locality in modern 

world 

Add area notations 4-9 to 374.4 



4^5 



Decimal Classification 



Education 



374.8 



.9 



375 



Continuation schools 

Schools above elementary level enabling young people in trade or 
industry to continue schooling in spare time 

Add area notations 1-9 to 374.8 

Class institutes and workshops [both formerly 374.8] in 374.29 

Historical and geographical treatment of adult education 

Add area notations 1-9 to 374.9 

Curriculums 

Programs of study offered to students by schools 

Use 375.000 1 - 375.000 8 for standard subdivisions 

Class comprehensive works on curriculums at a specific level with the 

level 



376.6 Education of women by level 

.63 Secondary 

.65 Higher 

For colleges for women, see 376.8 

.7 Coeducation versus separate education for women 

.8 Colleges for women 

Class specific topics in 378.01-378.36 

Class specific colleges for women [formerly 376.8] in 378.4-378.9 

.9 Historical and geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 376.9 



.001 Construction and designs 

Theory and development 

.002 Required courses 

.004 Elective cotu:ses 

.006 Evaluation and revision 

.009 Historical and geographical treatment 

.01-.99 Courses of study in specific subjects 

Guides prepared for specific schools or school systems as aids to 

teaching 

Divide like 010-990, e.g., history 375.9 

Class courses of study on specific subjects at elementary level in 

372.3-372.8 

376 Education of women 

Class elementary education of girls [formerly 376] in 372 



377 
.1 

[.2] 
.3 



Schools and religion 

Religious instruction in nonsectarian schools 

Moral, ethical, character education 

Class in 370.114 



Monastic schools 

[.4] Diocesan schools 

Class in 377.8 

[.5] Parochial schools 

Class in 377.8 

.6 Mission schools 

Schools operated by reUgious bodies as part of their missionary 
work 



[.09] 



Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 376.9 



Convent education 



416 



4^7 



Decimal Classification 



Education 



: 



► 377.8-377.9 Church-supported schools 

Schools conducted by religious groups, usually without tax 

support 

Scope: programs, problems, evaluation 

Class a specific school with its level 

For monastic schools, see 377.3; mission schools, 377.6 

377.8 Schools supported by Christian groups 

Including diocesan schools [formerly 377.4], parochial schools 

[formerly 377.5] 

Divide like 281-289, e.g., Roman CathoHc schools 377.82 

S Schools supported by other groups 

Divide Uke 292-299, e.g., schools of Islamic faith 377.97 

378 Higher education 

For special education, see 371.9 



.001 
.002 
.002 5 



.003-.008 



.009 



.01 

.012 

.013 



Philosophy and theory 

Miscellany 

Directories 

Class directories of institutions by continent, country, 
locaUty in modem world in 378.4-378.9 

Dictionaries, serial publications, organizations, study 

and teaching, collections 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in modem 
world in 378.4-378.9 

Aims and objectives 
General education 
Professional education [formerly 378.99] 

Class professional and graduate education in a specific 

subject with the subject 



.02 



Finance 



378.04 



.05 



.052 



.053 
.054 



.1 



.101 
.1011 



.1012 

.102 

.103 

.104 

.105 



418 



378.04-378.05 Ownership and control of colleges and 
universities 

Privately operated institutions 

Class specific institutions in 378.4-378.9 

For church-supported schools, see 377.8-377.9 

Publicly operated institutions [formerly 379.16] 
Class specific institutions in 378.4-378.9 

Community colleges 

When not considered part of high school system 

State colleges and universities 
Land-grant colleges and universities 

SUMMARY 

378.1 Colleges and universities 

,2 Academic degrees 

.3 Student costs and finances 

.4-,9 Higher education and institutions by continent, 
country, locality in modem world 

Colleges and universities 

Organization and administration 

Use 378.100 1 - 378.100 9 for standard subdivisions 

Government 

Personnel 

Boards, trustees, faculty senates and coimcils 

Policies and regulations 
Financial management 
College-community relations 
Cooperation among colleges and universities 
Matriculation [formerly also 371.214] 

Divide like 371.216-371.219, e.g., entrance requirements 
378.105 7 

4^9 



Decimal Classification 



Education 



I 



378.11 


Administrative personnel 




Functions and duties 


.111 


Academic 


.112 


Nonacademic 


.12 


Faculty 


.121 


Academic freedom 


.122 


Organization 


.123 


Exchange 


.124 


Personal and professional qualifications 



[.13] 



.14 



.15 



.154 

.154 2 
.154 3 
.154 4 
.155 
.155 2 
.155 3 
.155 4 

.16 



.17 



University extension 
Class in 378.155 4 

College year 

Divide like 371.23, e.g., summer school 378.142 

Types and levels of institutions 

Class specific institutions in 378.4-378.9 

Colleges 

Senior 

Junior 

Evening colleges 
Universities 

Undergraduate departments 

Graduate departments and schools 

Extension [formerly also 378.13] 
For evening colleges, see 378.154 4 

Academic control and organization of student body 

Divide like 371.26-371.29, e.g., credit and credit systems 
378.168 1 

Methods of instruction and study 

Divide like 371.3, e.g., seminars 378.177 1 
For educational exchanges, see 378.35 
420 



378.18 

.19 
.194 



School discipline 

Divide like 371.5, e.g., student government 378.189 

Other aspects 

Guidance and counseling 

Divide like 371.4, e.g., educational guidance 378.194 22 



.196-. 198 Physical plant, hygiene, the student 

Divide like 371.6-371.8, e.g., student activities 378.198 9 



199 



a 

.24 

.241 

.242 

.25 

.28 

.3 

[.32] 



Curriculums 

For courses of study in specific subjects, see 375.01-375.99 

Academic degrees 

Earned degrees 

Course, residence, subject requirements 

Thesis requirements 

Class preparation of theses [formerly 378.242] in 808.02 

Honorary degrees 
Costumes and symbols 

Student costs and finances 

Endowment of research 
Class in 001.44 



378.33-378.36 Financial aid to students 
For veterans' education benefits, see 355.115 2 



.33 


Fellowships 


.34 


Scholarships 


.35 


Educational exchanges 




Including Fulbright exchanges 


.36 


Student loans and employment 


.362 


Loans and loan funds 


.365 


Employment 




421 



Decimal Classification 



Education 



378.4-.9 



[-99] 



:5' 



Higher education and institutions by continent, country, 
locality in modem world 

Scope: specific colleges for women [formerly 376.8] 

Add area notations 4-9 to 378 

If preferred, arrange specific colleges and universities alpha- 
betically under each continent, and under specific countries re- 
quiring local emphasis 

If it is desired to give local emphasis to a specific college or 
university, place it first by use of a letter, e.g.. University of South 
Africa 378.S (preceding 378.4) 

(Optional: publications of specific colleges and universities; prefer 
specific subjects ) 

Subarrange publications of specific colleges and universities 
according to the following table: 

A Charter and statutes 

B Trustees and regents 

C Administrative oflacers 

D Finances 

E History 

F Biographies and necrologies 

G General catalogs 

H Annual catalogs, attendance lists, registers 

I Handbooks and circulars of information 

J Bulletins and official periodicals 

K Commencements, inaugurals, baccalaureate and other 

addresses 

L Programs, tickets, memorabilia 

M Faculty 

N Lectures, class manuals, examination questions 

O Student theses, orations, essays 

P Student catalogs and society annuals 

Q Student periodicals 

R Student societies and their periodicals 

S Student miscellany 
'i Including songs, class days 

T Alumni 

U Classes 

V Pictures and class albums 

W Buildings and grounds 

Z Professional, graduate, other schools 

Professional education 
Qass in 378.013 



379 Governmental supervision and financial support of 

education 

.1 General principles 

Class applications in 379.2-379.9 



.12 

.121 
.1212 
.121 22 
.121 24 
.1214 
.121 42 
.12144 

.122 

.123 

.13 

.132 
.134 

[-14] 
.15 



.152 



.152 1 
.152 2 



422 



379.12-379.13 Financial support 

Federal, national, state, provincial, local support of 
education 

Federal and national aid 

To elementary and secondary education 

Public 

Nonpublic 

To higher education 

Public 

Nonpublic 

Expenditures and support at state and provincial level 
Expenditures and support at local level 

Revenue sources for public schools 

Bonds ; 

Taxation 

School laws and regulations 
Class in 340 

Government supervision 

Class pubhc administration aspects [formerly 379.15] in 350.85 

Central government supervision 

Thru central agencies 

For certification and registration of teachers, see 371.133 

School standards and accreditation 
Surveys and evaluation 
4^3 



n 



Decimal Classification 



379.153 



.153 1 

.153 5 

.156 



[.16] 



[.175] 



.209 



.23 

.24 

.3 



.4-.9 



School districts 

Local supervision and responsibility 

School boards 

Centralization and consolidation [both formerly also 

379.175] 

Textbook selection 
Central and local 

Publicly operated institutions of higher education 
Class in 378.05 

Centralization, consolidation, transportation 

Class centralization and consolidation in 379.153 5, 
transportation of students in 371.872 

Public education 

Class public education at a specific level with the level 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class treatment by continent, country, locality in modern 
world in 379.4-379.9 



379.23-379.24 Governmental concern with and control 
over literate populace 

Compulsory education 
Illiteracy 

Nonpublic education 

Class nonpublic education at a specific level with the level, pro- 
grams of church-supported schools in 377.8-377.9 

Public education by continent, country, locality in modem 
world 

Add area notations 4-9 to 379 



424 



Commerce 



380 



Commerce 

Pubhcly and privately owned and administered activities and facilities 
for human intercourse thru exchange of goods and services, communica- 
tion, transportation 

Class comprehensive works on public utility services in 363.6, public 
regulation and control in 350.87, management in 658, international 
commercial law in 341.57, domestic commercial law in 347.7 [all 
formerly 380] 



.01 Philosophy and theory 

.013 Value 

Including commerce and civilization 



.02-.05 

.06 



.07-.08 

.09 

.1 



101 

.102 
.102 5 
.103-. 109 
.13 



.14 



Miscellany, dictionaries, serial pubhcations 

Organizations 

Scope: chambers of commerce, boards of trade 

Study, teaching, collections, anthologies 
Historical and geographical treatment 
Exchange of goods and services (Trade ) [formerly 382] 
Scope: marketing [formerly 338] 
Class specific kinds in 381—382 

Philosophy and theory 

Miscellany 

Directories of dealers and traders 
Other standard subdivisions 

Commercial policy 

For specific commodities and services, see 380.14 

Specific commodities and services 



.141 



.142 



380.141-380.144 Primar)^ products 

Agricultural 

Divide hke 633-638, e.g., rice 380.141 318 

Mineral 

Divide like 553, e.g., petroleum 380.142 282 



Decimal Classification 



Commerce 



380.143 Hunting and fishing 

Divide like 592-599, e.g., bearskins 380.143 974 446 

.144 Human beings (Slave trade) [formerly 326 A] 

.145 Secondary products and services 

Use 380.145 000 1 - 380.145 000 9 for standard subdivisions 
Divide like 001-999, e.g., clothing 380.145 687 

.3 Communication services 

Class specific kinds in 383-384 

.301-.309 Standard subdivisions 

.34 Activities 

.35 Facilities 



381.4 Specific commodities and services 



.41 



.42 



.5 



.501-.509 

.51 

.52 

.53 

.58 



Transportation services \_formerly 385] 

Class specific kinds in 385-388 

Standard subdivisions 
Comparative studies of kinds of transportation 
Activities 
Facilities 
Mergers and consolidations of systems 



381 



.3 



381-382 Exchange of goods and services 
(Trade) 

Scope: marketing 

Class comprehensive works in 380.1 

Internal commerce (Domestic trade ) 

Commercial policy 

Promotion of, competition in, barriers to commerce 
For specific commodities and services, see 381,4 



.43 



.44 
.45 



382 



.09 



381.41-381.44 Primary products 

Agricultural 

Divide like 633-638, e.g., rice 381.413 18 

Mineral 

Divide like 553, e.g., petroleum 381.422 82 

Hunting and fishing 

Divide like 592-599, e.g., bearskins 381.439 744 46 

Human beings ( Slave trade ) 

Secondary products and services 

Use 381.450 001 - 381.450 009 for standard subdivisions 
Divide like 001-999, e.g., clothing trade 381.456 87 

International commerce ( Foreign trade ) 

Scope: tariflF [formerly 337], trade between nations, between nations 
and their colonies, protectorates, trusts 

Class comprehensive works on exchange of goods and services [for- 
merly 382] in 380.1 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 382.09, e.g., international trade of 
Great Britain 382.094 2; then, for trade between two countries, 
regions, areas, places, groups, add and again add area 
notations 1-9, e.g., trade between Great Britain and communis* 
bloc 382.094 201 717 

Give priority in notation to the country, region, area, place, 
group requiring local emphasis, e.g., libraries in United States 
class trade between Great Britain and United States in 
382.097 304 2. If the two require equal emphasis, give priority 
to the one coming first in the sequence of area notations 



382.3 
A 
.5 
.6 
.7 
.9 



426 



SUMMARY 

Commercial policy 

Specific commodities and services 

Import trade 

Export trade 

Tariff policy 

Trade agreements 

427 



m 



I 



382.3 



.4 



.41 



.42 



.43 



.44 
.45 



.7 



.71 
72 

.73 
.74 



Decimal Classification 



Commerce 



Commercial policy 

Balance of trade, control, dumping, correction of maladjustments, 
free ports 

For tariff policy, see 382.7; specific commodities and services, 



382.4 



Specific commodities and services 



382.41-382.44 Primary products 

Agricultural 

Divide like 633-638, e.g., rice 382.413 18 

Mineral 

Divide like 553, e.g., petroleum 382.422 82 

Hunting and fishing 

Divide like 592-599, e.g., bearskins 382.439 744 46 

Human beings ( Slave trade ) 

Secondary products and services 

Use 382.450 001 - 382.450 009 for standard subdivisions 
Divide like 001-999, e.g., clothing 382.456 87 



i 



382.5-382.6 Direction of flow 

For specific commodities and services, see 382.4 

Import trade 
Export trade 

Tariff policy 

For specific commodities and services, see 382.4; trade agreements, 
382.9 



Free trade (No tariff) 

Tariff for revenue ( Fiscal tariff) 

Protective and prohibitive tariff 

Subsidies and drawbacks 

428 



382.78 
.782 



.788 
.9 



.91 



.911 



.913 



Exemptions 

Personal and institutional 

Including commodities used for educational purposes, 
privileges for foreign-service personnel and tourists 

On relief supplies 

Trade agreements 

Class agreements on a specific subject in 382.3-382.6 

Multilateral agreements and customs unions 
Class bilateral agreements in 382.93-382.99 

Regional 

Add area notation 1 to 382.91 

The ancient world 

Add area notation 3 to 382.91 



.914 
.914 2 

.914 3 
.915-.919 



.93-.99 



382.914-382.919 The modern world 

European 

European Economic Community (European Common 

Market) 

European Free Trade Association 

Other 

Add area notations 5-9 to 382.91 

By specific countries 

Add area notations 3-9 to 382.9, e.g., trade agreements of 
United Kingdom 382.942; then, for bilateral agreements, add 
and again add area notations 3-9, e.g., agreements between 
United Kingdom and France 382.942 044 

Give priority in notation to the country requiring local 
emphasis, e.g., libraries in United States class agreements 
between United Kingdom and United States in 382.973 042. If 
the two countries require equal emphasis, give priority to the 
country coming first in the sequence of area notations 



4^9 



■p: 



Decimal Classification 



383 



.09 



12 



.120 2 



.120 5 
.122 
.123 
.124 



.125 
.14 



383-384 Communication services 

Class comprehensive works in 380.3 

Postal communication 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Class national systems in 383.49 

Activities and facilities 

For use of postage stamps, see 383.2 

Types of mailable and nonmailable matter 

Use 383.120 01 - 383.120 09 for standard subdivisions 

Free mail 

Franking privileges 

Nomnailable matter 

Letters, postal cards, other written matter 

Periodicals 

Miscellaneous matter 

Nonperiodical printed matter and merchandise of limited 
weight 

Other parcels 

Collection, transportation, delivery systems 
For types of mailable matter, see 383.12 



383.141-383.144 Long-distance transport services 
.141 Instantaneous facsimile transmission 

.142 By sea 

.143 By land 

.143 5 Railroad 

•143 6 Inland waterway 

.143 8 Highway 

Including star routes [formerly 383.148] 

430 





Commerce 


383.144 


By air and space vehicles 


.144 7 


Air 


.144 8 


Space 


.145 


Local collection, transport, delivery 




Including rural collection and delivery 




For star routes, see 383.143 8 


[.148] 


Star routes 




Class in 383.143 8 


.18 


Other 


.182 


Insurance and registry of mail 


.183 


Special delivery 


.184 


Collection of charges on delivery (COD) 


.185 


Bulk mail 



.2 

[.22] 

.4 

.41 

.49 



.1 



•14 



Use of postage stamps 

Separate, precanceled, printed on cards and envelopes 

Philately 

Class in 769.56 

Systems 

International systems and conventions 

National systems 

Add area notations 3-9 to 383.49 



384 Other systems of communication 



Class comprehensive works on communication in 001.5, on mass 
communication in 301.16 [both formerly 384] 



384.1-384.7 Telecommunication 

Wire telegraphy 

For submarine cable telegraphy, see 384.4 

Activities 

Including transmission of facsimiles and specific lands of 
messages, communication by teletypewriter and ticker 

For postal facsimile transmission, see 383.141 
43^ 



Decimal Classification 



Commerce 



384.15 



.4 



.5 

.52 

.53 



.54 

.55 

.554 

.555 



.7 



.9 



Facilities 

Apparatus and stations 

Submarine cable telegraphy 

Divide like 384.1, e.g., activities 384.44 

Wireless 

Radiotelegraphy 

Divide like 384.1, e.g., activities 384.524 

Radiotelephony 

Divide like 384.1, e.g., activities 384,534 

Radiobroadcasting [formerly also 791.44] 
Divide like 384.1, e.g., activities 384.544 

Television 

Broadcasting [formerly also 791 AS] 
Divide like 384.1, e.g., facilities 384.554 5 

Closed circuit communication 

Divide like 384.1, e.g., facilities 384.555 5 

Wire telephony 

Divide like 384.1, e.g., activities 384.64 

Alarm and warning systems 

Against fires, air raids, storms, floods 

Motion pictures formerly 791.43] 
Divide like 384.1, e.g., activities 384.84 

Visual signaling 



385 



22 



385-388 Transportation services 

Class comprehensive works in 380.5 

For postal transportation systems, see 383.14 

Railroad transportation 

Class comprehensive works on transportation services [formerly 385] 
in 380.5 

For local rail transit systems, see 388.4 



385.2-385.3 Heavy-duty standard-gage systems 

Activities 

Scope: schedules, routes, classification 

Passenger services " ' 

Including baggage, sleeper, meal services 



23 


Express services 


24 


Freight services 


26 


Warehousing and storage services 


29 


Free services 


3 


Facilities 


Jl 


Stationary 




Stations, terminals, yards 



.32-.34 Cars 

Divide like 625.22-625.24, e.g., passenger cars 385.33 



.36 

.361 
.362-.366 



432 



Locomotives 

Steam 

Other 

Divide like 625.262-625266, e.g., diesel 385.366 

Light railway systems 

Monorailway, narrow-gage, industrial, light standard-gage 

433 



385.6 



.72 



:i7 



[.9] 



.22 



.24 



Decimal Classiiication 



Commerce 



Inclined and mountain railway systems 

Funicular, rack, cable 

Railroad combined with other transportation systems 

Unitized cargo 

Including piggyback ( trucks, trailers, buses, private 
automobiles on flatcars ) 

For container-ship operations, see 387.544 

Ship railway systems 

Railways transporting vessels overland between bodies of water 

Pipeline transportation 

Class in 388.5 



386 Inland waterway transportation 

JZ Activities and facilities 

Except for ships and ports, class activities and facilities of specific 
types of inland waterway systems in 386.3-386.6 

For ports, see 386.8 



Ships 

Description, history, rating, tonnage, classification 
Divide like 623.82, e.g., tugboats 386.223 2 

Activities 

Schedules, routes, classification 



386.3-386.6 Specific types of inland waterway systems 

Activities and facilities 

For ships, see 386.22; ports, 386.8 



386.3-386.5 Specific kinds of waterways 

For ferry transportation, see 386.6 

Rivers 

Including canalized rivers 

434 



u* 



386.4 



.42 



.43 

.44 

.444 

.445 
.447 

.45 



.46 



.47 
.48 

.6 



Canals 

Existing and proposed 

Interoceanic canals 

For canals connecting specific oceans, see 386.43-386.45 



386.43-386.45 Canals connecting specific oceans 
Indian and Atlantic Oceans (Suez Canal) 

Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 
Panama Canal 
Nicaragua Canal 
Tehuantepec Canal 

Pacific and Indian Oceans 

Class canals connecting parts of one ocean [formerly 386.45] in 
386.46 

Noninteroceanic canals 

Including canals connecting parts of one ocean [formerly 
386.45] 

For types of noninteroceanic canals, see 386.47-386.48 



386.47-386.48 Types of noninteroceanic canals 

Scope: specific canals 

Ship canals 

Small craft and barge canals 

Lakes 

Ferry transportation 

For passengers, freight, vehicles, trains 

Ports 

Activities and facihties 



435 



Decimal Classification 



387 Water, air, space transportation 

Use 387.000 1 - 387.000 9 for standard subdivisions 
For inland waterway transportation, see 386 

.001-.009 Standard subdivisions of water transportation 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of ocean (marine) transportation 

SUMMARY 

387,l-.5 Ocean (Marine) transportation 



.1 



.109 



.12 



.122 
.123 
.125 

[.129] 
.13 



.2 



.1 

.2 
.5 
.7 
.8 



Ports 
Ships 
Activities of merchant marine (Maritime transport) 

Air transportation 
Space transportation 



387.1-387.5 Ocean (Marine) transportation 

Class standard subdivisions in 387.01-387.09 

Ports 

Activities and facilities 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Including specific ports [formerly 387.129] 

Physiographic types 

Class specific ports in 387.109 

In natural bays 

In river mouths, tidal rivers, estuaries 

In roadsteads 

Specific ports 
Class in 387.109 

Free ports 
I Class specific ports in 387.109 

Ships 

Description, history, rating, tonnage, classification 
Divide like 623.82, e.g., cargo ships 387.245 



Commerce 



387.5 


Activities of merchant marine (Maritime Uansport) 


.52 


Seaways (Trade lanes) 


.522 


Intercoastal routes 


.523 


Auxihary, irregular, tramp routes 


.524 


Coastwise routes 


.54 


Other activities 




Scope: shipping, schedules, classification 




For salvage, see 387.55 


.542 


Passenger services 




Including baggage services 


.544 


Freight services 




Loading, handling, unloading 




Including container-ship operations 


.549 


Free services 


.55 


Salvage 



.7 

.72 
73 
.732-.733 

.736 



.74 



.742 

.744 
.749 

.8 



Air transportation 

Airways 

Facilities 

Aircraft 

Divide hke 629.133 2 - 629.133 3, e.g., heUcopters 387.733 5 

Airports and landing fields 

Runways, terminal buildings, hangars, control towers, 
warehouses 

Activities 

Schedules, classification 
For airways, see 387.72 

Passenger services 

Including baggage services 

Freight services 
Free services 



Space transportation 



437 



Decimal Classification 



388 



.3 

.31 

.32 



.322 
.324 
.329 



Ground transportation 

Other than nonlocal rail transportation 

Roads and highways 

Activities and services 

Including vehicular bridges and tunnels 

Vehicular transportation 

Traffic flow and maintenance 

Other activities 

Scope: schedules, routes, classification 

Passenger services 

Freight services (Trucking) 

Free services 



.33 



.34 
.341 



388.33-388.35 Facilities 

Stationary 

Terminal, parking, garage, repair facilities 

Class vehicles [formerly 388.33] in 388.34-388.35 



388.34-388.35 Vehicles [formerly 388.33] 

Conventional 

Carts, wagons, carriages 
Including rickshaws 



.342-.348 Gasoline-, oil-, man-powered 

Divide Uke 629.222-629.228, e.g., taxicabs 388.342 32 
For rickshaws, see 388.341 



.349 



Other 



.35 



Air-cushion 



438 



Commerce 



388.4 
.42 
.44 
.46 

.5 



Local rail and trolley transit systems 

Underground (Subways) 

Elevated 

Surface 

Trolleycars and -buses 

Pipeline transportation Iformerly 385.9] 



389 Metrology and standardization 

For horology, see 529.7 

•1 Mass and dimension 

Weights and measures used in commerce and daily life 



.15 


Systems 




Scope: conversion tables 


.152 


Metric system 


.153 


Imperial (British) system 


.159 


Other systems 




Including proposed systems 



.16 



.62 



.63 



Standards and standardization 

Standardization 

For standardization of weights and measures, see 389.16 

Of quantity 

For interchangeability 

Of quality 

For performance 



439 



Decimal dassification 



390 Customs and folklore 

Scope: cultural anthropology [formerly also 572] 
Including food customs [formerly also 641.3] 
Use 390.001-390.009 for standard subdivisions 



.01-.08 

.09 



A 



A 



Standard subdivisions of customs 

Historical and geographical treatment of customs 

Scope: customs of specific continents, coimtries, localities in 
modem world [formerly 914-919] 



390,l-390.5 Customs of specific classes of people 
Specific economic statuses 



^ 


Specific ranks 


.22 


Royalty 


.23 


Nobility 


.24 


Free commoners 


.25 


Slaves, serfs, peons 



Specific occupations 

Divide like 920.1-928.9, e.g., customs of lawyers 390.434 

Specific levels of education 



^ 391-395 Specific customs 

Origin, description, comparison of customs, practices [both 
formerly also 398.3], taboos, manners, habits, conventions, 
rituals 

For customs of war, see 399 

391 Costume 

Scope: fashion [formerly also 646.01] 

Use 391.001-391.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class art aspects of costume [formerly 391] in 746.9 

.01-.05 Costumes of specific classes of people 

Divide like 390.1-390.5, e.g., costumes of lawyers 391.043 4 

440 



Customs and folklore 



391.1-.3 



.4 

.41 



.42 
.43 
.44 
.45 
.5 



.6 

.62 

.63 

.64 

.7 



392 



.1 



3 

.32 

.33 
.36 



Outer garments 

Divide like 687.11-687.13, e.g., outer garments for women 391.2 

Other garments and auxiliaries 

Hand-, foot-, neckwear 

Gloves, mittens, muffs, hosiery, shoes, boots, neckties 

Underwear 

Headgear 

Fans, parasols, canes, eyeglasses 

Buttons 

Hair styles 

Including beards, wigs 

The person 

Body contours 

Use of cosmetics and perfume 
Bathing 
Jewelry and tattooing 

Customs of life cycle 

For death customs, see 393 

Birth, puberty, majority 

Including christening, circumcision, debuts, other rituals and 
practices 

Family and home 

Kinship 

Totems and totemism 

Dwelling places 

Including heating, lighting, furnishings, sanitation 
Use 392.360 01 - 392.360 09 for standard subdivisions 



.360 1-.360 5 



Of specific classes of people 

Divide Uke 390.1-390.5, e.g., dwelling places of royalty 
392.360 22 

441 



Decimal Classification 



Customs and folklore 



392.37 


Food and meals 


.38 


Other domestic arts and sciences 


.4 


Courtship 


.5 


Marriage 


.6 


Sex outside marriage 


.9 


Treatment of aged 


393 


Death customs 


.1 


Burial 


^ 


Cremation 


3 


Embalmment and mummification 


.4 


Exposure 


.9 


Mourning 



394 Public and social customs 

Including swearing, use of signs and signboards 

.1 Eating, drinking, using tobacco and narcotics 

JZ Festivals and anniversaries 

25 Carnivals 

Including Mardi gras celebrations 

Holidays 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 394.269 

Specific holidays 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Add area notations 1-9 to 394.269 

,3 Games and dances 

.4 Official ceremonies and observances 

Coronations, inaugurations, jubilees, state visits, triumphs 

.5 Pageants, processions, parades 

For carnivals, see 394.25 

442 



.26 
[.260 9] 

.268 
.269 



394.6 



.S 



395 



.1 



2 

22 

,23 



.4 



Fairs 

Knightly customs 

Dueling and suicide 

Etiquette 

Codes of social and formal conduct 

For maitary etiquette, see 355.13; protocol of diplomacy, 341.7 

Specific groups 

Divide like 170.202, e.g., etiquette for children 395.122 

For specific occasions, see 395.2; specific activities, 395.3-395.4 

Specific occasions 

Engagements and weddings 
Mourning 



395.3-395.4 Specific activities 

For specific occasions, see 395.2 



Hospitality and table manners 
Social letter writing 



[396] Woman 

Class in 301.412 

[.2] Legal status of women 

Class in 340 

[397] Gipsies 

Class in area notation 174 



H3 



398 



.21 
.22 
.23 



.24 



.3 



.32 



Decimal Classification 



Customs and folklore 



Folklore 

Class belles-lettres in 800 



SUMMARY 

398.2 Tales and legends 

.3 The real 

,4 The unreal 

J5 Chapbooks 

S Riddles 

Ji Rimes and games 

J9 Proverbs 

Tales and legends 
Fairy tales 

Tales and legends of heroes 
Tales and legends of places 

Including tales of haunted places [formerly 398.32], original 

home of man [formerly also 572.4] 

Tales and legends of animals and plants 



398.3-398.4 Subjects of folklore 

History and criticism 

The real 

Class customs, practices [both formerly 398.3] in 391-395 

Places 

Class tales of haunted places [formerly 398.32] in 398.23 



.322 


Physiographic features 


.323 


Haunted places 


.324 


Treasure trove 


.329 


Specific places 




Add area notations 3-9 to 398.329 


^ 


Special seasons and days 


.35 


Persons 


.352 


Kinds 



Women, children, kings, heroes, witches, sorcerers 
444 



398.353 



.354 



.355 



.37 



Human body and its parts 
Including medical folklore 

Life cycle 

Birth, love, marriage, death 

Everyday life 

Food, dwellings, occupations, recreation 



.36 


Nature and natural phenomena 


.362 


Cosmic phenomena 




Heavenly bodies, weather 


.364 


Fire 


.365 


Minerals 


.368 


Plants 


.369 


Animals 



Superstitions 

Charms, curses, dreams, predictions, signs, numbers 



.4 


The unreal 


.42 


Imaginary places 


.45 


Beings of human and semihuman form 




Demons, ogres, fairies, elves, gnomes, vampires 


.46 


Imaginary minerals, plants, animals 


.465 


Minerals 




Inclurling philosopher's stone 


.468 


Plants 


.469 


Animals 




BasiUsks, dragons, phoenixes, umcoms, werewolves 


.47 


Ghosts 




For haunted places, see 398.323 




445 



Decimal Classification 



398.5 
.6 



.9 



399 



398.5-398.9 Specific forms of folklore 

For tales and legends, see 398J2 

Chapbooks 
Riddles 

Rimes and games 

Nursery rimes, counting-out rimes, street cries and songs 

Proverbs 

Divide like 420-490, e.g., Indo-Iranian proverbs 398.991 1 

Customs of war 

Weapons, dances, treatment of captives, e.g., scalping, cannibalism 



400 



400 Language 



401 



.9 



404 



Expression and comprehension of ideas thru systematic symbolism 
Class language of a specific subject with the subject 

Philosophy and theory 

Including value 

Universal languages [formerly 408.9] 

Psycholinguistics 



402 Miscellany 

403 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 



405 Serial publications 



446 



406 Orgamzabons 

407 Study and teaching 

408 Collections and anthologies 
[•7] 



[.9] 



409 



Dialectology 

Class in 417.2 

Universal and artificiallanguages 

Class universal languages in 401.3, artificial languages in 499.99 

Historical and geographical treatment 

447 



Decimal Classification 



Linguistics and nonverbal language 



410 Linguistics and nonverbal language 

Use 410.01-410.09 for standard subdivisions 
Class translation [formerly 410] in 418.02 
.1-.9 Standard subdivisions of linguistics 



418 



411 



412 



.028 



415 



411-418 Linguistics 

Science and structure of spoken and written language 

Scope: comprehensive works on Indo-European languages 

[formerly 491] 

Class linguistics of specific languages in 420-490 

Notations ( Alphabets and ideographs ) 

Including hieroglyphics [formerly 419.25] 

Class phonetic transcription [formerly 411] in 414 

Etymology 

Phonetic, graphic, semantic development of words and morphemes 
For notations, see 411; phonology, 414 



.02 

.022 
.028 



Usage ( Applied linguistics ) 

Use 418.001-418.009 for standard subdivisions 
For polyglot dictionaries, see AlZ 

Translation [formerly 410] and interpretation 
By person 
By machine 



419 Nonverbal language 



[.25] 



Hieroglyphics 
Class in 411 



413 Polyglot dictionaries 



Lexicography 

Technique of recording lexical knowledge 



414 Phonology 



Including phonetic transcription [formerly 411], intonation 

Structural systems 

Former heading: Grammar 
Morphology and syntax 



416 


Prosody 


417 


Dialectology and paleography 


.2 


Dialectology iformerly 408.7] 


.7 


Historical linguistics (Paleography) 




Study of early writings 




Class specific elements in 411-416 




448 



449 



Decimal Classification 



English and Anglo-Saxon languages 



420-490 Specific languages 

Scope: comprehensive works on specific languages and their 

literatures 

Divide as below, but, if it is desired to give local emphasis and 

a shorter number to a specific language, place it first by use of a 

letter or other symbol, e.g., Arabic language 4A0 (preceding 

420 ) ; then divide as instructed under 430-490 

For literatures of specific languages, see 810-890 



^ 420-480 Indo-European languages 

Class comprehensive works in 411-418 

For East Indo-European and Celtic languages, see 491 

420 English and Anglo-Saxon 

Use 420.01-420.09 for standard subdivisions 
.1-.9 Standard subdivisions of English 

Class dictionaries of the language in 423 



421 



.52 



421-426 Description and analysis of standard 
English 

Class standard English usage in 428 

Written and spoken codes 

Including abbreviations, acronyms, punctuation, capitalization 
For lexicology, see 422-423; structural system, 425 



.1 


Notation 


[.4] 


Spelling 




Class in 421.52 



Phonology 

For intonation, see 421.6 

Spelling [formerly 421 A] and pronunciation 
Including spelling reform, phonetic spelling 

For standard American pronunciation, see 421.54; standard 
British pronunciation, 42 1 .55 

450 



421.54 
,55 
.6 

.7 

[.8] 



422 



.4 



423 



.1 



Standard American pronunciation 
Standard British pronunciation 

Intonation 

Pitch, stress, juncture (pauses) 
Paleography 

Study of early writings 

Dictionaries of abbreviations 

Class in 423.1 



422-423 Lexicology 

Scope: synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [dl formerly 4241 

Etymology 

Phonetic, graphic, semantic development of words and morphemes 
For notation, see 421.1; phonologtj, 421.5 

Foreign elements 

Divide Uke 430-490, e.g., French words in EngHsh 422.44 
When dividing other languages as instnicted under 430-490 
divide numbers corresponding to 422.4 hke 420-490, e.g., English 
words in French 442.42 

Dictionaries 

Specialized 

Abbreviations [formerly 421.8], acronyms, synonyms, antonyms, 
homonyms 



,3-.9 Bilingual 



Divide hke 430-490, e.g., dictionaries of German and EngUsh 
423.3 

When dividing other languages as instructed under 430-490, 
interpret this entry as 423.2-423.9 and divide hke 420-490 
Class bihngual dictionaries with the language requiring local 
emphasis, e.g., hbraries in Enghsh-speaking regions class diction- 
aries of German and English in 433.2. If the two languages re- 
quire equal emphasis, class with the language coming later m the 
sequence 420-490 



451 



' i 



Decimal Classification 



[424] 



425 



Synonyms, antonyms, homonyms 

Class lexicology in 422-423, standard usage in 428 

Structural system 

Fonner heading: Grammar 
Morphology and syntax 



426 Prosody 

427 Nonstandard English 

Description, analysis, usage 
For Old English see 429 



.02 

.09 



.1-.8 



428 



.02 



.1 



Middle English, 1100-1500 
Modern nonregional variations 

Slang, ephemera, picturesque and exaggerated expressions 



427,l-427.9 Regional variations 

In England 

Divide Uke area notations 421-428, e.g., dialects of London 427.1 

In other places 

Add area notations 4-9 to 427.9 

Standard English usage ( Applied linguistics ) 

General English, formal Enghsh, infonnal EngUsh, Basic English; 
synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 424] 
Use 428.001-428.009 for standard subdivisions 
For dictionaries, see 423; composition, 808.042 

Translating and interpreting from other languages 
Divide like 418.02, e.g., machine translation 428.028 

Spelling and pronunciation 



428.2 



.24 



.34 



.4 



.42 



.43 



.6 



English and Anglo-Saxon languages 



.62 



428.2-428.3 Expression 

Structural approach 

Formal presentation of grammar, vocabulary, reading selections 
For spelling and pronunciation, see 428.1; reading, 428.4 

For those whose native language is not English 

Divide hke 430-490, e.g., English for Spanish-speaking people 

428.246 

When dividing other languages as instructed under 430-490. 

divide numbers corresponding to 428.24 like 420-490, e.g., 

Spanish for Enghsh-speaking people 468.242 

Audio-lingual approach 

Informal presentation thru practice in correct usage 
For pronunciation, see 428.1 

For those whose native language is not English 

Divide like 430-490, e.g., English speech for Spanish-speaking 
people 428.346 

When dividing other languages as instructed under 430-490, 
divide numbers corresponding to 428.34 like 420-490, e.g., 
Spanish for Enghsh-speaking people 468.342 

Reading 

For readers, see 428.6 

Remedial reading 

Correcting faulty habits and increasing proficiency 

Developmental reading 

Increasing reading power and efficiency 

Readers 

Graded selections with emphasis on structure and vocabulary as 
needed 

Remedial 



45^ 



453 



^ 



Decimal Classification 



428.64 



i 



429 



For those whose native language is not English 

Divide like 430-490, e.g., English readers for Spanish-speaking 
people 428.646 

When dividing other languages as instructed under 430-490, 
divide numbers corresponding to 428.64 like 420-490, e.g., 
Spanish readers for English-speaking people 468.642 

Anglo-Saxon ( Old English ) 

Divide like 421-428, e.g., dictionaries 429.3 



430 



430-490 Other specific languages 

Divide each language identified by * like 421-428, e.g., 
Hebrew language dictionaries 492.43. Under languages having 
more than one entry in this table, divide each entry identified 
by * like the corresponding number or numbers under 421-428, 
e.g., German language phonology 431.5. Note, however, in 
subdivision 7 that period divisions and geographical range of 
nonstandard variations are different for each specific language, 
and are shown below where their use is recommended; they 
may be supplied elsewhere as needed, for languages requiring 
local emphasis, by use of letter notation 

Germanic languages [formerly 439] 

Use 430.01-430.09 for standard subdivisions 



.1-.9 Standard subdivisions of German 

Class dictionaries of the language in 433 



► 431-436 Description and analysis of standard 

German 

Class standard German usage in 438 

431 * Written and spoken codes 

* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



432 
433 
[434] 



435 



436 
437 



.01 
.02 
.09 



Germanic languages 



432-433 Lexicology 

Scope: synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 434] 



* 



Etymology 
*Dictionaries 
Synonyms, antonyms, homonyms 

Class lexicology in 432-433, standard usage in 438 

Structural system 

Former heading: Grammar 
Morphology and syntax 

Prosody 
Nonstandard German 

Description, analysis, usage 

Old High German to 1 100 
Middle High German, 1100-1 500 
Modern nonregional variations 

Slang, ephemera, picturesque and exaggerated expressions 



.1-.6 



.9 



438 



437. 1-437.9 Regional variations 

In Germany and Austria 

Divide like area notations 431-436, e.g., dialects of Bavaria 437.3 

In other places 

Add area notations 4-9 to 437.9 

♦Standard German usage (Applied linguistics) 

General German, formal German, informal German; synonyms, 
antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 434] 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



454 



455 



Decimal Classification 



439 



Other Germanic languages 

Class comprehensive works on Germanic languages [formerly 439] in 
430 



439.1-439.4 West Germanic languages 

Old Low Germanic languages 

Old Saxon [formerly 439.4], Old Frisian [formerly 439.2], Old 
Low Franconian, Old Low German 



► 439.2-439.4 Modem Low Germanic languages 

.2 *Frisian 

Class Old Frisian [formerly 439.2] in 439.1 

^ Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans 

Jl •Dutch 

.32 •Flemish 

.36 *Afrikaans 

.4 *Low German (Plattdeutsch) 

Middle and Modem Low German 

Class Old Saxon [formerly 439.4] in 439.1 
For Yiddish, see 492.49 

J Scandinavian ( North Germanic ) languages 

Including Common Scandinavian to 900, Runic Danish, 900-1150 
Class other specific Scandinavian languages in 439.6-439.8 
•6 West Scandinavian languages 

Use 439.600 1 - 439.600 9 for standard subdivisions 

.601-609 Standard subdivisions of Old Norse (Old Icelandic) 

Class dictionaries of the language in 439.63 

,61-.68 •Principles of Old Norse (Old Icelandic) 

* Divide as instructed imder 430—490 



456 



Germanic languages 



439.69 



Modern Icelandic and Faeroese 

Use 439.690 01 - 439.690 09 for standard subdivisions 



.690 1-.690 9 Standard subdivisions of Modem Icelandic 

Class dictionaries of the language in 439.693 

.691-698 *Principles of Modem Icelandic 



.699 



.7 
.8 

.81 



.82 
.83 

.9 



Faeroese 



439.7-439.8 East Scandinavian languages 

* Swedish 
Danish and Norwegian languages 

*Danish 

Scope: Early Common Danish (common language of Denmark 
and Norway), 1450-1800 

♦Norwegian (Bokmaal) 
*New Norse (Landsmaal) 

♦Gothic (East Germanic) 



^ 440-460 Romance languages 

class comprehensive works in 479.1 

440 French, Provencal, Catalan 

Use 440.01-440.09 for standard subdivisions 

.1-.9 Standard subdivisions of French 

Class dictionaries of the language in 443 



► 441-446 Description and analysis of standard 

French 

Class standard French usage in 448 

441 *Written and spoken codes 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



457 



Decimal Classification 



^ 442-443 Lexicology 

Scope: synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 444] 

442 *Etymology 

443 *Dictionaries 

[444] Synonyms, antonyms, homonyms 

Class lexicology in 442-443, standard usage in 448 

445 Structural system 

Former heading: Grammar 
Morphology and syntax 

446 Prosody 

447 Nonstandard French 

Description, analysis, usage 

.01 Old French to 1400 

.02 Middle French, 1400-1600 

.09 Modem nonregional variations 

Slang, ephemera, picturesque and exaggerated expressions 



^ 447.1_447.9 Regional variations 

.1-.8 In France 

Divide Uke area notations 441^48, e.g., dialects of southern 

France (Languedoc) 447.8 

Class dialects of southeastern France (Provengal) in 449 

Ji In other places 

Add area notations 4-9 to 447.9 

448 *Standard French usage (Applied linguistics) 

General French, formal French, informal French; synonyms, 
antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 444] 

* Divide as instructed xmder 430-490 



French, Provengal, Catahn languages 



449 Proven9al and Catalan 

Use 449.001-449.009 for standard subdivisions 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of Proven9al 

Class dictionaries of the language in 449.3 

.1-.8 *Principles of Provengal 



.9 



♦Catalan 



450 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 



1-.9 



452 
453 
[454] 

455 



Use 450.01-450.09 for standard subdivisions 

Standard subdivisions of Italian 

Class dictionaries of the language in 453 



^ 451-456 Description and analysis of standard 

Italian 

Class standard Italian usage in 458 

451 * Written and spoken codes 



452-453 Lexicology 

Scope: synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [aU formerly 454] 

*Etymology 
*Dictionaries 
Synonyms, antonyms, homonyms 

Class lexicology in 452-453, standard usage in 458 

Structural system 

Former heading: Grammar 
Morphology and syntax 



' ^ ■" 



456 Prosody 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



459 



457 



.01 
.02 
.09 



.1-.7 



Decimal Classification 



Nonstandard Italian 

Description, analysis, usage 
Old Italian to 1300 
Middle Italian, 1300-1600 
Modern nonregional variations 

Slang, ephemera, picturesque and exaggerated expressions 



457.1-457.9 Regional variations 

In continental Italy 

Divide like area notations 451-457, e.g., dialects of Lombardy 



457.2 



.8 In Sicily 



Divide like area notations 458 1-458 2, e.g., dialects of Palermo 
457.823 



.9 


Other 


.91-.93 


In Sardinia 




Divide Uke area notations 459 1-459 3, e.g., dialects of Cagliari 




457.91 


.95 


In Corsica 


S9 


In other places 




Add area notations 4-9 to 457.99 



458 *Standard Italian usage ( Applied linguistics ) 

General Italian, formal Italian, informal Italian; synonyms, antonyms, 
homonyms [all formerly 454] 

459 Romanian and Rhaeto-Romame 

Use 459.001-459.009 for standard subdivisions 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of Romanian 

Class dictionaries of the language in 459.3 

.1-.8 *Principles of Romanian 
J> Rhaeto-Romanic languages 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



460 



Spanish and Portugese languages 



460 Spanish and Portuguese 

Use 460.01-460.09 for standard subdivisions 
Standard subdivisions of Spanish 

Class dictionaries of the language in 463 



.1-.9 



^ 461-466 Description and analysis of standard 

Spanish 

Class standard Spanish usage in 468 

461 *Written and spoken codes 



462 
463 
[464] 

465 



462-463 Lexicology 

Scope: synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 464] 

*Etymology 
*Dictionaries 
Synonyms, antonyms, homonyms 

Class lexicology in 462-463, standard usage in 468 

Structural system 

Former heading: Grammar 
Morphology and syntax 



466 


Prosody 


467 


Nonstandard Spanish 




Description, analysis, usage 


.01 


Old Spanish to 1100 


.02 


Middle Spanish, 1100-1600 


.09 


Modern nonregional variations 




Slang, ephemera, picturesque and exaggerated expressions 


► 


467.1-467.9 Regional variations 


.1-.8 


In Spain 




Divide like area notations 461-468, e.g., dialects of Andalusia 




467.8 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



461 



Decimal Classification 



467.9 



In other places 

Add area notations 4-9 to 467.9 



468 * Standard Spanish usage ( Applied linguistics ) 

General Spanish, formal Spanish, informal Spanish; synonyms, 
antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 464] 



469 



*Portuguese 
.7 Nonstandard Portuguese 

Description, analysis, usage 

.701 Old Portuguese to 1100 

702 Middle Portuguese, 1100-1600 

.709 Modem nonregional variations 

Slang, ephemera, picturesque and exaggerated expressions 



.71-.76 



46971^69.79 Regional variations 

In continental Portugal 

Divide like area notations 469 1 - 469 6, e.g., dialects of Lisbon 
469.74 



.78 


In Madeira 


.79 


Other 


.791 


In Azores 


.794 


In Spain 




Galician (Gallegan) [formerly A69. 9] 



.798 



.799 



[.9] 



In Brazil 

Divide like area notations 811-817, e.g., dialects of Sao 
Paulo 469.798 6 

In other places 

Add area notations 4-9 to 469.799 

Galician (Gallegan) 

aass in 469.794 



Divide as instructed under 430-490 



462 



Italic languages 



470 Italic languages 

Use 470.01-470.09 for standard subdivisions 



•1-.9 



472 
473 



475 



476 
477 
478 



Standard subdivisions of Latin 

Class dictionaries of the language in 473 



► 471-476 Description and analysis of standard 

Latin 

Classical Latin; classical revival (medieval and modem) 
Latin [formerly 479.3] 

Class standard Latin usage in 478 

471 *Written and spoken codes 



472-473 Lexicology 

Scope: synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 474] 



*Etymology 
*Dictionaries 



[474] Synonyms, antonyms, homonyms 

Class lexicology in 472-473, standard usage in 478 



Structural system 

Former heading: Grammar 
Morphology and syntax 

Prosody 

Old, Postclassical, Vulgar Latin 
*Standard Latin usage (Applied linguistics) 

Classical Latin; classical revival (medieval and modem) Latin 
[formerly 479.3]; synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 474] 



* Divide as instructed imder 430-490 



463 



.1 



[■3] 



.9 



Decimal Classification 



479 Romance and other Italic languages 



For Etmscan, see 499.94 
Romance languages 

Class specific Romance languages in 440-460 

Classical revival (Medieval and modem) Latin 

aass description and analysis in 471-476, standard usage in 478 

Osco-Umbrian languages 



480 Classicallanguages [formerly4S91] and 
modem Greek 

Class Latin in 471-478 
.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of classical languages 

.1-.9 Standard subdivisions of classical Greek 

Class dictionaries of the language in 483 



481 



481-486 Description and analysis of standard 
classical Greek 

Class standard classical Greek usage in 488 

Written and spoken codes 

Including abbreviations, acronyms, punctuation, capitalization 
For lexicology, see 482-483; structural system, 485 

.1-.6 *Notation, phonology, intonation 

J Paleography 

Study of early writings 
Including Minoan Linear B 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



464 



Greek languages 



482-483 Lexicology 

Scope: synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 484] 



482 *Etymology 

483 *Dictionaries 

[484] Synonyms, antonyms, homonyms 

Class lexicology in 482-483, standard usage in 488 

485 Structural system 

Former heading: Grammar 
Morphology and syntax 

486 Prosody 

487 Postclassical Greek 

Hellenistic and Byzantine Greek 
Including Biblical Greek 

488 *Standard classical Greek usage (Applied 

linguistics ) 

Synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [all formerly 484] 

489 Other Greek languages 

[.1] Classical languages 

Class in 480 

.3 *Modem Greek 

Katharevusa and Demotic 

* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



465 



Decimal Classification 



490 Other languages 

491 East Indo-European and Celtic languages 

Use 491.001-491.009 for standard subdivisions 

Class comprehensive works on Indo-European languages [formerly 

491] in 411-418 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of East Indo-European languages 

SUMMARY 

491.1 Indo-Iranian (Aryan) languages 

.2 Sanskrit 

.3 Middle Indie languages ( Secondary Prakrits) 

.4 Modem Indie languages ( Tertiary Prakrits ) 

.5 Iranian languages 

.6 Celtic languages 

.7 East Slavic languages 

.8 Balto-Slavic languages 

.9 Baltic and other East Indo-European languages 



•1 



3 

.37 

.4 

.41 
.42 



Indo-Iranian (Aryan) languages 

For Indo-Aryan (Indie) languages, see 491.2-491.4; Iranian 
languages, 491.5 



491.2-491.4 Indo-Aryan (Indie) languages 

♦Sanskrit 

Vedic (Old Indie) and classical 



491.3-491.4 Prakrits 

Class nonstandard Sanskrit (Primary Prakrits) in 491.27 

Middle Indie languages ( Secondary Prakrits ) 
PaH 

Modem Indie languages ( Tertiary Prakrits ) 
*Sindhi 
♦Punjabi 



* Divide as instructed imder 430-490 



466 



Other languages 



491.43 



Western Hindi languages 

Use 491.430 01 - 491.430 09 for standard subdivisions 



.430 1-.430 9 Standard subdivisions of Hindi (High Hindustani) 

Class dictionaries of the language in 491.433 

431_.436 *Description and analysis of standard Hindi (High 
Hindustani) 

Class standard Hindi usage in 491.438 



.437 



.438 



Variations of Hindustani 
Description, analysis, usage 

♦Standard Hindi usage (Applied linguistics) 



.439 


•Urdu 


.44 


•Bengali 


.45 


Assamese [formerly 491.49] , Bihari, Oriya 


.46 


*Marathi 


.47 


*Gujarati-Rajasthani 


.48 


•Sinhalese 


.49 


Other 




Dard, Eastern Hindi, Pahari, Romany 




Class Assamese [formerly 491.49] in 491.45 


.5 


Iranian languages 


.51 


♦Old Persian (West Iranian) 


.52 


•Avestan (East Iranian) 


.53 


Pahlavi ( Middle Persian ) 


[.54] 


Annenian 




Class in 491.992 


.55 


•Modem Persian 


.59 


Other modem Iranian languages 



Baluchi, Kurdish, Tajiki, Pashto, Ossetic, Pamir dialects 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



467 



I 



Decimal Classification 



491.6 


Celtic languages 




Including Cornish, Breton, Manx 


.62 


♦Irish Gaelic 


.63 


•Scottish Gaelic (Erse) 


.66 


•Welsh 



.7 



East Slavic languages 

Use 491.700 1 - 491.700 9 for standard subdivisions 



.701-.709 Standard subdivisions of Russian 

Class dictionaries of the language in 491.73 



.71-.76 



.77 



.7701 
.770 2 
.770 9 



♦Description and analysis of standard Russian 
Class standard Russian usage in 491.78 

Nonstandard Russian 
Description, analysis, usage 

Old Russian to 1550 

Middle Russian, 1550-1750 

Modem nonregional variations 

Slang, ephemera, picturesque and exaggerated 
expressions 



J74_779 Regional variations 

Add area notations 4-9 to 491.77 



.78 



.79 



♦Standard Russian usage (Applied linguistics) 

Ukrainian and Belorussian 

Use 491.790 01 - 491.790 09 for standard subdivisions 



.790 1-.790 9 



Standard subdivisions of Ukrainian 

Class dictionaries of the language in 491.793 



.791-798 *Principles of Ukrainian 



.799 



Belorussian 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



468 



Other languages 



491.8 Balto-Slavic languages 

Including Common Slavic 

Use 491.800 1 - 491.800 9 for standard subdivisions 

For East Slavic languages, see 491.7; Baltic languages, 
491.91-491.93 

,801-.809 Standard subdivisions of Slavic languages 



.81 



.810 1-.810 9 



491.81-491.84 South Slavic languages 
Bulgarian and Macedonian 

Use 491.810 01 -491.810 09 for standard subdivisions 

Standard subdivisions of Bulgarian 

Class dictionaries of the language in 491.813 



,811-.816 *Description and analysis of standard Bulgarian 

Class standard Bulgarian usage in 491.818 



.817 



.817 01 
,818 

.819 

.82 



[.83] 



.84 



Nonstandard Bulgarian 
Description, analysis, usage 

Old Bulgarian (Church Slavonic) 
♦Standard Bulgarian usage (Applied linguistics) 

♦Macedonian 

♦Serbo-Croatian 

Including Croatian [formerly 491.83] 

Croatian 

Class in 491.82 

♦Slovenian 



.85 



491.85-491.88 West Slavic languages 
♦Polish 

Including Kashubian dialect 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



469 



Decimal Classiiication 



.99 



.991 
.992 



492 



.1 



J2 

.29 



491.86 


•Czech 




For Moravian dialects, see 491.87 


.87 


Slovak 




Including Moravian dialects 


.88 


*Wendish 


.9 


Baltic and other East Indo-European languages 


► 


491.91^91.93 Baltic languages 


.91 


Old Prussian 


.92 


•Lithuanian 


.93 


•Latvian (Lettish) 



Other 

Including Anatolian, Tocharian, Thraco-Phrygian, lUyrian, 
Indo-Hittite 

•Albanian 

♦Armenian [formerly 491.54] 



492-493 Afro-Asian languages 

Semitic languages 

Akkadian (East Semitic) languages 

Including Chaldean ( Neo-Babylonian ) and Assyro-Babylonian 



dialects 



492.2-492.3 Aramaic (North Semitic) languages 
West Aramaic 
Biblical Aramaic 

Including Samaritan [formerly 492.5], Chaldee 



.3 *East Aramaic (Syriac) 



Divide as instructed under 430-490 



470 



Other languages 



492.4 



.401-.409 



492.4-492.6 Canaanitic (West Semitic) languages 

Hebraic languages 

Use 492.400 1-492.400 9 for standard subdivisions 

Standard subdivisions of Hebrew 

Class dictionaries of the language in 492.43 



.41-.48 *Principles of Hebrew 



.49 



[.5] 



.6 



.7 



.9 



.1 
.7 



♦Yiddish 

Samaritan 

Class in 492.29 

Canaanite-Phoenician languages 

Including Minoan Linear A 



492.7-492.9 Arabic-Ethiopic (South Semitic) 
languages 

* Arabic (North Arabic) 
Ethiopic languages 
South Arabic languages 



493 Hamitic and other languages 



493.1-493.5 Hamitic languages 
*01d Egyptian 
*Coptic 

Berber languages 

Cushitic (Hamitic Ethiopian) languages 

Chad family 

Including Kanuri [formerly 496.4] 
For Hausa, see 496.91 



* Divide as instructed imder 430-490 



47^ 



Decimal Classification 



^ 494-495 Asian and related languages 

For East Indo-European languages, see 491; Afro- Asian 
languages, 492-493 

494 Ural-Altaic, Paleosiberian, Dravidian languages 





494.1_494.3 Altaic languages 


.1 


Tungusic family 


.2 


Mongolic family 


.3 


Turkic family 


.35 


♦Turkish 




494,4_494,5 Uralic languages 


.4 


Samoyedic family 




For Ket language, see 494.6 


J 


Firaio-Ugric languages 


.51 


Ugric languages 


.511 


♦Magyar (Hungarian) 



.53 

.54 
.541 

.545 
.55 



.81 



.811 



494.53-494.55 Finnic languages 
Permian languages 
Western Finnic languages 

♦Finnish (Suomi) 

♦Estonian 
♦Lapp 

Paleosiberian languages 

Luorawetlin family, Ainu, Gilyak, Ket 

Dravidian languages 

Dravida group 

Including Kota [formerly 494.821], Toda [fomerly 494.822], 
Kunikh (Oraon) [/ormeH!/ 494.826] 

♦Tamil 



• Divide as instructed under 430-490 





Other languages 


494.812 


*Malayalaui 


[.813] 


Telugu 




Class in 494.827 


.814 


•Kaharese (Kannada) 


.82 


Andhra group 


[.821] 


Kota 




Class in 494.81 


[.822] 


Toda 




Class in 494.81 


.823 


•Gondi 


.824 


•Khond (Kandh) 


[.826] 


Kurukh (Oraon) 




Class in 494.81 


.827 


•Telugu [/ormeWy 494.813; 


.83 


Brahui 



495 Languages of East and Southeast Asia 

,1 Chinese 

Use 495.001-495.009 for standard subdivisions 
For Thai-Chinese group, see 495.919 

Standard subdivisions of standard written Chinese 
(Mandarin) 

Class dictionaries of the language in 495.13 



.101-.109 



.11-.16 ♦Description and analysis of standard written Chinese 
(Mandarin) 

Class standard usage of standard written Chinese in 495.18 



.17 



,18 



Nonstandard Chinese 
Description, analysis, usage 
Including commercial Chinese 

♦Standard usage of standard written Chinese (Applied 
linguistics) 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



472 



473 



Decimal Classification 



Other languages 



495.4 Tibeto-Burman languages 

Use 495.400 1 -495.400 9 for standard subdivisions 
.401-.409 Standard subdivisions of Tibetan 

Class dictionaries of the language in 495.43 
.41-.48 *Principles of Tibetan 
.49 Other 

Including Himalayan dialects [formerly 495.5] 
For Burmese, see 495.8 



[.5] 



*6 
.7 

.87 



.9 

.91 



.910 1-.910 9 

.911-.918 
.919 



Himalayan and Assamese dialects 

Class Himalayan dialects in 495.49, Assamese dialects of Burmese 
in 495.87 

*Japanese 

*Korean 

♦Burmese 

Nonstandard Burmese 
Description, analysis, usage 
Including Assamese dialects of Burmese [formerly 495.5] 

Other languages of Southeast Asia 

Thai languages 

Use 495.910 01 - 495.910 09 for standard subdivisions 
Standard subdivisions of Thai (Siamese) 
Class dictionaries of the language in 495.913 
•Principles of Thai (Siamese) 
Other Thai languages 

Including Thai-Chinese group 



.92 
.922 
.93 
.932 

.95 



495.92-495.95 Austroasian languages 
Annam-Muong group 

•Vietnamese 
Mon-Khmer group 

•Cambodian 
Munda family 



• Divide as instracted under 430-490 



496 



.1 



[■2] 



.3 



[.4] 

.5 
.9 

.91 

.92 



497 



.1 

.2 
.3 
.4 
J» 
*6 
.7 
A 
.9 



498 



African languages 

For Afro-Asian languages, see 492-493 

Macro-Khoisan family 

Including Bushman languages [formerly 496.2], Hottentot 
languages 

Bushman languages 

Class in 496.1 

Niger-Congo family 

Including Ewe and Mende [both formerly 496.4], Bantu 

languages 

Class Swahili [formerly 496.3] in 496.92 

Negro dialects 

Class Ewe and Mende in 496.3; Kanuri in 493.7 

Chari-Nile (Macrosudanic) family 
Commercial languages 

•Hausa 

•Swahili [formerly 496.3] 

North American Indian languages 
Eskimo-Aleut group 
Na-Dene group 
Algonkian-Mosan group 
Macro-Penutian group 
Hokan-Siouan group 
Macro-Otomanguean group 
Tarascan family 
Miskito-Matagalpan group 
Other languages 

South American Indian languages 



* Divide as instructed under 430-490 



474 



475 



Decimal Classification 



:;r 



I 



499 



.1 
.11 

.12 
.15 



Austronesian and other languages 
Nonaustronesian languages of Oceania 

Negrito languages 
Papuan languages 
Australian languages [formerly 499.6] 



499.2-499.5 Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) 
languages 

For Austroasian languages, see 495.92-495.95 



.2 


Malayan languages 


.21 


Tagalog family 


.211 


♦Tagalog (Filipino) 


22 


Malay-Javanese languages 


.221 


•Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) 


.222 


•Javanese 




Including Balinese, Madureso, Sundanese dialects 


.4 


Polynesian languages 


^ 


Melanesian and Micronesian languages 


[.6] 


Australian languages 




Class in 499.15 


.9 


Other languages 


.92 


Basque 


.93 


Elaniitic 


.94 


Etruscan 


.95 


Suuierian 


.96 


Caucasian languages 


.99 


Artificial languages [formerly 408.9] 


.992 


•Esperanto 


.993 


•Interlingua 



500 



500 Pure sciences 



.1 

.2 

.9 



501 
502 
503 
504 



.1 



Natural sciences 



Physical sciences 
Natural history 

Philosophy and theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 



505 Serial publications 

506 Organizations 

507 Study and teaching 

508 Collections, anthologies, travels, surveys 



.4-.9 



Collections and anthologies 

Travels and surveys 

For geographical treatment of travels and surveys, see 508.4-508.9 

Geographical treatment of travels and surveys 

Add area notations 4-9 to 508 



• Divide as instructed under 430-490 



509 Historical and geographical treatment 



476 



477 



Decimal Classification 



Mathematics 



:vy 



510 Mathematics 



.78 



.782 
.782 3 
.782 4 
.783 
.783 2 
.783 4 



511 



.0212 



.024 



.076 



The editors anticipate the preparation at a future date of a completely 
revised schedule 510, which will develop mathematics according to 
modern concepts. The schedule that follows, while conforming to the 
style of the present edition, makes no substantive modifications from the 
provisions of Edition 16. For the present, class in 510 without subdivision 
all branches of mathematics not clearly belonging in subordinate 
numbers 
Use 510.01-510.09 for standard subdivisions 

Computation instruments and machines 

Mathematical principles of mechanical, electromechanical, 
electronic calculating devices 

Analog instruments 

Slide rules and planimeters 

Differential analyzers 
Digital machines 

Adding and calculating machines 

Computers 

Arithmetic 

Formulas and specifications 
Class tables in 5 11.9 

Works for specific types of users 
Class business arithmetic in 5 1 1 .8 

Review and exercise 
Class problems in 5 1 1 .9 



.1 



.2018 



511.1-511.7 Specific elements 
Numeration systems 

Including decimal, duodecimal, binary 

Fundamental operations 

Use 511.200 1 - 511.200 9 for standard subdivisions 

Short cuts and rapid calculations 

478 



511.207 6 
.207 8 
.22 
.23 
.3 
.4 
.6 
.7 
•8 



.9 



512 



.0212 



.076 



.1 
.2 

.21 



.22 

23 

.24 

.26 

.5 

.6 

.7 



Algorisms 
Abacus 
Addition and subtraction 
Multiplication and division 
Prime numbers and factoring 
Fractions and decimal fractions 
Ratio and proportion 
Involution and evolution 

Business arithmetic 

Including mensuration, mercantile rules, calculation of interest 

Problems and tables 
Algebra 

Formulas and specifications 
Class tables in 512.9 

Review and exercise 
Class problems in 512.9 



512.1-512.7 Specific elements 
Postulates 
Equations and imaginary quantities 

Equations 

Linear, quadratic, simultaneous, binomial, polynomial 

For indeterminate equations, see 512.23; reciprocal 
equations, 512.26 

Approximate computations 

Indeterminate (Diophantine) equations 

Imaginary quantities 

Reciprocal equations 
Combinations, permutations, distribution 
Simple arithmetic and geometric progressions 
Exponents and logarithms 

479 



Decimal Classification 






512.8 Abstract algebra 

Including theory of games 

.81 Theory of numbers 

.812 Divisibility 

Including theory of measure, factorization, linear 
congruences 

.813 Higher congruences, forms, residues, partitions 

Including Fermat's theorem 

.814 Theory of primes 

.81 5 Algebraic fields 

.816 Complex multiplication 

.817 Transfinite numbers 

,82 Theory of equations 

.83 Determinants 

Ordinary, symmetrical, numerical, infinite, polydimensional 

.84 Symmetrical f imctions of roots 

.85 Elimination discriminants 

.86 Theory of groups 

Abstract, substitution, linear, continuous, Abelian 
Including transformations, substitutions 

.865 Lattice theory 

.87 Theory of forms ( Quantics ) 

Including modular theory 

.88 Invariant theory 

Binary, ternary, n-ary, orthogonal invariants 

.89 Universal algebra 

.893 Quaternion algebra 

.894 Space analysis ( Ausdehnungslehre) 

.895 Vector algebra 



480 



Mathematics 



512.896 
.897 
.9 



.076 



.8 

.81 

.82 

.83 

.84 

.85 

.9 

.92 



Matrices and tensor algebra 
Linear algebras 
Problems and tables 



513-516 Geometries 



513 Synthetic geometry 



For trigonometry, see 514; descriptive geometry, 515 

Review and exercise 
Class problems in 513.9 





513.1-513.3 Elementary (Euclidean) 


.1 


Plane 


.3 


Solid 


.5 


Modem (Post-Euclidean) 




Plane and solid 


.6 


Denuinerative 



.94 



Determination of the number of specific configurations fulfilling a 
suflScient number of conditions 

Non-Euclidean 

Absolute geometry of one, two, three dimensions 
Geometries of n dimensions 
Geometric topology (Analysis situs) 
Geometries of Lobachevski, Bolyai, Gauss 
Geometry of Riemann 
Problems 

Famous problems 

Including circle squaring, trisection of angles, duplication of 
cubes 

Porisms 



481 



Decimal Classification 



Mathematics 



514 


Trigonometry 


.076 


Review and exercise 




Class problems in 514.9 


^ 


Plane 


JS 


Spherical 


.9 


Problems 


515 


Descriptive geometry 


.1 


Orthogonal projection on two planes 


2 


Isometric and other one-plane projections 


A 


Oblique projections 


A 


Conical projections 


Ji 


Spherical projections 


.6 


Perspective 


.7 


Shades and shadows 


516 


Analytic (Coordinate) geometry 


.076 


Review and exercise 




Class problems in 516.9 



.1 

.2 

.3 

.4 



.5 



.55 



516.1-516.4 Elementary (Cartesian) geometry 
Straight lines and coordinate axes 
Curves in Cartesian form 

Conies and higher plane curves 

Planes and lines in space with Cartesian forms 

Surfaces in Cartesian form 

Spheres, quadrics, ellipsoids, hyperboloids, paraboloids, higher 
surfaces 

Modem algebraic geometry 

Including systems of coordinates, abridged and symbolic notations, 
conies, quadrics, higher planes and surfaces, space curves 

Geometric transformations 

Scope: reciprocation, inversions, correlation methods 
Including quadratic, Cremona, birational, isogonal 



516.56 
.57 



.6 

.66 

.7 
.74 

.8 



.82 
.83 



.9 



517 



.076 



Harmonic and anharmonic properties 

Projective geometry 

Spatial relations, ideas, properties unaltered by projective 
transformations 

Line geometry 

Including systems of curves, surfaces, rays 

Modular geometry 

Differential (Infinitesunal) geometry 
Projective 

Kinematic geometry 

Calculus of direction and position 

Quaternions 

Vector and tensor analysis 

Problems 

Calculus 

Review and exercise 

Class problems in 517.9 



transformations 



482 





517.2-517.3 Kinds 


.2 


Differential 


.207 6 


Review and exercise 




Class problems in 517.29 


•21 


Series 




Indicated siun of the terms of a sequence 


.22 


Indeterminate forms 


.27 


Variation of function values 


.28 


Differential forms and invariants 


.29 


Problems 




483 



Decimal Classification 



Mathematics 



^'i 



'-m 



.307 6 

.31 
.32 



.33 
.34 

.35 
.352 



.353 



.354 

.355 

.36 

^7 



.38 



.382 



.383 



.39 



517.3 Integral 

.302 12 Formulas and specifications 

Class tables in 517.39 



Review and exercise 

Class problems in 517.39 

Methods of integration 

Definite integrals 

Including gamma functions, Euler functions 

Rectifications 
Multiple integrals 
Orthogonal expansions 
Spherical harmonics 

Including Legendre's functions, Laplace's functions 

Cylindrical harmonics 
Including Bessel's functions 

Ellipsoidal harmonics 
Including Lame's functions 

Fourier series 
Elliptic and hyperelliptic functions 

Integral equations 

Including integral differential equations 

Diflferential equations 

For integral differential equations, see 517.37 

Ordinary 

Linear and nonlinear 

Partial 

First and higher orders 

Problems and tables 

484 



517.4 
.5 



.52 

.521 

.6 

.7 

.8 

.81 
.83 
.85 
.88 

.9 



518 



.6 
.7 
.8 



.9 

.92 

.93 



517.4-517.8 Branches 
For calculus of direction and position, see 516.8 

Calculus of variations 

Calculus of functions ( Functional analysis ) 

For a specific function, see the subject, e.g., gamma functions 
517.32 

Functions of real variables 
Theory of point sets 
Numerical analysis and finite differences 
Calculus of operations 
Functions of complex variables 

For elliptic and hyperelliptic functions, see 517.36 

Riemann surfaces 

Algebraic functions 

Automorphic and polyhedral functions 

Hypergeometric functions 

Problems 



519 Probabilities and statistical calculations 

•1 Probabilities 

Including mathematical expectation, prediction 



519.6-519.9 Statistical calculations 
Theory of errors 
Information theory 

Treatment of data 

Including application of methods of least squares, theory of closest 
approximation 

Other 

Linear and dynamic programing 
Theory of sampling and quality control 

485 



Decimal Classification 



Astronomy and allied sciences 






520 Astronomy and allied sciences 

Use 520.01-520.09 for standard subdivisions 



.1 



.2-.8 



520.1-520.9 Standard subdivisions of astronomy 
Philosophy and theory 

Class natural astrology, ancient and medieval astronomy [all 
formerly 520.1] in 520.9 

Miscellany, dictionaries, serial publications, organizations, 
study and teaching, collections 

Class techniques, apparatus, equipment in 522.1-522.6 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Including natiural astrology, ancient and medieval astronomy [all 
formerly 520A] 



521 Theoretical astronomy and celestial mechanics 



•1 

.11 

.12 
.13 
.16 
3 



.4 



.62 
.63-.68 



521.1-521.4 General principles 

Class application to specific celestial bodies in 521.5-521.7 

Celestial dynamics 

Laws of planetary equilibrium and motion 
Law of universal gravitation and motion 
Problems of three and n bodies 
Equilibrium of rotating fluid masses 
Kepler's laws and their application 

Determination, calculation, correction of orbits 

Perturbations 
Theory of planets 
Theory of satellites 

Class satellites [formerly 521.6] in 523.98 

Theory of moon (Lunar theory) 
Theories of other specific satellites 

Divide like 523.43-523.48, e.g., of satellites of Mars 521.63 

486 



521.7 
.8 
.9 



522 



.1 

.109 



.19 



.21 
.22 
.23 

.24 



Theory of comets 

Theory of eclipses, transits, occultations 

Precession and nutation 

For corrections of precession, see 522.95; of nutation, 522.96 

Practical and spherical astronomy 

SUMMARY 



522.1 


Observatories 


.2 


Telescopes and accessories 


.3 


Meridional instruments 


.4 


Extrameridional instruments 


.5 


Auxiliary instruments 


.6 


Special techniques 


.7 


Spherical astronomy 


.9 


Corrections 



522.1-522.6 Practical astronomy 

Methods and techniques of observing and measuring celestial 
bodies 

Scope: apparatus and equipment [formerly 520.78], practical 
computations 

Class applications to specific celestial bodies in 523 
For corrections, see 522.9 

Observatories 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Class specific observatories in 522.19 

Specific observatories 

Add area notations 3-9 to 522.19 



522.2-522.5 Instruments 

Telescopes and accessories 

For zenith telescopes, see 522.43; equatorial telescopes, 522.46 

Reflecting telescopes 
Refracting telescopes 
Eyepiece and accessories 

Object glass and accessories 

487 



Decimal Classification 



Astronomy and allied sciences 



.1 



522.25 
.26 
.27 
.29 



.3 



Altazimuth mountings 
Equatorial mountings 
Transit mountings 
Famous telescopes 

Add area notations 1-9 to 522.29 

Meridional instruments 

For transit mountings, see 522.27; zenith telescopes, 522.43 



.4 


Extrameridional instruments 


.41 


Sextants, quadrants, reflecting circles, astrolabes 


.43 


Zenith telescopes 


.46 


Equatorial telescopes 


.5 


Auxiliary instruitients 


.51 


Sidereal clocks and chronometers 


.52 


Chronographs 


.53 


Micrometers 


.54 


Personal equation machines 


.56 


Instruments for solar observation 




For heliostats, see 522.58 


.562 


Spectroheliographs and photoheliographs 


.563 


Coronagraphs 


.58 


Heliostats 


.6 


Special techniques 


.62 


Photometry 


.622 


Photographic photometry 


.623 


Photoelectric photometry 


.63 


Photography 




For photographic photometry, see 522.622 


.65 


Polarimetry 


.67 


Spectroscopy 



522.7 



.71 

.75 

.76 

.78 

.9 

.91 

.92 

.94 

.95 

.96 

.97 

.98 



523 



.01 

.013 
.016 
.017 



.1 

.11 
.111 



488 



Spherical astronomy 

Class application to geodesy in 526.6 

Celestial sphere and coordinates 

Interpolation 

Meridian lines and variations of compass 

Use of globes, planispheres, astronomical models 

Corrections 
Of parallax 

Of astronomical refraction 
Of aberration 
Of precession 
Of nutation 
Of personal equation 
Of instrumental errors 

Descriptive astronomy 

Use 523.001-523.009 for standard subdivisions 

Physical and chemical aspects 
For spectroscopy, see 522.67 

Astrophysics 
Radio astronomy 
Radar astronomy 

SUMMARY 

523.1 Physical universe (Cosmology) 

.2 Solar system 

.3 Moon 

.4 Planets 

,5 Meteors and zodiacal light 

.6 Comets 

.7 Sun 

.8 Stars 

.9 Transits, satellites, occultations 

Physical imiverse (Cosmology) 

Structure 

Space 

4S9 



Decimal Classification 



Astronomy and allied sciences 









i-^-. 



S • 



523.112 
.113 
.113 5 
.12 



.13 



[.14] 



.18 



[.302 1] 



[.302 2] 



Jl 



.32 
.33 



Extragalactic systems 

Galactic system ( Milky Way ) 

Interstellar material and galactic nebulas 

Origin and development (Cosmogony) 

Glacial cosmogony [formerly 523.14], nebular and meteoritic 
hypotheses 

Astrobiology 

Former heading: Plurality of worlds 

Glacial cosmogony 
Class in 523.12 

Expanding universe 

Theories of Einstein, de Sitter, Eddington, Lemaitre 



.19 


Destruction of universe 


.2 


Solar system 


[.207 4] 


Planetariums 




Do not use; class in 523.28 


24 


Motion in space 


.28 


Planetariums (Orreries) 


.29 


Zodiac 


^ 


Moon 



Tabulated and related materials 
Do not use; class in 523.39 

Illustrations 

Do not use; class in 523.39 

Constants and dimensions 
Size, mass, distance, parallax 

Phases, brightness, radiation 
Orbit and motions 

Sidereal month, perigee and apogee, librations 



523.34 



.340 2 

.340 3 

.35 

.37 

.38 

.39 

.4 



[.4021] 

[.402 2] 

.41 

.42 

.43 

,44 

.45 

.46 

.47 

.48 

.481 

.482 

.49 

.5 

.51 

.53 

.57 

.59 



Selenography 

Use 523.340 01 - 523.340 09 for standard subdivisions 

Earth side of moon 

Far side of moon 
Theories of atmosphere 
Spectroscopy 
Eclipses 
Charts, photographs, tables 

Planets 

Distance, motions, orbits, physical condition, spectroscopy 

For earth, see 525 

Tabulated and related materials 
Do not use; class in 523.49 

Illustrations 

Do not use; class in 523.49 

Mercury and intramercurial planets 
Venus 

Mars 

Minor planets (Asteroids, planetoids) 

Jupiter 

Saturn 
Uranus 

Transuranian planets 
Neptune 
Pluto 
Charts, photographs, tables 
Meteors and zodiacal light 
Meteorites 
Meteoric showers and radiant points 

Spectroscopy 

Zodiacal Hght and counterglow 

49^ 



Decimal Classification 



Astronomy and allied sciences 



^ ( ■ 



; I- 

■!!■ 






i! 
J 






# 



523.6 



[.602 1] 
[.602 2] 

.63 
.64 



.66 
.67 

.69 

•7 

[.702 1] 

[.702 2] 
.71 



.72 

.73 

.74 
.75 
.76 
.77 
.78 
.79 



Comets 



Tabulated and related materials 
Do not use; class in 523.69 

Illustrations 

Do not use; class in 523.69 

Orbits 

Famous comets 

Class a specific aspect with the subject 

Physical constitution 

Spectroscopy 

Charts, photographs, tables 



Sun 



Tabulated and related materials 
Do not use; class in 525.38 

Illustrations 

Do not use; class in 523.79 

Constants and dimensions 
Size, mass, distance, parallax 

Heat, light, radiation 

Apparent motion and rotation 

Sunspots and faculae 

Prominences, chromosphere, corona 

Internal constitution 

Spectroscopy 

Eclipses 

Charts and photographs 



523.8 



[.802 1] 



[.802 2] 



.81 



.82 

.822 

.83 



.84 

.841 
.842 
.843 
.844 
.844 2 
.844 25 
.844 26 
.844 4 
.844 6 
.85 
.852 
.855 

.86 
.87 
.89 
.890 3 
.890 8 



Stars 

For Milky Way, see 523.113; sun, 523.7 
Tabulated and related materials 

Do not use; class in 523.89 
Illustrations 

Do not use; class in 523.89 
Constants and dimensions 
Size, mass, distance, parallax 

Heat, light, radiation 

Magnitudes 
Proper motion and radial velocity 

523.84-523.85 Systems and aggregations 
Class a specific aspect with the subject 
Double, multiple, variable stars 
Visual binaries 
Spectroscopic binaries 
Astrometric binaries 
Variable stars 

Intrinsic variables 

Cepheids and cluster-type variables 
Long-period variables 
Eclipsing variables 
Novae and supemovae 

Clusters 

Open and moving clusters 
Globular clusters 

Physical constitution 

Spectroscopy 

Charts, photographs, tables 

Observers' atlases of constellations 

Star catalogs 



49^ 



493 



'k' 



eJ 



Decimal Classification 



523.9 
.91 



Transits, satellites, occultations 

Transits of Merciiry 



.92 



.96 
.97 

.98 



523.92-523.97 Transits of Venus 
Methods of observation and recording 
Delisle's, Halley's, photographic methods 

Transits of 1761, 1769, 1874 
Transit of 1882 

Satellites [formerly 521.6] 
For moon, see 523.3 



,983-.988 Of specific planets 

Divide like 523.43-523.48, e.g., sateUites of Mars 523.983 



.99 



524 



525 



Occultations 



Earth ( Astronomical geography ) 
Constants and dimensions 

Size, shape, mass, position, parallax 

For determination of size and shape, see 526.1 

Heat, light, radiation 

For internal heat of earth, see 551.12 



^ 


Orbit and motions 


.35 


Rotation 


.36 


Foucault s pendulum 


.38 


Tables of the sun 



Astronomy and allied sciences 



525.6 



[.602 1] 



.69 



.7 



.1 



.31 



.32 



.33 



.36 



.37 
.38 



Tides 



Tabulated and related materials 
Do not use; class in 525.69 

Tide tables 
Astronomical twilight and twilight tables 



526 Mathematical geography 



526.1-526.7 Geodesy 
Determination of size and shape 

Geodetic surveying 

Surveys in which curvature of the earth is considered in 
measurement and computation 

Reconnaissance (Preliminary surveys) 
Bench marks 

Add area notations 1-9 to 526.32 
Triangulation, traversing, trilateration 

526.36-526.38 Leveling 
For bench marks, see 526.32 

Spirit leveling 

Differential and precise spirit leveling 

Barometric leveling 

Trigonometric leveling (Geodetic refraction) 



.5 



Seasons 



494 



495 



?'■,:! 



W 



526.6 



.64 



.7 
Ji 

.82 

.85 

[.88] 

[.89] 



.92 
.98 
.981 



Decimal Classification 



Astronomy and allied sciences 



Geodetic and positional astronomy 

Application of spherical astronomy to geodesy 



526.61-526.63 Coordinates 

Theory, computation, determination of geodetic (geographic, 
topographic) coordinates 



.61 


Latitude 


.62 


Longitude 


.63 


Azimuth 



Geographic position 

Including effect of inregularities of earth's surface on 
determination of position 

Gravity determinations (Physical geodesy) 

Map projections 

Networks of parallel lines and meridians for map drawing 

Conformal ( Orthomorphic ) projections 

Equal-area (Equivalent) projections 

Map scales and symbols 
Class in 912.014 8 

Printing maps 
Class in 655.383 

Surveying 

Class engineering surveys in 622-628 
For geodetic surveying, see 526.3 



: 526.92-526.99 Plane surveying 

Surveys in which curvature of the earth is disregarded in 
measurement and computation 

Boundary surveying (Land surveys) 
Topographic surveying 
Contour surveying 

4g6 



526.982 


Photogrammetry 


.982 3 


Aerial surveying 


.982 5 


Ground (Terrestrial) surveying 



.99 



Hydrographic surveying 
For snow surveys, see 551.579 



527 Celestial navigation 



.1 

.2 
•3 



.5 

.53 

.55 



528 



.1-.8 



.9 



Determination of geographic position and direction from observation 
of celestial bodies 

Class practical navigation with the subject 
For finding time, see 529,7 

Latitude 

Longitude 

Fixes 

Summer's and line-of -position methods 

Direction and course 

Rhumb Hne course 
Great circle course 

Ephemerides ( Nautical almanacs ) 

Class tables of specific celestial bodies in 523 

In specific coimtries 

Divide like 061-068, e.g., English ephemerides 528.2 

Ephemeris making 



497 






■ '1 



e- •" ■( 



■ .1 

i. 






■A 



.1 



.2 



.3 



.32 



75 



.78 



Decimal Classification 



Physics 



529 Chronology 



Sidereal and solar day 

Apparent and mean time, equation of time, causes of inequality 

Intervals of time 

Kinds of years, months, weeks, days 

Calendars 

For Christian calendars, see 529.4; calendar reforms, 529.5 

Ancient and non-Christian calendars 

Divide like 292-299, e.g., Jewish calendar 529.326 



.4 


Christian calendars 


.42 


Jnlian 


.43 


Gregorian 


.44 


Church 




Detennination of movable feast and fast days 


J 


Calendar refonus 


.7 


Horology 




Finding and measuring time 




For extrameridional instruments, see 522.4 



Time systems and standards 

Universal, standard, dayhght-saving time, conversion tables 

Instruments for measuring time 
Dials, hourglasses, clocks, watches 

For sidereal clocks and chronometers, see 522.51 



498 



530 Physics 

.01 Philosophy and logic [formerly 530.101] 

Class theories in 530.1 

.02-.09 Other standard subdivisions 

.1 Theories 

[.101] Philosophy and logic 

Class in 530.01 

.11 Relativity theory 

.12 Quantum theory 

Class classical mechanics in 531-533 

.122 Matrix mechanics 

.123 Quantum mechanics 

. 1 24 Wave mechanics 

. 1 3 Statistical and kinetic theories 

Class classical mechanics in 531-533 

.132 Statistical mechanics 

. 1 33 Quantum statistics 

.14 Field theories 

,142 Unified field theory 

,143 Quantum field theory 

.144 Problem of many bodies 

.15 Mathematical physics 

Including dimensional analysis [formerly 530.8] 
Divide like 510, e.g., analysis 530.157 

.16 Measurement theory [formerly 530.8] 

A States of matter 

Class plasma in 537.16 

.41 Solids ( Solid-state physics ) 

.42 Liquids 

.43 Gases 

499 



Decimal Classification 



530.7 



.8 



Instrumentation 

For measurement, control, recording 

Physical units, dimensions, constants 

Class measurement theory in 530.16, dimensional analysis in 
530.15 [both formerly 530.8] 



531 



.01 

.015 17 
[.017] 

.02-.09 



531-538 Classical physics 
Mechanics 

For mechanics of fluids, see 532 

Philosophy and theory 

Analytical mechanics [formerly 531.017] 
Analytical mechanics 
Class in 531.015 17 

Other standard subdivisions 

Class tables, review, exercise in 531.9 



.1 
.11 



.16 

.162 
.163 



531.1 



SUMMARY 

Kinematics and particle mechanics 





.2-.5 Solids 


J2 


Statics 


J 


Dynamics 


.4 


Friction 


J 


Mass, gravity, ballistics 


JS 


Energetics 


.1 


Transport phenomena in solids 


A 


Simple machines 


S 


Tables, review, exercise 



Kinematics and particle mechanics 

Kinematics ( Geometry of motion ) 

Linear and relative motion, centripetal acceleration, vector 
quantities, radial and transverse acceleration in a plane 

Particle mechanics 

Statics [/ormer/y 531.26] 
Dynamics [/ormerZj/ 531.36] 



500 



Physics 



531.2 



.23 

.25 



[.26] 



531.2-531.5 Solids (Rigid bodies) 

For transport phenomena in solids, see 531.7 

Statics 

Static, translational, rotational equilibrium 

Moments of inertia 

Graphic statics 

Representation of magnitude, direction, position of forces by 
straight lines and determination of unknown quantities by 
mechanical measurement 

Statics of a particle 
Class in 531.162 

Dynamics 

Forces and their effect on the motion of rigid bodies 
Including Newton's laws of motion 

For friction, see 531.4; mass, gravity, ballistics, 531.5 



.31 


Trajectories 


.32 


Oscillations 


.33 


Wave motions 


.34 


Gyrodynamics 


.35 


Centrifugal and centripetal forces 


[.36] 


Dynamics of a particle 




Class in 531.163 


.38 


Elasticity and deformation 


.381 


Elastic constants and their mea 



.382 
.382 2 



Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, bulk modulus, shear 
modulus ( modulus of rigidity ) 

Stresses and types of deformation 

Stresses 

Tensile, compressive, shearing stresses 



SOI 



Decimal Classification 



Physics 



531.382 3 



.382 5 



.383 
.4 

^ 
.52 

.54 

.55 
.552 
.555 
.555 2 
.555 4 
,555 8 

.6 



.62 

.64 

.642 

.643 

.68 



.7 



Temporary deformation (Elasticity) 

Including elastic limit, coefficient of restitution 

Permanent deformation (Plasticity) 
Including yield point 

Vibrations 
Friction 

Mass, gravity, ballistics 

Laws of falling bodies 
Density and specific gravity 
Projectiles 
In air 

In space 

Escape velocity (Parabolic velocity) 
Orbital velocity 
Re-entry problems 

Energetics 

For simple machines, see 531.8 

Law of conservation of energy 
Forms of mechanical energy 

Potential 

Kinetic 
Transformation 

Change of mechanical energy to other forms of energy 

Class transformation to a specific form of energy with the 
subject 

Transport phenomena in solids 

Simple machines 

Lever, wheel and axle, cord and pulley, geared wheel, inclined 
plane, wedge, screw 

Tables, review, exercise 



$02 



532 



Mechanics of fluids 

For mechanics of gases, see 533 



.001-.009 



.02 



.05 



.1 



[.3] 

A 
.5 



.51 



Standard subdivisions 

Class tables, review, exercise in 532.9 

Statics 

Static, translational, rotational equilibrium 
Including moments of inertia, transmission of pressure 

Dynamics 

Forces and their effects on the motion of fluids 

Mechanics of liquids (Hydromechanics) 

For specific aspects of hydromechanics, see 532.2-532.7 

532.2-532.7 Specific aspects of hydromechanics 

Hydrostatics 

Static, translational, rotational equilibrium 

Including buoyancy [formerly 532.3], moments of inertia, 

transmission of pressure 

For surface phenomena, see 532.6 

Buoyancy 

Class in 532.2 

Mass, density, specific gravity 
Hydrodynamics 

Forces and their effect on the motion of liquids 
For transport phenomena, see 532.7 

General principles of flow 

Class general principles applied to flow variations in 





532.52-532.56 


.511 


Kinetic theory 


.515 


Laminar flow 


.516 


Transition flow 


.517 


Turbulent flow [formerly 532.56] 




503 



Decimal Classification 



Physics 



532.52 
.53 
.54 
.55 
.56 



.57 
.58 



.59 

.593 
.595 



.7 



.9 



532.52-532.56 Flow variations 

Thru orifices and nozzles 

Over weirs and spillways 

Thru pipes and open channels 

Thru bends and irregular enclosures 

When pressure is variable 

Including flow over and around submerged bodies 
Class turbulent flow [formerly 532.56] in 532.517 

Velocity and its measurements 

Viscosity 

Measurements, effects on flow 

Other types of motion 
Wave motions 
Vortex motions and cavitation 

Surface phenomena 

Surface tension, capillarity, thin films, bubbles 

Transport phenomena 

Diffusivity, permeability, osmosis 

Special developments 
Tables, review, exercise 



533 Mechanics of gases 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions 

Class tables, review, exercise in 533.9 



533.1 



.12 



.13 



.14 
.15 
.2 



21 



.29 



.5 

.52 
.54 



533.1-533.5 Gases in general 

For aeromechanics, see 533.6; other aspects of gases in general, 

533.7-533.9 

Statics and other phenomena 

For dynamics, see 533.2; vacuum and vacuum production, 533.5 

Statics 

Static, translational, rotational equilibrium 
Including moments of inertia, transmission of pressure 

Transport phenomena 

DifiFusivity, permeability, osmosis 

Class viscosity [formerly 533.13] in 533.28 

Absorption and adsorption 
Mass, density, specific gravity 

Dynamics 

Forces and their effect on the motion of gases 
For transport phenomena, see 533.13 

Types of flow 

Divide like 532.515-532.517, e.g., turbulent flow 533.217 



.27 


Velocity 


.273 


Subsonic 


.274 


Transonic 


.275 


Supersonic 


.276 


Hypersonic 


.28 


Elasticity and compressibility 




Including viscosity [formerly 533.13] 



504 



Other types of motion 

Divide like 532.59, e.g., cavitation 533.295 

Vacuum and vacuum production 

Rarefaction of gases 
High-vacuum production 

505 



Decimal Classification 



533 6 



61 



.62 



.63 



Aeromechanics 

For vacuum and vacuum production, see 533.5 

Aerostatics 

Static, translational, rotational equilibrium 

Aerodynamics 

Forces and their effect on the motion of air 

Divide like 533.2, e.g., cavitation 533.629 5 

For transport phenomena, see 533.63 

Transport phenomena 

DifiFusivity, permeability, osmosis 



.7 
S 
.9 



533.7-533.9 Other aspects of gases in general 
Kinetic theory of gases 
Special developments 
Tables, review, exercise 



534 Sound and related vibrations 

.01-.09 Standard subdivisions 

Class tables, review, exercise in 534.9 

SUMMARY 



.1 

.12 
.13 
.14 



.1 

A 
Jt 



534.1-.4 Sound waves 

Generation thru vibration 

Propagation (Transmission) 

Characteristics 

Measurements, analysis, synthesis 

Related vibrations 

Special developments 

Tables, review, exercise 



534.1-534.4 Sound waves 
Generation thru vibration 

Of strings and wires 
Of rods, plates, bells 
Of air columns in pipes 
Including resonance 

506 



534.15 
[.16] 



Physics 



Of membranes 
Subsonic vibrations 
Class in 534.52 

Propagation (Transmission) 

Use 534.200 1 - 534.200 9 for standard subdivisions 
Class interference [formerly 534.2] in 534.47 



.202 


Velocity 


.203 


Directionality 


.204 


Reflection (Echoes) 


.205 


Refraction 


.206 


DiflEraction 


.207 


Polarization 


.208 


Absorption (Daiupmg) 




534 22-534.24 Transmission m specific medmms 


.22 


In solids 


.23 


In liquids 


.24 


In gases 


3 


Characteristics 


.32 


Frequency and pitch 




Including Doppler effect 


.33 


Intensity and loudness 


.34 


Amplitude and timbre 


.35 


Irregular and discordant frequencies 


.352 


Dissonance 


.355 


Noise 


.4 


Measurements, analysis, synthesis 


,42 


Measurement techniques 



507 



Decimal Classification 



Physics 



534.44 
.45 

.46 
.47 



.52 

.55 

[.59] 

[•6] 



.9 



.01 



.012 



534.44^534.45 Analysis 
For graphic and optical representations, see 534.46 

Qualitative 
Quantitative 

Graphic and optical representations [formerly 534.6] 

Synthesis 

Compounding sound waves 

Including superposition principles [formerly 534.59], 
interference [formerly 534.2], beats 

For graphic and optical representations, see 534.46 

Related vibrations 

Generation, transmission, characteristics, measurements, analysis, 
synthesis 

Subsonic vibrations [formerly 534.16] 
Ultrasonic vibrations 
Superposition principles 
Class in 534.47 

Graphic and optical representations 

Class in 534.46 

Special developments 
Tables, review, exercise 



535 Visible light and paraphotic phenomena 

Former heading: Optics 



Spectral regions 

Class theories in 535.1, spectroscopy in 535.84 

Infrared 

For heat radiation, see 536.33 



508 



535.013 



.014 

.02-.09 



•1 

.12 
.13 
.14 
.15 



.22 
.24 

Ji 

.32 



.322 
.323 
.324 
.326 



Visible 

Class specific elements in 535.2-535.6 

Ultraviolet 
Standard subdivisions 

Class tables, review, exercise in 535.9 

SUMMARY 

535.1 Theories 

;Z Physical optics 

J Transmission, absorption, emission 

.4 Dispersion, interference, diffraction 

JS Beams and their modification 

JS Color 

S Special developments 

•9 Tables, review, exercise 

Theories 

Corpuscular (Emission) theory 
Mechanical wave theory 
Electromagnetic theory 
Quantum theory 



535.2-535.6 Specific elements of visible light 

For visual spectroscopy, see 535.843 

Physical optics 

For special aspects of physical optics, see 535.4-535.5 

Intensity 
Velocity 

Transmission, absorption, emission 

Geometrical optics 

For optical instruments, see 535.33; color, 535.6 

Rectilinear propagation 
Reflection 
Refraction 
Absorption 

509 



Decimal Classification 



Physics 



535.33 



.35 



.4 



.5 

.52 
.523 
.524 
.58 



.6 
S 

.84 



536 



Optical instruments 
Principles and design 

Luminescence, fluorescence, phosphorescence 



535,4-535.5 Special aspects of physical optics 
Dispersion, interference, diffraction 

For color, see 535.6 

Beams and their modification 

Polarization 

Plane 

Rotary 

Amplification 

Including amplification by stimulated emission of radiation 
(lasers) 

Color 

Special developments 

Spectroscopy (Emission and absorption spectroscopy) 

Techniques for studying light emitted by physical objects by 
means of the spectroscope and methods of measuring intensity 
and frequency of spectrum lines 



.842 


Infrared 


.843 


Visible (Chromatic) 


.844 


Ultraviolet 


.845 


Vacuum ultraviolet 


.846 


Raman 


.9 


Tables, review, exercise 



Heat 



.0 1 Philosophy and theory 

Class theories in 536.1 

.02-.09 Other standard subdivisions 

Class tables, review, exercise in 536.9 

5^0 



— — ^-^— 




SUMMARY 




536.1 


Theories 

Transmission (Heat transfer) 

Radiation and efiFects of matter on heat 




.4 


Effects of heat on matter 




J 
A 
.7 

J 
.9 


Temperature 
Calorimetry 
Thermodynamics 
Special developments 
Tables, review, exercise 


536.1 


Theories 


- 


2 


Transmission 


(Heat transfer) 



.201 



.2012 

.2014 

.23 

.25 

Ji 

.31 

.32 

.33 

.34 

•4 

.401 



.41 



.412 



Use 536.200 1 - 536.200 9 for standard subdivisions 
For radiation, see 536.33 

Material properties 

For specific heats, see 536.63-536.65 

Conductivity 

Diffusivity 
In solids (Conduction) 
In fluids (Convection) 
Radiation and effects of matter on heat 
Reflection 
Refraction 
Radiation 
Absorption 

Effects of heat on matter 

Use 536.400 1 - 536.400 9 for standard subdivisions 

Change of state (Phase changes) 
Including triple points 
Class specific transformations in 536.42-536.44 

Expansion and contraction 

Pressure-volume-temperature relationships, coefiBcients of 
expansion 

Of gases 

For liquefaction of gases, see 536.56 

5" 



536.413 
.414 



.42 



.44 
.443 



.445 



.45 



.51 

.52 



.53 

.56 



.57 



Decimal Classification 



Of liquids 
Of solids 



536.42-536.44 Specific transformations 

Fusion and solidification 

Solid-to-liquid and liquid-to-solid transfonnations 
Including freezing and melting points, latent heats of fusion 

Vaporization and condensation 

Liquid-to-gas and gas-to-liquid transformations 

Critical points, heats of vaporization, dew points, boiling 
points 

Solid-to-gas and gas-to-solid transformations 
Sublimation 

Incandescence 
Temperature 



536.51-536.53 Measurement 
Liquid-in-glass thermometry 

Pyrometry 

Pyrometers and thermocouples for temperatures over 500" C 

Electrical resistance thermometry 

Cryogenics 

Production of temperatures below 91** K 

Including liquefaction of gases, absolute temperature, 
properties of matter at extremely low temperatures 

Class a specific property with the subject 

High temperatures 

Production of temperatures over 3000° K 
Including plasma temperatures 



5^^ 



536.6 



.62 



.63 
.65 

.7 



.701 



.71 



.73 



•9 



537 



.01 



Physics 



Calorimetry 

Measurement of heat quantities and thermal capacity 
Class heats of transformation in 536.42-536.44 

Calorimeters 



536.63-536.65 Specific heats 
Of solids and liquids 
Of gases and vapors 

Thermodynamics 

Mathematical and physical relations between mechanical work and 
heat energy 

Including transformation of heat into mechanical energy, of me- 
chanical energy into heat 
For calorimetry, see 536.6 

Philosophy and theory 
Class theories in 537.71 

Theories 

Three laws of thermodynamics, Joule's law. Maxwell's four 
thermodynamic formulas, Carnot cycle 

Entropy 

Measurement of unavailable energy in thermodynamic systems 

Special developments 
Tables, review, exercise 

Electricity and electronics 

For magnetism, see 538 

Philosophy and theory 
Class theories in 537.1 



lii 



.02-.09 Other standard subdivisions 

Class tables, review, exercise in 537.9 



5^3 



537.1 



.11 

.12 

.122 

.123 

.125 

.14 
.16 
.2 
.21 



.23 

.24 

.242 

.243 

.244 

.245 

.246 

.5 

.52 



Decimal Classification 





SUMMARY 


537.1 


Theories 


.2 


Electrostatics 


S 


Electronics 


J6 


Electric currents 


A 


Special developments 


S 


Tables, review, exercise 



Theories 

537.11-537.12 Electromagnetic theory 
Maxwell's equations 
Electromagnetic fields and waves 

Field intensity and equations 

Microwave circuit theory 

Wave guides 

Corpuscular theory 
Plasma and plasma dynamics 
Electrostatics 

Charge and potentials 
Including triboelectricity 

Generators 
Dielectrics 

Capacitors (Condensers) 

Dipole moments 

Pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity 

Electrocapillarity 

Electrostriction 

Electronics 

For semiconductors, see 537.622 

Disruptive discharge 

Luminous discharge produced by the disruptive passage of 
high-voltage electricity thru gases or vapors at atmospheric 
pressure 

Including electric arc 

For ionization of gases, see 537.532 

5^4 



537.53 
.532 

.533 
.534 



.534 2 



.534 3 



.534 4 



.535 



.535 2 

.535 3 
.535 5 

.54 

.56 






Physics 



Discharge thru rarefied-gas and high-vacuum tubes 

Ionization of gases 

Including electron ballistics 

Thermionic emission 
Radio- and microwaves 

Spectroscopy, circuitry, specific tubes, wave guides 

Class wave guide theories in 537.125 

Long waves 

Frequency ranges between l(P and 10« cycles per second 

Short waves 

Frequency ranges between 10*^ and 10» cycles per second 

Microwaves (Ultra-high-frequency waves) 

Frequency ranges between 10^ and 10^^ cycles per second 

Including ampUfication by stimulated emission of 
radiation (masers) 

X and gamma rays 

Frequencies over 10^^ cycles per second 

Spectroscopy 

Class a specific application with the subject 

Circuitry 
Specific tubes 

Photoelectric effects 

Photoemissivity, photovoltaism, photoconductivity 

Electron and ion optics 

Focusing and deflecting streams of charged particles by means 
of electrostatic and magnetic lenses and fields 

Electric currents 

Direct currents and circuitry 






515 



Decimal Classification 



Physics 



537.62 Conductivity and resistance 

For dielectrics, see 537.24 

.622 Semiconductivity 

Including semiconductors 

.623 Superconductivity 

.624 Thermal eflFects of currents 

.63 Alternating currents and circuitry 

.64 Electi'odynamics 

Mutual- and self-induction 

.65 Thermoelectricity 

Electricity produced by direct action of heat 

.8 Special developments 

.9 Tables, review, exercise 

Magnetism 

.01 Philosophy and theory 

Class theories in 537.1 

,02-.09 Other standard subdivisions 

Class tables, review, exercise in 538.9 

SUMMARY 

538.2 Magnets and magnetic induction 

.3 Magnetic phenomena 

•4 Magnetic materials and permeability 

.6 Magnetohydrodynamics 

•7 Geomagnetism and allied phenomena 

.8 Special developments 

.9 Tables, review, exercise 

.2 Magnets and magnetic induction 

.22 Permanent magnets 

.23 Temporary magnets ( Induced magnetism ) 

.24 Induction in coils 



538 



538.3 



.4 

.42 
.43 
.44 

.45 

.6 



•7 



.72 



.74 

.742 

.743 

.744 

.746 

.748 

.76 

.767 

.767 2 

.767 3 



.767 4 

.767 5 
.768 



s^e 



Magnetic phenomena 

Hysteresis, magnetostriction, reluctance, piezomagnetism, 
pyromagnetism 

For permeability, see 538.4 

Magnetic materials and permeability 

Diamagnetic 
Paramagnetic 
Ferromagnetic 
Ferrimagnetic 

Magnetohydrodynamics 

Motion of plasmas in magnetic fields 

Geomagnetism and allied phenomena 

For atmospheric electricity, see 551.56 

Permanent magnetic field 

Theory, analysis, secular variations of magnetism of earth's 
crust and interior 

Transient magnetism 
Diurnal variations 
Other periodic variations 
Magnetic storms and pulsations 
Sunspot effects 
Earth currents 
Allied phenomena of overhead activation 
Ionosphere 
D region 
E region 

E and sporadic E layers ( Kennelly-Heaviside layers ) 

F region 

Fi and Fa layers ( Appleton layers ) 

Van Allen radiation belts 
Auroras 

5^7 






Decimal Classification 



538.78 Magnetic surveys 

Add area notations 1-9 to 538.78 

.79 Magnetic observations at permanent stations 

Add area notations 1-9 to 538.79 



539 



.8 Special developments 

.9 Tables, review, exercise 

Modem physics 

Molecular, atomic, nuclear physics 
For electronics, see 537.5 



.01-09 Standard subdivisions 

Class tables, review, exercise in 539.9 

1 Structure of matter 

Scope: interpretation thru spectroscopy 
For nuclear structure, see 539.74 



.12 


Molecular structure 


.14 


Atomic structure 


.7 


Nuclear physics 


SUMMARY 




539.72 
.73 
.74 
.75 
.76 
.77 


Fundamental radiations 
Farticle acceleration 
Nuclear structure 
Transmutations 
High-energy reactions 
Particle detection and 



.72 



.721 
.721 1 
.7212 
.7213 



Fundamental radiations 

Mass, charge, size, velocity, scattering, energy levels 
For treatment, structure, reactions, see 539.73-539.77 

Fundamental (Subatomic) particles 
Electrons (Beta particles) 
Protons and antiprotons 
Neutrons and antineutrons 



.7ZZ 



.734 



.735 



.74 

.742 
.743 
.744 



Physics 



539.721 4 


Positrons 


.7215 


Neutrinos and antfneutrinos 


.7216 


Mesons 




Mu-, pi-, K-mesons 


.7217 


Photons 


.7219 


Other particles 


.722 


Penetrating radiation 


.722 2 


X and gamma rays 




Class production in 537.535 


.722 3 


Cosmic rays 




For mesons, see 539.721 6 


► 


539.73-539.77 Treatment, struc 


.73 


Particle acceleration 


.732 


In hieh-voltaffe accelerators 



Use of voltage multipliers and Van de GraaflF electrostatic 
generators 

In resonance accelerators 

Use of linear accelerators and cyclotrons 

In induction accelerators 
Use of betatrons 

In synchronous accelerators 

Use of synchrocyclotrons and synchrotrons 
( betatron-synchrotons ) 

Nuclear structure 

Scope : isotope structure 

Liquid-drop model 

Shell model 

Interpretation thru spectroscopy 



If 



5^9 



Decimal Classification 



539.75 



.752 
.752 2 
.752 3 
.752 4 
.753 



539.75-539.76 Nuclear reactions 

Transmutations » 

Decay schemes, half-life periods, electron and radiative 
capture, element disintegration 

Radioactive decay (Natural transmutations) 

Alpha decay 

Beta decay 

Gamma decay 
Artificial transmutations 

Bombardment of elements with high-speed particles from 
natural radioactive sources and accelerators 



.76 


High-energy reactions 


.762 


Fission 


.764 


Fusion 


.77 


Particle detection and measurement 


.772 


In ionization chambers 


.773 


In proportional counters 


.774 


In Geiger-Miiller counters 


.775 


In scintillation counters 


.776 


In crystal conduction counters 


.777 


In Wilson cloud chambers 


.778 


Thru photographic means 



.9 



Tables, review, exercise 



520 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



540 Chemistry and allied sciences 

Use 540.01-540.09 for standard subdivisions 



.1 



.2-.9 



541 



.22 



.221 
.222 
.223 



.224 



.225 
.225 2 



540.1-540.9 Standard subdivisions of chemistry 

Early theories 

Alchemy, phlogiston theory, philosopher's stone, other ancient and 
medieval philosophies 

Class theoretical chemistry in 541.2 

Other 

Class apparatus and equipment in 542 



541-547 Chemistry 
Physical and theoretical chemistry 

Class physical and theoretical organic chemistry in 547.1 

Theoretical chemistry 

For periodicity and periodic law, see 541.901 

Molecular structure 

For quantum chemistry, see 541.28 

« 

Structural formulas 

Molecular weights [formerly 541.25] 

> 

Stereochemistry [formerly 541.6] 

Spatial molecular arrangement and bond distances 

Molecular bonds and valences [both formerly 

541.396] 

Including hnkages (conjugations), radicals 
For bond distances, see 541.223 

Structural variations [formerly 541.7] 

Isomers and tautomerism 

Structural and geometrical isomers and their equilibrium 
states 



5^^ 



5 



Decimal Classification 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



541.225 3 


Chelates 


.225 4 


Polymers 


.226 


Intermolecular forces 


.24 


Atomic structure 




For radiochemistry, see 541.38 



.242 



.243 
.244 

.246 

[.25] 



.26 



.28 



.3 



Atomic constants 

Atomic weights and numbers [both formerly 541.25], 
atomic mass 

Spatial atomic arrangements 

Homopolar and heteropolar bonds [both formerly 
541.396] 

Interatomic forces [formerly 541.396] 

Molecular and atomic weights, atomic numbers 

Class molecular weights in 541.222, atomic weights and 
numbers in 541.242 

Stoichiometry [formerly 541.901 5] 

Nxunerical relationship between elements and compounds, 
determination of proportions in which elements combine, 
weight relations in reactions 

Quantum chemistry [formerly 541.383] 

Use of quantum, wave, statistical mechanics for interpretation 
of molecular structure and chemical reactivity in terms of 
motion of electrons 

Physical chemistry 

For optical activity y see 541.7 

SUMMARY 

541.34 Solutions 

.35 Photochemistry 

.36 Thermochemistry and thermodynamics 

.37 Electro- and magnetochemistry 

,38 Radiochemistry 

•39 Reaction kinetics and mechanisms 



541.34 



.341 

.3413 
.3414 
.3415 



.3416 



.345 13 



.345 14 



.345 15 



Solutions 

General and nonelectrolytic 

For electrolytic solutions, see 541.372-541.374 

Properties 

Mechanical 

Optical 

CoUigative 

Freezing-point depression, boiling-point elevation, 
vapor-pressure lowering, osmotic pressure 

Thermal 



.342 


Solubility 


.342 2 


In water 


.342 3 


In non-aqueous solvents 




541.343-541.345 Specific types of solutions 


.343 


By concentration of solute 


.343 2 


Dilute 


.343 3 


Normal and molar 


.343 4 


Saturated 


.343 5 


Supersaturated 


.345 


Colloidal 


.3451 


Colloidal systems 




For specific properties, see 541.345 3 - 541.345 4 



522 



Matter in sohd disperoids 

Solids, Uquids, gases disperst in soUds, e.g., alloys, 
gels, sohd foams 

Hydrosols 

Sohds, hquids, gases disperst in liquids, e.g., 
suspensions, emulsions, foams ( lathers, froths ) 

Aerosols 

Sohds and Hquids disperst in gases, e.g., smokes, fogs, 
mists 



i 






541.345 3 



.345 4 



.36 



Decimal Classiiication 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



541.345 3 - 541.345 4 Specific properties 
Surface properties 

Surface tension, capillarity, interfacial tensions, films, 
electric double layers 

Other 

Including formation of Liesegang rings 



.348 


Solution components 


.348 2 


Solvents 


.348 3 


Solutes 


.348 5 


Precipitates 


•35 


Photochemistry 




Reactions due to visible light and paraphotic radiations 


.351 


Energy transformations 


.353 


Specific radiations 



.360 1-.360 9 



Divide like 535.01, e.g., chemical reactions due to ultraviolet 
radiation 541.353 4 

Thermochemistry and thermodynamics 

Use 541.360 01 - 541.360 09 for standard subdivisions 

Standard subdivisions of thermochemistry 



,361 
.362 



.363 



.364 
.368 
.368 6 



541.361-541.368 Thermochemistry 
Combustion 
Exothermic and endothermic reactions 

Heat liberated or absorbed during neutralization, fonnation, 
dilution, combustion, solution 

Change of state (Phase changes) 
Including triple points 

Thermal dissociations 
Reactions under temperature extremes 
Low temperatures 

Reactions below -100** C 
5^4 



541.368 7 

.369 
.37 



High temperatures 

Reactions above critical temperatures 

Thermodynamics 
Electro- and magnetochemistry 

Use 541.370 01 - 541.370 09 for standard subdivisions 









.370 1-.370 9 Standard subdivisions of electrochemistry 



.372 
.372 2 
.372 3 
.372 4 
.372 8 
.374 



.388 



.388 2 
.388 4 
.389 



541.372-541.377 Electrochemistry 



541.372-541.374 Electrolytic solutions 
Electrical properties (Electrolyte conductivity) 

Ionization (Electrolytic dissociation) 

Ion exchange and equilibriums 

Ionic migration to electrodes 

Hydrogen-ion concentration 

Other properties 

Divide like 541.341, e.g., optical properties of electrolytic 
solutions 541.374 4 



.377 


Semiconductors 




Former heading; Dielectric phenomena 


.378 


Magnetocheuiistry 


.38 


Radiochemistry 


.382 


Radiolysis 


[.383] 


Quantum chemistry 




Class in 541.28 



Isotopes 

Class isotopes of specific elements in 541.389 

Stable 
Radioactive 
Radiochemistry of specific elements 

Divide like 546.38-546.75, e.g., radiocarbon 541.389 681 

5^5 






Decimal Classification 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



\ 



I 



541.39 Reaction kinetics and mechanisms 

.392 Chemical equilibriums 

Including law of mass action and Le Chatelier's principle 

.393 Types of reactions 

Chain, reversible, irreversible, homogeneous, heterogeneous 

,394 Reaction rates 

.395 Catalysis 

Acceleration and retardation of chemical reactions by means 
of catalysts 

[.396] Chemical bonds, valences, interatomic forces 

Class molecular bonds and valences in 541.224, homopolar 
and heteropolar bonds in 541.244, interatomic forces in 
541.246 

[.6] Stereochemistry 

Class in 541.223 

,7 Optical activity 

Optical rotation, racemization, mutarotation 

Including polarimetry 

Class structural variations [formerly 541.7] in 541.225 

•9 Other topics 

.901 Periodicity and periodic law 

[.901 5] Stoichiometry 

Class in 541.26 

542 Laboratories, apparatus, equipment 

Scope: general procedures and manipulation of equipment 
Class a specific application with the subject 

.1 Laboratories 

Layouts, installations, basic equipment 

For specific types of apparatus, see 542.2-542.9 



5^6 



542.2 



.3 



.4 
.5 
.6 

.7 



.8 
•9 



543 



.01 

.02 

.07 

.08 

.083 

.085 

.086 

.087 

.088 



542.2-542.9 Specific types of apparatus 
Receptacles and accessory equipment 

Beakers, flasks, retorts, test tubes, funnels, crucibles, supports, 
stoppers, tubing 

For measuring apparatus, see 542.3; distilling apparatus, 542.4; 
gas apparatus, 542.7 

Measuring apparatus 

Gravimetric and volumetric 
For gas apparatus, see 542.7 

Heating and distilling apparatus 

Blowpipes 

Filters and dializers 

Gas apparatus 

For producing, collecting, washing, dissolving, storing, measuring, 
rarefying, compressing, liquefying, solidifying gases 

Electrical and electronic apparatus 
Other apparatus 






543-545 Analytical chemistry 

Class organic analytical chemistry in 547.3 

General analysis 

Use 543.001-543.009 for standard subdivisions 

For qualitative analysis, see 544; quantitative analysis, 545 

Reagents 

Sample preparation 

Instrumentation 

Instrumental methods 

Mechanical analysis 

Optical analysis 

Thermal analysis 

Electrical analysis 

Radiochemical analysis 

5^7 



i 



Decimal Classification 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



543.1 

.31 

.312 

.313 

,314 

.32 

.4 

^ 

S 

544 



.01-.08 



.12 
.13 
.16 



543.1-543.6 Specific product groups 
Food products other than dairy products 
Dairy products 
Sanitary analysis 
Water constituents 
Domestic 
Industrial 
Agricultural 
Sewage 
Cosmetics and perfumes 
Pesticides and other poisons 
Rocks and ores 

Qualitative analysis 

Systematic macro and semiquantitative methods and procedures for 
detecting and identifying constituents of a substance 

Scope: identification of specific elements [formerly 546] 

Use 544.001-544.009 for standard subdivisions 

General principles 

Divide like 543.01-543.08, e.g., mechanical analysis 544.083 

SUMMARY 

544.1 Systematic separations 

.2 Pyrolysis and combustion 

.3 Blowpipe analysis 

.4 Gas analysis 

.5 Diffusion analysis 

.6 Spectrochemical analysis (Spectroscopic analysis) 

.8 Micro and semimicro methods 

.9 Other methods 

Systematic separations 

Former heading; Wet analysis 

Cation separation and identification 
Anion separation and identification 
Separation of groups of elements and their components 
Divide like 546.3-546.7, e.g., separation of halogens 544.167 3 



544.2 



.3 



.4 
.5 



.6 



.82 



.83 



.832 

.834 

[.84] 



Pyrolysis and combustion 

Former heading: Dry methods 

Blowpipe analysis 

Flame tests, bead tests, reactions on charcoal and plaster of paris 
in conjunction with blowpipe 

Gas analysis 
Diffusion analysis 

Including ultrafiltration methods (dialysis) 

Spectrochemical analysis ( Spectroscopic analysis ) 

Class quantitative methods in spectrochemical analysis [formerly 
544.6] in 545.83 






.62 


Microwave 


.63 


Infrared 


.64 


Visible light 




Including Raman spectroscopy 


.65 


Ultraviolet 


.66 


X-ray and gamma-ray 


.8 


Micro and semimicro methods 



Class quantitative micro and semimicro methods [formerly 544.8] 
in 545.84 



Microscopical analysis 

Use of compound, electron and ultramicroscopes for 
identification 

Microchemical analysis 

Reactions performed with small quantities, e.g., micrograms 
and microliters, and using small apparatus 

Class semimicro analysis [formerly 544.83] in 544.85 

Systematic analysis 
Spot tests [formerly 544.84] 
Spot tests and paper chromatography 

Class spot tests in 544.834, paper chromatography in 544.925 

5^9 



Decimal Classification 



544.85 



J9 

.92 

.922 
.923 

.924 
.925 
.926 

.94 



545 



.01-.08 



.22 
.23 

.24 



Semimicro analysis [formerhj 544.83] 

Small-scale adaptations of existing macro methods 

Other methods 

Chromatographic analysis 

Adsorption 

Ion-exchange separations 

Liquid-liquid chromatology 

Paper chromatography [formerly 544.84] 

Gas-liquid partition chromatography ( Gas 
chromatography ) 

Biochemical methods 

Identification by means of microorganisms 

Quantitative analysis 

Determination of the amount of a constituent in a substance 
Use 545.001-545.009 for standard subdivisions 

General principles 

Divide like 543.01-543.08, e.g., mechanical analysis 545.083 

SUMMARY 

545.1 Gravimetric analysis of precipitates 

•2 Volumetric analysis 

•3 Electroanalysis 

•4 Thermogravimetric methods 

.7 Gasometric methods 

•8 Other methods 

Gravimetric analysis of precipitates 

Volumetric analysis 

Determination of elements and compounds in a substance by 
titration with standard solutions and indicators 

Neutralization methods (Alkalimetry and acidimetry) 

Oxidation-reduction methods (Oxidimetry and 
iodometry) 

Precipitation methods 



530 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



545.3 
.31 
.311 
.312 
.32 



Electroanalysis 

Conductometric and potentiometric titrations 

Conductometric methods 

Potentiometric methods 
Polarographic methods 

Analysis based on current-voltage curves obtained in 
electrolysis with a slowly dropping mercury cathode 
( polarimetric titration ) 



.33 


Mass spectrographic methods 


.34 


Electrodeposition 


.4 


Thermogravimetric methods 


.42 


Pyrolysis and combustion 


.43 


Blowpipe analysis 


.46 


Volatilization 


.7 


Gasometric methods 


.8 


Other methods 


.81 


Optical methods 




For spectroscopic analysis, see 545.83 



.812 



.813 

.816 

.82 

.822 

.824 

.83 



.84 



1 

Photometric analysis 

Colorimetric, nephelometric, turbidimetric, 
fluorophotometric methods 

Refractometric and interferometric analysis 

Polarimetric analysis ( Polariscopic analysis) 
Radiochemical methods 

Activation analysis ( Radioactivation analysis) 

Tracer techniques 
Spectroscopic analysis [formerly also 544.6] 

Former heading: Diffraction methods 

Divide like 544.6, e.g., X-ray diffraction methods 545.836 

Micro and semimicro methods [formerly 544.8] 

Divide like 544.83-544.85, e.g., semimicro quantitative analysis 
545.845 



53^ 



Decimal Classification 



Chemistry and allied sciences 






546 



.1 



.11 
.12 

.121 
,122 
.123 
.129 
.15 



.2 

.21 



Inorganic chemistry 

An optional schedule, based on earlier concepts of the subject, 
appeared in Edition 16, p. 2429-2439 

Divide each subdivision identified by * as follows, e.g., arsenic 
compounds 546.715 2 

1 The element 

2 Compounds 

22 Acids and bases 

24 Salts 

25 Complex compounds 

3 Molecular and colloidal mixtures 

Class identification of specific elements [formerly 546] in 544 

For analytical chemistry, see 543-545; physical and theoretical 
chemistry, 541 



SUMMARY 



546.1 

Ji 
A 

JS 
.7 



General principles 

Hydrogen and its compounds 

Metals, their compounds and mixtures 

Rare-earth elements (Group 3A) 

Groups 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A 

Groups 8, IB, 2B, 3B, 4B 

Nonmetals 

Periods of periodic table 

General principles 

Class general principles applied to specific elements and their 
compounds in 546.38-546.75 

Elements 
Specific reactions 

Catalysis 

Hydrolysis 

Oxidation and reduction 

Other 

Synthesis 

Preparation of new compounds, and new methods for preparing 
old compounds 

Hydrogen and its compounds 

The element 



546.22 



.24 



.3 



.31 



.32 

.34 
.342 

.343 
.345 



546.22-546.24 Compounds 
Water 

Including deuteriimi oxide (heavy water) 

Acids 

Class a specific acid with its nonmetallic element 

Metals, their compounds and mixtures 

Class metals, their compounds and mixtures of groups other than 
lA and 2A in 546.4-546.6 

Metallic elements 

Class alkali metals and alkaline earth metals (groups lA and 
2A) in 546.38-546.39 



546.32-546.34 Compounds 
Class a specific metallic compound with its metallic element 

Bases 

Salts 
Simple 

Neutral, acidulous, alkaline, amphoteric, binary salts 

Double ( Molecular compounds ) 

Salts formed by union of two simple salts, e.g., altuns 

Complex 

Double salts which do not form their component simple salts 
on solution, e.g., potassium ferrocyanide 



37 


Alloys 




Molecular and colloidal mixtures 




546.38-546.39 Alkali and alkaline earth metals 


38 


Alkali metals (Group lA) 


381 


*Lithium 


382 


*Sodium (Natrium) 


383 


^Potassium (Kalivmi) 



* Divide as instructed under 546 



532 



533 



Decimal Classification 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



546.384 


*Rubidiuin 


.385 


* Cesium (Caesium) 


.386 


*Francium 


.39 


Alkaline earth metals (Group 2A) 


.391 


*Beryllium (Glucinium) 


.392 


•Magnesium 


.393 


* Calcium 


.394 


•Strontium 


.395 


•Barium 


.396 


•Radium 


.4 


Rare-earth elements ( Group 3A ) 




Use 546.400 1 - 546.400 9 for standard subdivisions 


.401 


•Scandium 


.403 


•Yttrium 


.41 


Lanthanide series 


.411 


•Lanthanum 


.412 


•Cerium 


.413 


Praseodymium and neodymium 


.414 


•Promethium (Illinium) 


.415 


Samarium and europium 


.416 


Gadolinium and terbium 


.417 


Dysprosium and holmium 


.418 


Erbium and thulium ( aldebaranium ) 


.419 


Ytterbium and lutetium (cassiopeium, lutecium) 



.42 



.421 
.422 
.424 



546.42-546.44 Actinide series 
Terrestrially-occurring actinides 
For uranium, see 546.431 

•Actinium 
•Thorium 
•Protactinium (Protoactinium) 



546.43 Uranium, neptunium, plutonium 

.431 •Uranium 

,432 •Neptunium 

.434 *Plutonium 

.44 Transuranium elements 

Use 546.440 01 - 546.440 09 for standard subdivisions 
For neptunium, see 546.432^ plutonium, 546.434 

.440 1-.440 2 *Special subdivisions 

.441 Americium 

.442 Curium 

.444 Berkelium 

.448 Californium 

.449 Other 

Einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, lawrencium 

J Groups 4A, SA, 6A, 7A 

.51 Titanium group ( Group 4A ) 

.512 *Titanium 

,513 *Zirconium 

.514 *Hafnium (Celtium) 

.52 Vanadium group (Group 5A) 

.522 •Vanadium 

.524 *Columbium (Niobium) 

.526 *Tantalum 

.53 Chromium group (Group 6A) 

.532 •Chromium 

.534 * Molybdenum 

.536 •Tungsten (Wolfram) 

.54 Manganese group (Group 7A) 

.541 •Manganese 

.543 Technetium 

.545 •Rhenium (Bohemium) 



5 



! 



• Divide as instructed under 546 



* Divide as instructed imder 546 



534 



535 






Decimal Classification 



* 



546.6 


Groups 8, IB, 2B, 3B, 4B 




SUMMARY 




546.62 Iron series 




.63 Ruthenium series 




.64 Osmium series 




.65 Copper group (Croup IB) 
.66 Zinc group (Croup 2B) 
.67 Boron group (Croup 3B) 
.68 Carbon group (Croup 4B) 


► 


546.62-546.64 Transition metals (Group 8) 


.62 


Iron series 


.621 


*Iron (Ferrum) 


.623 


*Cobalt 


.625 


♦Nickel 


.63 


Ruthenium series 


.632 


* Ruthenium 


.634 


*Rhodium 


.636 


♦Palladium 


.64 


Osmium series 


.641 


♦Osmium 


.643 


♦Iridium 


.645 


♦Platinum 


.65 


Copper group (Group IB) 


.652 


♦Copper (Cupnim) 


.654 


♦Silver (Argentum) 


.656 


♦Gold (Aurum) 


.66 


Zinc group ( Group 2B ) 


.661 


♦Zinc 


.662 


♦Cadmium 


.663 


♦ Mercury (Hydrargyrum) 



* Divide as instructed under 546 



536 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



546.67 


Boron group ( Group 3B ) 


.671 


•Boron 


.673 


•Aluminum 


.675 


•Galliuai 


.677 


•Indium 


.678 


•Thallium 


.68 


Carbon group ( Group 4B ) 


.681 


•Carbon 


.683 


•Silicon 


.684 


•Germanium 


.686 


•Tin (Stannum) 


.688 


•Lead (Plumbum) 


.7 


Nonmetals 




Class a specific nonmetal with the subject 


.71 


Nitiogen group (Group 5B) 


.711 


•Nitrogen 


.712 


•Phosphorus 


.715 


•Arsenic 


.716 


•Antimony (Stibium) 


.718 


•Bisiimth 


.72 


Oxygen group ( Group 6B ) 


.721 


•Oxygen 


.723 


•Sulfur 


.724 


•Selenium 


.726 


Tellurium 


.728 


•Polonium 


.73 


Halogen group (Group 7B) 


.731 


•I'luorine 


.732 


•Chlorine 


.733 


•Bromine 



Si 



* Divide as instructed under 546 



537 






Decimal Classification 



546.734 


•Iodine 


.735 


•Astatine 


.75 


Rare gases ( Group 0) 


.751 


Helium 


.752 


Neon 


.753 


Argon 


.754 


Krypton 


.755 


Xenon 


.756 


Radon (Niton) 



.8 



.81 



.82 



Periods of periodic table 

Bohr's arrangement of elements according to atomic number 

Class hydrogen and its compounds in 546.2, other specific elements 
and their compounds in 546.38-546.75 

Period 1 

Hydrogen and helium 

Period 2 

Lithiimi, berylliiun, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, 
neon 



.83 



.84 



.85 



Period 3 

Sodium, magnesimn, aluminum, sihcon, phosphorus, sulfur, 
chlorine, argon 

Period 4 

Potassium, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, 
manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, gallium, 
germanium, arsenic, selenium, bromine, krypton 

Period 5 

Rubidium, strontiiun, yttrium, zirconium, columbium, molyb- 
dentun, technetium, rutheniimi, rhodium, palladium, silver, 
cadmium, indium, tin, antimony, tellurium, iodine, xenon 



• Divide as instructed under 546 



53S 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



546.86 



.87 



547 



.01 



.02 
.03 

.031 

.035 

,036 

.037 

.038 

.04 

.041 

.042 

.043 

.044 

.05 



Period 6 
Cesium, barium, lanthanide series, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, 
rhenium, osmium, iridium, platinum, gold, mercury, thallium, 
lead, bismuth, polonium, astatine, radon 

Period 7 

Franciimi, radium, actinide series 

Organic chemistry 

Chemistry of nonpolar compounds 

An optional schedule, based on earlier concepts of the subject, 
appeared in Edition 16, p. 2429-2439 
Use 547.001-547.009 for standard subdivisions 
Class theoretical chemistry in 547.12 
For biochemistry, see 574.192 



547.01-547.09 General groupings of compounds 
Hydrocarbons 

547.02-547.04 Hydrocarbon derivatives 
Halogen derivatives 
Oxy and hydroxy derivatives 

Alcohols 

Ethers 

Aldehydes and ketones 

Acids 

Esters 
Nitrogen derivatives 

Nitro and nitroso compounds 

Amines 

Azo compounds 

Nitriles and isonitriles 
Metallic compounds 

Salts, chelates, arsenicals, Grignards 



I 



539 



Decimal Classijication 



547.06 


Sulfur compounds 


.061 


Sulfites ( Thioethers ) 


.063 


Hydrosulfites (Thioalcohols, mercaptans) 


.064 


Thioacids 


.065 


Oxy derivatives of thioethers 




Sulfones, sulfoxides, thioaldehydes, thioketones 


.066 


Sulfinic acids 


.067 


Sulfonic acids 


.07 


Phosphorus compounds 




Divide like 547.06, e.g., phosphinic acids 547.076 



.08 



.09 



.1 

a, 

2\ 



.22 

.223 
.225 
.23 



Sihcon compounds 

Divide like 547.06, e.g., silicones 547.085 

Other 



SUMMARY 

547.1 Physical and theoretical chemistry 

.2 Synthesis and named reactions 

3 Analytical chemistry 

.4 Aliphatic compounds 

JS Alicyclic and heterocyclic compounds 

J^ Aromatic compounds 

,7 Natural products 

A Other 

Physical and theoretical chemistry 

Divide like 541, e.g., electrochemistry 547.137 
Synthesis and named reactions 

Alkylation, acylation, aromatization 

Including Friedel-Craft, Wiirtz-Fittig, Wittig reactions 

Halogen and hydroxy addition and substitution 

Halogenation 

Hydrolysis and saponification 

Oxidation and reduction 

Hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, peroxidation, quinonization 



540 



547.24 
.25 
.26 
27 
.28 



.29 



.3 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



Esterification 

Amination and diazotization 

Nitration and nitrosation 

Sulfonation 

Polymerization 

Formation of addition and condensation polymers 

Other 

Including fermentation processes 

Analytical chemistry 

Use 547.300 1 - 547.300 9 for standard subdivisions 



.301-.308 General principles 

Divide like 543.01-543.08, e.g., reagents 547.301 



.33 



.34 



.35 



General analysis of specific product groups 

Divide like 543.1-543.6, e.g., organic analysis of dairy products 
543.332 

For qualitative analysis, see 547.34; quantitative analysis, 
547.35 

Qualitative analysis 

Divide like 544, e.g., microscopical analysis 547.348 2 

Quantitative analysis 

Divide like 545, e.g., electroanalysis 547.353 

547.4_547.6 Compounds of defined structure 

Class compounds of complex structure not subject to precise 
structural classification in 547.7-547.8 



.4 


Aliphatic compounds 


.41 


Hydrocarbons 


.411 


Paraffins 


.412 


Olefins (Alkenes) 


.413 


Acetylenics (Alkynes) 



54^ 



Decimal Classification 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



547.42-.44 



.45 



.46 



.47 



.48 



.49 



.51 



.52-.58 



.59 



,592 



.593 



Hydrocarbon derivatives 

Divide like 547.02-547.04, e.g., aliphatic alcohols 547.431 

Metallic compounds 

Salts, chelates, arsenicals, Grignards 

Sulfur compounds 

Divide like 547.06, e.g., aliphatic sulfinic acids 547.466 

Phosphorus compounds 

Divide like 547.06, e.g., ahphatic phosphinic acids 547.476 

Silicon compounds 

Divide like 547.06, e.g., ahphatic silicones 547.485 

Other 



547.5-547.6 Cyclic compounds 
Alicyclic and heterocyclic compounds 



547,51_547.58 Alicyclic compounds 
Nonaromatic compounds with ring structure 

Hydrocarbons 

Divide hke 547.41, e.g., cycloparaffins 547.511 

Other 

Divide hke 547.02-547.08, e.g., aUcycUc acids 547.537 

Heterocyclic compounds 

Cyclic compounds containing other than carbon atoms in the 



nng 



With hetero oxygen atoms 
Furans, pyrans, oxazoles 

With hetero nitrogen atoms 

Pyrroles, porphyrins, chlorophylls, pyridines, pyrazoles, 
imidazoles, diazines 



54^ 



547.594 



.595 



.596 



.6 

.61 

.611 
.613 



With hetero sulfur atoms 
Thiophenes, thiazoles 

With several different hetero atoms 
Oxazines, oxdiazines, oxdiazoles 

With fused hetero rings 

Quinolines, purines, nucleic acids 

Aromatic compounds 
Hydrocarbons 
Benzenes 
Polyphenyl hydrocarbons 



.615 

.616 

.62 

.63 

.631 

.632 

.633 



.635-.638 



.64-.69 



547.615-547.616 Fused hydrocarbons 

Napthalenes 

Anthracenes 
Halogen derivatives 
Oxy and hydroxy derivatives 

Alcohols 

Phenols 

Polyhydroxy aromatics 

Dihydroxy and trihydroxy aromatics, catechols, resorcinols, 
hydroquinones 

Other 

Divide like 547.035-547.038, e.g., aromatic esters 547.638 

Other aromatics 

Divide like 547.04-547.09, e.g., aromatic amines 547.642 



.71 



547.7-547.8 Macromolecular compounds 

Natural products 

Substances directly derived from Uving organisms 
For high polymers, see 547.84 

Terpenes and essential oils 

543 



\h 



W 

'« 



54772 



73 

731 



734 
734 2 
734 3 

734 5 

737 

74 

75 



752 



754 



756 



758 



Decimal Classification 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



Alkaloids 

Basic, nitrogenous plant products having strong physiological 
activity, e.g., nicotine, quinine, strychnine, cocaine, caffeine, 
atropine 

Steroids 

Sterols 

Cholesterol, ergosterol, phytosterol, other solid alcohols 
derived from plant and animal sources 

Hormones 

Gibberellins and other auxins 
Sex hormones 

Progesterone, estrone, testosterone, androsterone 

Other hormones 

Adrenahn, thyroxin, insulin, oxytocin, cortin, vasopressin 

Bile acids (Cholic acids) 
Vitamins 
Proteins 



547752-547756 By structure 
For enzymes, see 547.758 

Simple 

Albumins, globuUns, histones 

Conjugated 

Nucleoproteins, phosphoproteins, hemoglobins, 
chromoproteins 

Derived 

Peptones and peptides 

Enzymes 

Proteins having strong catalytic properties, e.g., trypsin, 
pepsin, coenzyme A, dehydrogenases, hexokinase, 
phosphorylases, amylases 



54776 
78 
781 
7813 

7815 



782 



783 



.8 



Antibiotics 
Carbohydrates 
Sugar 

Monosaccharides 

Glucose, fructose, levulose, dextrose, gallactose 

Ohgosaccharides 

Disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose, cellobiose) and 
trisaccharides ( raffinose ) 

Polysaccharides 

Starches, inulin, glycogen, cellulose, cotton derivatives, 
pentosans, dextrans, pectin 



Tannins 



Other 



547.82-547.83 Fossil substances 



Class a specific compound derived from fossil substances with 
the subject 



.82 


Coal-tar 


.83 


Petroleum 


.84 


High polymers 


.842 


Elastic polymers (Elastomers) 


.842 5 


Latexes 




Natural and synthetic 


.842 6 


Natural rubber 


.842 7 


Synthetic polymers 




For synthetic latexes, see 547.842 5 


.842 72 


Synthetic rubber 


.842 73 


High-styrene resins (Elastoplastics) 



544 



545 



Decimal Classification 



547.843 



.843 2 



.843 4 
.85 



.86 



Flexible polymers 

Polymers with high tensile strength without elasticity of 
rubber 



Plastics 

Divide like 668.42-668.45, e.g., polyethylene plastics 
547.843 223 4 

Gums and resins 
Man-made fibers 

Divide like 677.46-677.47, e.g., nylon 547.857 3 

Dyes and pigments 

Use 547.860 01 - 547.860 09 for standard subdivisions 



.860 1-.860 9 Standard subdivisions of dyes 



.862 
.863 
.864 
.866 



.867 
.868 
.869 



548 



.1 

.12 

.14 



.3 



547.862-547.868 Dyes 
Nitro and nitroso 
Azo-oxy and azo-tetrazo 
Di- and triphenylmethane 
Hydroxyketone 

Quinoidals and alizarines 

Indigoid 
Other 

Pigments 

Crystallography 

Geometrical crystallography 

External shape of crystals 
Fundamental systems 

Isometric, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, triclinic, 
hexagonal, and trigonal systems 

Chemical crystallography 

Relationship between structure and bondings 
Including isomorphism, polymorphism, pseudomorphism 

546 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



548.5 
.7 



.81 

.812 

.814 

.83 



.84 



.842 



.843 
.845 
.85 



.86 



Growth and aggregation of crystals 
Mathematical crystallography 

Goniometric measurements and calculations 

Physical and structural crystallography 



548.81-548.83 Crystal structure 
Study of internal structure of crystals 

Diagrammatic representations 

Of molecular structure 

Of atomic structure 
Photographic representations (Crystallograms) 

Study of internal structure by X-ray diffraction 



548.84-548.86 Physical properties of crystals 
For optical properties, see 548.9 

Mechanical properties 

Class fusibility [formerly 548.84] in 548.86 

Stresses and deformation 

Elasticity, plasticity, fracture, stresses of tension, 
compression, shear 

Cleavage and cohesion 
Density and specific gravity 
Electrical, electronic, magnetic properties 
Conductivity, semiconductivity, dielectrics 
Class thermal properties [formerly 548.85] in 548.86 

Thermal properties [/ormerZy 548.85] 
Including fusibihty [formerly 548.84] 

Optical crystallography 

Optical properties and methods 
Including liquid crystals 



547 



Decimal Classifxation 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



m 



549 



.09 



.1 



.11 

.113 
.114 



.116 

.118 

.119 

.12 

.121 



.125 



.127 



Mineralogy 

Occurrence, description, classification, identification of naturally- 
occurring elements and compounds formed by inorganic processes 

For economic geology, see 553 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Class geographical distribution of minerals in 549.9 

SUMMARY 

549.1 Determinative mineralogy 

.2 Native elements 

.3 Sulfides, sulfosalts, related minerals 

,4 Halides 

,5 Oxides 

.6 Silicates 

.7 Other minerals 

.9 Geographical distribution of minerals 

Determinative mineralogy 

Class determinative mineralogy of specific minerals in 549.2-549.7 

Modes of occurrence and associations of minerals 
In placers 

In rocks 

Divide like 552.1-552.5, e.g., minerals in igneous rocks 
549.114 1 

In pegmatite dikes 
In association with other minerals 
In veins 
Physical mineralogy 
Mechanical properties 

Cleavage, parting, fracture, hardness, tenacity, specific 
gravity 

Optical properties 

Luster, color, streak, iridescence, luminescence, fluorescence, 
refractivity 

Electrical and magnetic properties 

Pyroelectric and piezoelectric phenomena • 



549.13 
.131 
.133 



.18 



23 



.25 



27 



.3 

.32 



.35 



.4 



«5 

.52 

.522 

.523 



Chemical mineralogy 

Composition, properties, reactivity 

Analysis and identification 

Blowpipe analysis, microchemical reactions, etch tests 

Crystallographic mineralogy 

Geometrical, structural, mathematical. X-ray crystallography of 
minerals 



549.2-549.7 Specific minerals 
Native elements 

Metals 

Gold, silver, copper, lead, platinum, palladium, iridium, 
osmium, iron, mercury, tantalum, tin, zinc 

Semimetals 

Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium, tellurium 

Nonmetals 

Carbon ( diamonds, graphite ) , sulfur 

Sulfides, sulfosalts, related minerals 

Sulfides, selenides, tellurides, antimonides 

Galena, stannite, cinnabar, stibnite, bismuthinite, pyrite, 
calaverite, smaltite { skutterudite ) , argentite, chalcocite, 
molybdenite, sphalerite, niccoUte 

Sulfosalts ( Double sulfides ) 

Enargite, polybasite, stephanite, proustite, pyrargyrite, 
tetrahedrite, jamesonite, bournonite 

Halides 

Hahte, cryolite, fluorite, sylvite, cerargyrite, atacamite, carnaUite 

Oxides 

Simple and multiple oxides 
Cuprite, ice, zincite 
Hematite group 

Corundum, hematite, ilmenite 

549 



iH 



Decimal Classification 



\% 



549.524 



.525 



.526 



.528 



.53 



.6 

.62 



.63 



.64 



.66 



.67 



.68 



Rutile group 

Rutile, pyrolusite, cassiterite 

Goethite group [formerly 549.53] 

Diaspora and goethite 

Spinel group 

Spinel, gahnite. magnetite, franklinite, chromite 

Other groupings 

Uraninite [formerly 549.74], chrysoberyl, columbite 

Hydroxides 

Manganite, limonite. bauxite, brucite, psilomelane 
Class goethite group [formerly 549.53] in 549.525 

Silicates 

Nesosilicates 

Phenacite, willemite, olivine, gamet, zircon, andalusite, 
sillimanite, kyanite, topaz, stauroUte, chondrodite, 
sphene, dumortierite 

Sorosilicates 

Hemimorphite, lawsonite, epidote, idocrase, prehnite 

Cyclosilicates 

Axinite, beryl, cordierite, tourmaline, chrysocolla 

Inosilicates 

Pyroxenes, spodumene, rhodonite, wollastonite, pectolite, 
amphiboles 

Phyllosilicates 

Apophyllite, kaolinite, serpentine, garnierite, pyrophyllite, talc, 
micas, chlorite, sepiolite 

Tectosilicates 

Quartz, opal, feldspars, leucite, lazurite, scapoUtes, zeohtes 



550 



Chemistry and allied sciences 



549.7 

72 



.73 
.732 

.735 



.74 



.75 

.752 



.755 



.78 
,782 



.785 



Other minerals 

Phosphates, vanadates, arsenates 

Monazite, triphylite, apatites, vanadinite, lazulite, scorodite, 
turquoise, vivianite, erythrite 

Nitrates and borates 

Nitrates 

Soda niter (Chile saltpeter) and niter (saltpeter) 

Borates 

Boracite, borax, kernite, ulexite, colemanite 

Tungstates and molybdates 
Wolframite, scheelite, wulfenite 
Class uraninite [formerly 549.74] in 549.528 

Chromates and sulfates 

Chromates and anhydrous sulfates 

Crocoite, glauberite, barite, celestite, anglesite, anhydrite 

Hydrous and basic sulfates 

Antlerite, polyhalite, gypsum, epsomite, chalcanthite, alunite 

Carbonates 

Calcite group 

Calcite, dolomite, magnesite, siderite, rhodochrosite, 
smithsonite 

Aragonite group 

Aragonite, witherite, strontianite, cerussite, malachite, 
azurite 

Geographical distribution of minerals 

Add area notations 1-9 to 549.9 



55^ 



11)^ 



Decimal Classification 



m 



550 Earth sciences 

,1 Philosophy and theory 

Class geologic time [formerly 550.1] in 551.701 

551 Physical and dynamic geology 

Scope: geophysics and geochemistry of lithosphere, hydrosphere, 
atmosphere 

For astronomical geography, see 525 



.1 



11 



12 



.13 
.14 



a 

.21 

.22 
.23 



SUMMARY 

Cross structure and properties of the earth 

Plutonic phenomena 

Exogenous processes and their agents 

Geomorphology 

Descriptive and dynamic meteorology 

Climatology and weather 

Historical geology (Stratigraphy) 

Structural geology ( Tectonophysics ) 

Geochemistry 

Cross structure and properties of the earth 

For geomagnetism, see 538.7 



551.1 

.4 
Ji 

.6 
.7 
.8 
.9 



551.11-551.12 Earth's interior 

Structure 

Core, mantle, mohorovicic discontinuity 

Properties 

Heat, temperature ranges, isostasy 



551.13-551.14 Earth's crust 
Structure 
Properties 

Heat, temperature ranges, thermal conductivity, elasticity, 
deformation 

Plutonic phenomena 

Volcanoes 

Earthquakes 

Fumaroles, hot springs, geysers 



552 



Earth sciences 



551.3 



.302 
.303 
.304 
.305 



.31 

.312 



.313 



.314 



.315 



[.32] 



[,33] 



.34 



.342 
.343 



Exogenous processes and their agents 

Use 551.300 1 - 551.300 9 for standard subdivisions 

Erosion and weathering 
Deposition, sedimentation, transport 
Transported materials 
New formations 



551.31-551.34 Geologic work of ice 
For frost action in soils and rocks, see 551.38 

Glaciology 

Glaciers 

Nourishment, advances, recessions, oscillations 
For icebergs, shelf ice, growlers, see 551.342 

Glacial action 

Class cirques, drumlins, kettles, kames, roches moutonnees 
[all formerly 551.313] in 551.315 

For Pleistocene epoch, see 551.792 
Glacial debris 

Including moraines [formerly 551.32], other glacier- 
transported materials [formerly 551.33] 

New formations 

Cirques, drumlins, kettles, kames, roches moutonnees [all 
formerly 551.313] 

Moraines 

Class in 551.314 

Other glacier-transported materials 
Class in 551.314 

Other ice forms 



551.342-551.343 Ice in the sea 
Icebergs, shelf ice, growlers 
Sea ice ( Frozen seawater) 

553 






Decimal Classification 






.t 



551.344 
.345 



.35 

.36 

.37 

.38 

.382 

.383 

.384 

.4 



.46 



.4601 



Anchor and frazil ice 

Ice cover 

Lake and river ice 



551.35-551.36 Geologic work of water 

Of surface waters 

Divide like 551.302-551.305, e.g., mudflows 551.353 

Of marine waters 

Wave action, beach erosion, coastal changes 

Geologic work of wind 

Divide like 551.302-551.305, e.g., dune formations 551.375 

Frost action in soils and rocks 
Fragmentation of rocks 
Nivation 

Permafrost phenomena 
Geomorphology 

Origin, development, transformations of topographic featiures 
Class physical geography [formerly 551.4] in 910 

SUMMARY 

551.41-.45 Specific land forms 

.46 Oceans and sea waters 

.47 Dynamics of the sea 

.48 Surface waters 

.49 Ground water (Subsurface waters) 

.41-45 Specific land forms 

Divide like area notations 141-145, e.g., caves 551.44 



551.46-551.47 Oceanography 

Oceans and sea waters 

Use 551.460 01 - 551.406 09 for standard subdivisions 
Class tides [formerly 551.46] in 551.470 8 
For dynamics of the sea, see 551.47 

Composition and properties of sea water 

Salinity, density, temperature distribution, color. 





Earth sciences 


551.460 7 


Deep-sea surveys and explorations 


.460 8 


Submarine geology 


.460 83 


Deposits and sedimentation 


.460 84 


Topography 



.460 9 



.461 

.462 

.463 

.464 

.465 

.466 

.467 

.468 

.469 

.47 



.4701 



.470 2 
.470 22 
.470 23 
.470 24 
.470 8 
.471-.479 



transparency 



.48 
.482 



Ridges, canyons, mountains of ocean floor 

Special oceanographic forms 

Salt-water laj^oons, inland seas, coastal pools 



554 



551.461-551.469 Specific oceanic bodies 
North Atlantic Ocean 
Mediterranean and Black Seas 
Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico 
South Atlantic Ocean 
West Pacific Ocean 
East Pacific Ocean 
Indian Ocean 
Arctic Ocean 
Antarctic waters 
Dynamics of the sea 

Use 551.470 01 - 551.470 09 for standard subdivisions 

Ocean currents 

Theories, circulation, observational methods 
Class specific ocean currents in 551.471-551.479 

Waves 

Ocean waves 

Seiches 

Tidal waves 
Tides [formerly 551.46] and tidal cvirrents 

Specific ocean currents 

Divide like 551.461-551.469, e.g.. Gulf Stream 551.471 

Surface waters 

Lakes, ponds, fresh-water lagoons 

555 



Decimal Classification 






551.483 
.484 
.49 
.492 
.498 



.51 

.511 

.5112 

.5113 



.513 
.514 
.514 2 
.514 5 

.515 
.515 1 
.515 2 
.515 3 

.517 



Rivers and streams 
Waterfalls 
Groundwaters (Subsurface waters) 
Water table 
Specific manifestations 
Wells, springs, runoff 



551.5-551.6 Meteorology, climatology, weather 
Descriptive and dynamic meteorology 

SUMMARY 



551.51 
.52 
.54 
.55 

.56 

.57 



Composition, stnicture, mechanics of atmosphere 

Thermodynamics, temperatures, radiation 

Atmospheric pressure 

Atmospheric formations and disturbances 

Atmospheric electricity and optics 

Hydrometeorology 



551.51-551.52 Dynamic meteorology 
Composition, structure, mechanics of atmosphere 
Composition 
Gases 
Dust and other particulates 



551.513-551.514 Structure 
Troposphere 
Upper atmosphere 

Stratosphere 

Ionosphere 

Mechanics 
Kinematics 
Statics 
Dynamics 

For circulation, see 551.517 

Circulation [formerly 551.518] 

For wind systems, see 551.518; atmospheric formations and 
disturbances, 551.55 

556 



Earth sciences 



551.518 



.518 3 



.518 4 
.518 5 



.518 7 

.52 
.522 



Wind systems 

Class circulation [formerly 551.518] in 551.517 



551.518 3 - 551.518 5 Systems in troposphere 
Planetary and terrestrial systems 

Trade winds, prevailing westerlies, polar easterlies, 



doldrums 



Continental systems (Monsoons) 

Local systems 

Drainage winds, mountain and valley breezes, land and 



sea winds 



Systems in upper atmosphere 

Thermodynamics, temperatures, radiation 
Thermodynamics 



551.523-551.525 Temperatures 
Distribution, variations, frequencies, gradients 



.523 


Earth temperatures 


.523 2 


Surface temperatxires 


.523 4 


Vertical distribution 


.523 8 


Pennafrost 


.524 


Water temperatures 


.524 6 


Oceans and seas 


.524 8 


Lakes and rivers 


.525 


Air temperatures 


.525 2 


Distribution at earth's surface 


.525 3 


Variations at earth's surface 




Diuraal and annual variations, maximums and 




minimums, frosts 


.525 4 


Vertical distribution in troposphere 


.525 7 


Upper-atmosphere temperatures 



557 






Decimal Classification 






551.527 



.5271 
.527 2 
.527 3 
.527 6 
.54 



.542 

.543 

.547 

.55 

.551 

.5512 

.5513 

.5514 



.552 



.553 



.554 



.555 
.557 
.559 



Radiation 

Absorption, emission, reflection, scattering, transmission 

Solar radiation 
Terrestrial radiation 
Atmospheric radiation 
Cosmic and corpuscular radiations 
Atmospheric pressure 

Distribution, variations, frequencies, gradients 

Distribution at earth's surface 
Variations at earth's surface 
Upper-atmosphere pressures 
Atmospheric formations and disturbances 
Formations 

Air masses and fronts 

Cyclones and cyclogenesis 

Anticyclones and anticyclogenesis 



551.552-551.559 Disturbances 
Hiurricanes 

Known also as typhoons, cyclones ( in India ) , baguios, 
willy-willies 



551.553-551.554 Thermal convective storms 
Tornadoes (Twisters) 

Including waterspouts [formerly 551.559] 

Other 

Thunderstorms, thermal convective showers, hailstorms 

Snowstorms 

Upper-atmosphere storms 
Other storms 

Class waterspouts [formerly 551.559] in 551.553 



558 



m 



Earth sciences 



551.56 



.561 

.563 
.563 2 

.563 3 
.563 4 
.564 



,565 



.566 



.567 



Atmospheric electricity and optics 



551.561-551.564 Electrical phenomena 

In stable atmosphere 

Ionization, conductivity, charge potential gradient 

In unstable atmosphere 
Disruptive discharges 

Chain, heat, sheet lightning 

Silent discharges (Saint Ehno's fire) 
Ball Ughtning 
Electricity of aerosols 

Electricity of snow, ice crystals, water droplets, dust, other 
particulates 



551.565-551.567 Optical phenomena 

Produced by refraction 

Mirages, scintillation, distortion of celestial bodies 

Class twilight and night skies in 551.566, halos and 
rainbows in 551.567 [all formerly 551.565] 

Produced by absorption and scattering 

Twilight, night skies [both formerly 551.565], sky color 

Produced by condensation products 

Halos, rainbows [both formerly 551.565], cloud coloration 



.568 


Visibility 




.57 


Hydrometeorology 






SUMMARY 




551.571 
.572 
.574 


Humidity 

Evaporation and evapotranspiration 

Condensation and deposits 




.575 


Fogs and mists 




.576 


Clouds 




.577 
.578 


Precipitation 

Specific forms of precipitation 




.579 


Snow surveys 



559 



If ^ 



m^ 






551,571 



.5712 
.5713 
.5714 
.5717 

.572 



[,572 4] 



[.572 8] 



[.573] 



[.573 3] 



[.573 5] 



[.573 8] 

.574 

.5741 

.574 4 
.574 7 



Decimal Classification 



Humidity 



551.571 2-551.571 4 In troposphere 
Horizontal distribution 
Variations 
Vertical distribution 
In upper atmosphere 

Evaporation and evapotranspiration 

Class condensation and deposits [formerly 551.572] in 
551.574 

Clouds, fogs, mists 

Class clouds in 551.576, fogs and mists in 551.575 

Droughts 

Class in 551.577 3 

Precipitation 
Class in 551.577 

Rain and rainfall 
Class in 551.578 1 

Snow and hail 

Class snow and snowfall in 551.578 4, snow surveys in 
551.579, hail and graupel in 551.578 7 

Artificial precipitation and cloud seeding 
Class in 551.68 

Condensation and deposits [formerly 551.572] 
Condensation processes 

Nucleation, formation of cloud particles, change of state 

Deposits on earth's surface 
Dew, rime, hoarfrost, glaze 

Deposits on objects in upper atmosphere 



551.575 



.576 



.577 



.5771 

.577 2 

.577 3 

.577 5 



.578 
.5781 



.578 4 



Earth sciences 



Fogs and mists [formerly 551.572 4] 

Structure, formation, dissolution, composition, distribution, 
variations, gradients 

Clouds [formerly 551.572 4] 

Structure, formation, dissolution, composition, distribution, 
variations, gradients 

Precipitation [/ormerZy 551.573] 

For specific forms of precipitation, see 551.578 

Structure, composition, temperature 
Distribution 

Add area notations 1-9 to 551.577 2 

Variations 

Including droughts [formerly 551.572 8] 

Factors affecting precipitation 

Influences of topography, vegetation, population 
concentrations, bodies of water 

Specific forms of precipitation 
Liquid precipitation 

Rain and rainfall [both formerly 551.573 3] 

Divide hke 551.577 1 - 551.577 3, e.g., variations in rain 
and rainfall 551.578 13 

Crystalline precipitation 

Snow and snowfall [both formerly 551.573 5] 



.578 41-.578 43 Properties, distribution, variations 



Divide like 551.577 1-551.577 3, e.g., variations in 
snow and snowfall 551.578 43 



.578 46 


Snow cover 




For snow surveys, see 551.579 


.578 461 


Duration 


.578 464 


Ablation 



560 



561 



\K^ 



ffi 



Decimal Classification 



Earth sciences 



551.578 465 
.578 466 



.578 47 
.578 48 

.578 7 

,579 

[.59] 

.6 
.62 

,63 



.631 



.632 

.633 
,634 
.635 
.635 2 
.635 3 
.635 4 

.636 



,636 2 



.636 5 



Firnification 
Stratification 



551.578 47-551.578 48 Snow formations 

Drifts and cornices 

Avalanches 
Solid amorphous precipitation 

Hail and graupel [both formerly 551.573 5], hailstones 

Snow surveys [formerly 551.573 5] 
Add area notations 1-9 to 551.579 

Climatology and weather 
Class in 551.6 

Climatology and weather Iformerly 551.59] 
Weather belts and types of climate 
Weather prediction 



551.631-551.635 Specific methods 

Historic methods 
Weather lore 

Synoptic reports 
Statistical forecasting 
Numerical forecasting 
Thru special instrumentation 

Radiosondes 

Radar 

Weather satellites 

Types of forecasts 

Class specific methods of forecasting in 551.631-551.635 

Short-range forecasts 

Predictions for a maximum of three days 

Long-range forecasts 

Predictions more than three days in advance 
562 



551.64 



.65 



.66 
.68 



.7 



.701 

.71 

.712 

.715 



.72 
[.726] 

.73 

.731 



.732 



.74 



Forecasting specific elements and phenomena 
Divide like 551.5, e.g., hurricane warnings 551.645 2 

Weather reports 

Add area notations 1-9 to 551.65 

Microclimatology 

Artificial modification and control of weather 

Including artificial precipitation and cloud seeding [both 
formerly 551.573 8] 

Historical geology (Stratigraphy) 

Use 551.700 1 - 551.700 9 for standard subdivisions 
For paleontology, see 560 

Geologic time [formerly 550.1] and age measurements 

Pre-Cambrian eras 

Archeozoic (Lower Pre-Cambrian) era 
Keewatin and Timiskaming periods 

Proterozoic (Upper Pre-Cambrian) era 
Huronian and Keeweenawan periods 



551.72-551.75 Paleozoic era 
Cambrian period 
Ordovician period 
Class in 551.731 

Silurian period 

Lower Silurian epoch 

Known also as Ordovician period [formerly also 551.726] 

Upper Silurian epoch 

Known also as Silurian period 

Devonian period 



563 



Decimal Classification 



Earth sciences 



551.75 



.751 

.752 

.756 



.76 
77 



.78 



.79 

.792 

.793 

.8 



.81 
.84 
.85 
.86 
.87 
.88 



.9 



Carboniferous and Permian periods 



551.751-551.752 Carboniferous periods 
Mississippian ( Lower Carboniferous ) period 
Pennsylvanian ( Upper Carboniferous ) period 

Permian period 



551.76-551.77 Mesozoic era 
Triassic and Jurassic periods 
Cretaceous period 



551.7&-551.79 Cenozoic era 
Tertiary period 

Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene epochs 

Quaternary period 

Pleistocene epoch ( Ice age ) 
Recent (Postglacial) epoch 

Structural geology ( Tectonophysics ) 

Forms, position, deformation of rocks 

Stratifications 
Joints and cleavages 
Dips, outcrops, strikes 
Synclines and antisynclines 
Faults, folds, dislocations 
Other deformations 

Veins, dikes, necks, bosses, laccoliths, sills 

Geochemistry 

For chemical analysis of rocks and ores, see 543.6 



.01 
.02 

.06 
.09 



.1 



.3 



.4 



552 Petrology 



Origin, occurrence, constitution, classification of rocks 
Use 552.001-552.009 for standard subdivisions 
For mineralogy, see 549; economic geology, 553 

Theoretic and interpretive petrology 
Descriptive and systematic petrology 
Properties, composition, structure of rocks 
Geographical distribution of rocks 
Add area notations 1-9 to 552.09 



552.1-552.5 Macroscopic petrology 

Igneous rocks 

For specific igneous rocks, see 552.2-552.3 



552.2-552.3 Specific igneous rocks 

Volcanic rocks 

Lavas, pumice, felsites, basalt, obsidian, rhyolite, andesite, tuff, 
volcanic ashes and tufa 

Plutonic rocks 

Granites, syenites, porphyries, gabbros, dolerites, diorites, norites, 
peridotites 

Metamorphic rocks 

Gneisses, schists, slates, quartzites, serpentines, chrysolitic rocks, 
crystalline limestones ( marble ) 

Sedimentary rocks 

Sandstones, shales, gypsum, limestones, dolomites, oolites, green- 
sands and their components, e.g., sand, clay, silt, glauconite, 
diatomaceous earth, salt 

Microscopic petrography 

Study of rocks in thin sections and fragments 



564 



565 



Earth sciences 



Decimal Classification 



553 



a 



.21 
.22 

.23 
.24 

.25 

.26 



Economic geology 

Quantitative occurrence and distribution of rocks, minerals, other 

geological materials of economic importance 

Scope: comprehensive works on specific nonmetallic materials 

For a specific aspect of specific geological viaterials, see the 
subject, e.g., prospecting 622.18 

SUMMARY 

553,1 Ore deposits 

J2 Carbonaceous deposits 

Ji Ferrous ores 

,4 Nonferrous ores 

S Building stone deposits 

.6 Earthy material deposits 

.7 Aqueous deposits 

S Gem deposits 

Ore deposits 

Formation, structure, classification of ores 

Including comprehensive works on metallic ore deposits [formerly 

553.3] and nonmetallic deposits 

Class specific ores and deposits in 553.2-553.8 



.13 


Placers 


.14 


Stratified layers and beds 


.16 


Pegmatite dikes 


.19 


Mineral veins 



553,2-553.8 Specific ores and deposits 

Carbonaceous deposits 

For industrial diamonds, see 553.65; gem diamonds, 553.82 



553.21-553.25 Coal deposits 
Peat and peat coal 
Lignite, brown coal, jet 
Cannel coal and bituminous shale 
Bituminous and semibituminous coal 
Anthracite and graphitic anthracite coal 

Craphite (Plumbago, Black lead) 

566 



5.27 


Pitch 




Asphalt, bitumen, ozocerite, ceresin, parafBn 


.28 


Oil and gas 


.282 


Petroleum 


.285 


Natural gas 


.29 


Fossil gums and resins 



.4 



.41 

.42 

.421 

.422 

.43 

.44 

.45 

.452 

.453 

.454 

.46 



.462 
.464 
.465 



553.3-553.4 Specific metallic ore deposits 

Ferrous ores 

Class comprehensive works on metallic ore deposits [formerly 
553.3] in 553.1 

Nonferrous ores 



553.41-553.42 Precious metals 

Gold 

Other precious metals 

Silver 

Platinum 
Copper 
Lead 
Zinc, tin, mercury 

Zinc 

Tin 

Mercury 
Ferro-alloying metals 

Class niobium [formerly 553.46] in 553.499 
For nickel and cobalt, see 553.48 

Titanium, vanadium, manganese 
Chromium, molybdenum, tungsten 
Zirconium [formerly 553.499] and tantalum 



567 



Decimal Classification 



553.47 
.48 
.49 
.492 



.493 



.499 



.51 



.52 
.53 
.54 

.55 



J5 

.61 



.62 
.63 



.632 
.633 
.635 
.636 



Antimony, arsenic, bismuth 
Nickel and cobalt 
Other 

Light metals 

Beryllium [formerly 553.499], aluminum, magnesium 

Fissionable metals 

Uranium, radium, thoriimi 

Minor metals 

Niobium [formerly 553.46], hafnium, germanium, gallium, 
indium, selenium, tellurium, thallium 

Class zirconium in 553.465, beryllium in 553.492 [both 
formerly SS3A99] 

Building stone deposits 

Marbles and limestones 

For onyx and verd antique marbles, see 553.55 

Granites and syenites 
Sandstones, bluestones, flagstones 
Slates 

Serpentines, soapstones, and their variants 
Including onyx and verd antique marbles 

Earthy material deposits 

Clays 

Kaolin, bentonite, fuller's earth, diaspore clay 

Sands and gravels 

Salts 

For mineral waters, see 553.72-553.73; soda niter and niter, 
553.64 

Rock salt 

Borax and other borates 

Gypsum 

Potash salts [formerly 553. 6A] 

568 



Earth sciences 



553.64 



.65 



.66 

.662 

.668 
.67 



.68 



Nitrate and phosphate fertilizers 

Soda niter (Chile saltpeter), niter (saltpeter), apatites 
Class potash salts [formerly 553.64] in 553.636 

Abrasive materials 

Emery, corundum, pumice, garnet, flint, carbonado, industrial 
diamonds, tripoli 

For sands, see 553.62 

Sulfur and earth pigments 
Pigment materials 

Barite (heavy spar), ochers, umber, sienna, rutile 

Sulfur 
Refractory materials 

Asbestos, mica, vermiculite, talc 
For soapstones, see 553.55 

Cementing materials 

Cements, limes, chalks, calcites, marl 
For gypsum, see 553.635 



.69 


Other 


.7 


Aqueous deposits 




553.72-553.73 Mineral waters 


.72 


Saline waters 


.73 


Other mineral waters 


.78 


Surface waters 


.79 


Ground water (Subsurface waters) 


.8 


Gem deposits 




553.82-553.86 Precious stones 


.82 


Diamonds 


.84 


Rubies and sapphires 


.86 


Emeralds 


.87 


Semiprecious stones 




569 



Decimal Classification 



Paleontology 



555 



556 



557 



558 



554-559 Regional geology 

Geology of specific continents, countries, localities 

Class a specific geological aspect of a region with the subject 



554 Europe 



Add area notation 4 to 55, e.g., geology of England 554.2 

Asia 

Add area notation 5 to 55, e.g., geology of Japan 5552 

Africa 

Add area notation 6 to 55, e.g., geology of South Africa 556.8 

North America 

Add area notation 7 to 55, e.g., geology of Ohio 557.71 

South America 

Add area notation 8 to 55, e.g., geology of Brazil 558.1 



559 Other parts of world 



Add area notation 9 to 55, e.g., geology of Australia 559,4 



570 



560 Paleontology 

.1 Philosophy and theory 

.17 Stratigraphic paleobotany and paleozoology 

Class specific fossils or groups of fossils in 561-569 

^1 71 Archeozoic and Proterozoic paleontology 

. 1 72 Paleozoic paleontology 

Fossils of Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, 
Carboniferous, Permian periods 

,176 Mesozoic paleontology 

Fossils of Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous periods 

.178 Cenozoic paleontology 

Fossils of Tertiary and Quaternary periods 

,9 Regional and geographical treatment 

Divide like 574.9, e.g., hydrographic paleontology 560.92 

561 Paleobotany 

Class stratigraphic paleobotany in 560.17 

.09 Historical treatment 

Class regional and geographical treatment in 561.19 

SUMMARY 

561.1 General principles 

J2 Fossil Spermatophyta (Fossil seed plants) 

Ji Dicotyledones 

.4 Monocotyledones 

JS Gymnospermae ( Naked-seed plants ) 

,6 Fossil Cryptogamia (Fossil seedless plants) 

.7 Pteridophyta 

.8 Bryophyta (Moss plants) 

.9 Thallophyta 

,1 General principles 

Class specific classes, orders, families in 561.2-561.9 

,13 Fossil pollen and spores 

.14 Fossil fruit and seeds 



57^ 



Decimal Classification 



561.19 



.2 



.21 



.3 
.4 

.45 
.49 

.5 
.51 

.52 



.55 

.57 
.59 

.591 
.592 



.595 



Regional and geographical treatment 

Divide like 574.9, e.g., fresh-water fossil plants 561.192 9 



561.2-561.9 Taxonomic paleobotany 
Fossil Spermatophyta (Fossil seed plants) 

For Angiospermae, see 561.3-561.4; Gymnospermae, 561.5 

Trees and petrified wood 

For trees of a specific group, see the group, e.g., ginkgo trees 
561.57 



561.3-561.4 Angiospermae (Flowering plants) 

Class comprehensive works in 561,2 

Dicotyledones 
Monocotyledones 

Palmaceae ( Palms ) 
Gramineae (Grasses) 
Gymnospermae (Naked-seed plants) 

Gnetales 

Conif erales ( Conifers ) 

Taxaceae, Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, 
Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae 

Cordaitales 

Pityeae (Callixylon), Cordaiteae, Poroxyleae 

Ginkgoales ( Ginkgo trees ) 

Cycadophyta and related orders 

Cycadales ( True cycads ) 

Cycadeoidales 

Williamsoniaceae, Cycadeoidaceae 

Pteridospermae ( Seed ferns ) 

MeduUosaceae, Lyginodendraceae, Calamopityaceae 



572 



Paleontology 



561.597 



.6 



.7 

,71 
.72 



.73 



.74 



.79 



.8 

.9 

.92 
.93 



Femlike fossils of uncertain taxonomic position 

Archaeopteris, Megalopteris, Glossopteris, Mariopteris, 
Alliopteris, Taeniopteris, Neuropteris, Odontopteris, 
Cyclopteris, Linopteris, Callipteris, Alethopteris, Pecopteris, 
Sphenopteris, Rhacopteris 

FossU Cryptogamia (Fossil seedless plants) 

For Pteridophyta, see 561.7; Bryophyta. 561.8; Thdlophyta, 561.9 

Pteridophyta 

Isoetales 

Sphenopsida (Scouring rushes) 

Equisetales, Calamitales, Sphenophyllales, Pseudobomiales, 

Hyeniales 

Filicineae (Fems) 

Filicales, Marattiales, Ophioglossales, Coenopteridales 

Psilopsida 

Psilotales, Psilophytales 

Lycopsida (Lycopods) 

Pleuromeiales, Lepidodendrales, Selaginellales, Lycopodiales 
For Isoetales, see 561.71 

Bryophyta (Moss plants) 

Thallophyta 

Mycophyta (Fungi) 
Characeae (Algae) 



^ 562-569 Taxonomic paleozoology 

562 Invertebrate paleozoology 

For Protozoa, Parazoa, Metazoa, see 563; Mollusca and molluscoidea. 
564; other invertebrates, 565 



573 



Decimal Classification 



563 Protozoa, Parazoa, Metazoa 



.1 

.4 



.47 



.5 



.6 



.7 



.73 



.78 
.8 



.9 



.91 



.93 



.94 



Flasmodroma and Mastigophora 

Porifera and other sponges 

Including Calcispongiae, Hyalospongiae, Desmospongiae 

Archaeocyatha 

Cambrian fossils with characteristics of sponges and corals 

Coelenterata 

For Anthozoa, see 563.6; Hydrozoa and related orders, 563.7 

Anthozoa ( Corals ) 

For Archaeocyatha, see 563.47 

Hydrozoa and related orders 

Including GraphtoHtoidea, Hydroida, Trachylina, Milleporina, 
Stylasterina, Siphonophora 

Scyphozoa 

Lucemariidea, Charybdeidea, Corona, Semaeostomea 

Stromatoporoidea 

Ctenophorae 

Tentaculata, Nuda 

Echinodermata, Enteropneusta, Linguatula 

Including Cystoidea, Blastoidea 

Crinoidea 

Camerata, Adunata, Flexibiha, Inadunata, ArticiJata, 
ComatuUda 

Asteroidea ( Starfish ) 

Phanerozonea, Spinulosa, Forcipulata 

Ophiuroidea 

Lysophiurida, Ophiocystiida, Aganasterida, Phrynophiurida, 
Laemophiurida, Gnathophiurida, Chilophiurida 

574 



563.95 



.96 



.99 

.992 

.993 



,1 



.19 



Paleontology 



Echinoidea 

Bothriocidaroida, Cidaroida, Centrechinoida, Exocycloida, 
Perischoechinoida, Echinocystoida, Perichoechinoida 

Holothurioidea 

Dendrochirota. Elasipoda, Aspidochirota, Molpadonia, Apoda 

Enteropneusta and Linguatula 
Linguatula 
Balanoglossida 



564 MoUusca and molluscoidea 



Pelecypoda (Bivalve moUusks) 

Prionodesmacea, Anomalodesmacea, Teleodesmacea, Pantodonta 

Crepipoda ( Polyplacophora, Amphineura) 

Eoplacophora, Aplacophora, Mesoplacophora, Isoplacophora, 
Teleoplacophora 

Scaphopoda (Toothshells) 

Gastropoda 

Snails, slugs, whelks 

Divide like 594.3, e.g., fossil Pteropoda 564.35 



J 


Cephalopoda 


.52 


Nautiloidea (Nautilus) 


.53 


Amrnonitoidea 


.55 


Vampyromorpha 


.56 


Octopoda 


.58 


Decapoda 


.6 


Molluscoidea 




For Phoronidea, see 565.1 



.7 Bryozoa and Pterobranchia 



.8 



Brachiopoda 



575 



Decimal Classification 



Paleontology 



I, I 



565 



.1 



.2 



3 
.32 

.33 



.34 



.35 



.36 



.27 
.38 



Other invertebrates 





SUMMAIlY 


565.1 


Wormlike fossil animals 


^ 


Arthropoda 


Ji 


Crustacea and related classes 


A 


Arachnida 


J 


Onychophora 


.6 


Progoneata 


.7 


Insecta (Insects) 


Wormlike fossil animals 



Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Nematoidea, Nemtomorpha, Acantho- 
cephala, Eucoelomata, Annelida, Phoronidea, Myzostoma, Aschel- 
minthes 

Arthropoda 

For Crustacea and related classes, see 565.3; Progoneata, 565.6 

Crustacea and related classes 

Branchiopoda 

Anostraca, Notostraca, Conchostrata, Cladocera 

Ostracoda 

Myodocopa, Cladocopa, Podocopa, Platycopa 

Copepoda 

Eucopepoda and Branchiura 

Cirripedia (Barnacles) 

Thoracia, Ascothoracica, Apoda, Rhizocephala 

Leptostraca 

Nebaliacea, Rhinocarina, Ceratiocarina, Hymenocarina, 
Nahecarida 



565.37-565.38 Eumalacostraca 

Amphipoda, Isopoda, Thermosbaenacea, Tanaidacea 

Cumacea, Stomatopoda, Mysidacea, Decapoda, 
Euphausiacea 



565.39 



.7 

.71 

.72 
73 



.74 



.75 



.76 



.77 



Chelicerata and Trilobita 
For Arachnida, see 565.4 



.391 


Eurypterida and Synxiphosura 


.392 


Xiphosura (Horseshoe crabs) 


.393 


Trilobita 


.394 


Pycnogonida 


.4 


Arachnida 


.49 


Architarbi 


^ 


Onychophora 


.6 


Progoneata 



Divide like 595.6, e.g., fossil centipedes 565.62 
For Insecta, see 565.7 

Insecta (Insects) 

Synaptera 

Collembola, Protura, Entotrophi, Thysanura 

Orthoptera and related orders 

Dermaptera, Blattariae, Phasmatodea, Mantodea 

Thysanoptera and related orders 

Corrodentia, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Isoptera, 
Embioptera, Zoraptera 

Neuroptera and related orders 

Megaloptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera, Strepsiptera 

Hemiptera and related orders 

Anoplura, Mallophaga, Homoptera, Heteroptera 

Coleoptera 

Adephaga, Polyphaga, Elateroidea, Mordelloidea, 
Curculionoidea, Colydioidea 

Diptera and related orders 

Orthorrhapha, Cyclorrhapha, Siphonaptera 



576 



577 



Decimal Classification 



Paleontology 



565.78 



.79 



.2 



.3 



A 



.5 



.6 



.7 



.8 
.9 



Lepidoptera 

Jugatae, Frenatae, Rhopalocera 

Hymenoptera 



566 Vertebrate paleozoology ( Chordata ) 

For Anamnia, see 567; Sauropsida, 568; Mammalia^ 569 

567 Anamnia ( Cyclostomes, fishes, amphibians) 



Agnatha and Flacodermi 

Cephalaspidomoiphi and Pteraspidomorphi 

Chondrichthyes ( Sharks, rays, skates ) 

Cladoselachii, Selachii, Batoidea, Pleuracanthodii, Bradyodonti, 
Chiraaerae 



567.4-567.5 Osteichthyes 

Actinopterygii and Holostei 

Palaeoniscoidea, Subholostei, Semionotoidea, Pycnodontoidea, 
Aspidorhynchoidea, Pholidophoroidea 

Teleostei 

Isospondyli, Ostariophysi, Apodes, Heteromi, Mesichthyes, 
Acanthopterygii 

Labyrinthodontia and Lepospondyli 

Apoda 



567.8-567.9 Salientia 
Eoanura, Proanura, Anura 

Urodela 

Cryptobranchoidea, Amblystomoidea, Salamandriodea, Proteidea 



.1 
.11 



.12 
.13 

.14 

.15 

.16 

.17 



.18 



.19 



J2 

22 

.23 



568 Sauropsida (Reptiles and birds) 



Reptilia 

Lepidosauria 

Eosuchia, Rhynchocephalia, Squamata • 
For SerperUes, see 568.12 

Serpentes (Snakes) 

Anapsida 

Cotylosauria and Chelonia 

Crocodilia 

Protosuchia, Sebecosuchia, Mesosuchia, Eusuchia 

Ichthyopterygia 
Synaptosauria 

Protorosauria and Sauropterygia 

Synapsida 

Pelycosauria, Therapsida, Ictidosauria 

Pterosauri 

Rhamphorhynchoidea and Pterodactyloidea 

Archosauria 

Thecodontia, Saurischia, Omithischia 

For Crocodilia, see 568.14; Pterosauri, 568.18 

Aves (Birds) 

Archaeornithes 

Neomithes 

Hesperomithiformes and Ichthyomithiformes 
For other orders of Neornithes, see 568.3-568.9 



578 



579 



Decimal Classification 



568.3 



.4 



.6 
.7 
.8 



.9 



569 



.1 



.12 

.17 

.18 

.2 

.3 



.31 



568.3-568.9 Other orders of Neomithes 
Gruiformes and related orders 

Charadriiformes, Phororhaci, Diatrymiformes, Ciconiiformes 

Anseriformes and related orders 

Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Sphenisciformes, Gaviiformes, 
Colymbiformes 

Falaeognathae 

Caenagnathiformes, Struthioniformes, Theiformes, Casuariiformes, 
Dinornithiformes, Aepyomithiformes, Apterygiformes, 
Tinamiformes 

Calliformes and Columbiformes 

Psittaciformes, Picif ormes, Trogoniformes, Cuculif ormes 
Passeriformes, Coraciiformes, Apodiformes 
Falconiformes, Strigif ormes, Caprimulgiformes 

Mammalia ( Mammals ) 
Prototheria, Allotheria, Theria 

For Marsupilia, see 569.2 

Monotremata 

Multituberculata and Triconodonta 

Panthotheria and Symmetrodonta 
Marsupialia 
Unguiculata and Glires 

For Chiroptera, see 569.4; Primates, 569.8 

Edentata 

Palaeanodonta, Xenarthra, Pholidota 



.32 


Lagomorpha and Rodentia 


.33 


Insectivora 


,34 


Dernioptera 


.35 


Tillodontia 


.36 


Taeniodontia 



S8o 



Paleontology 



569.4 



.7 

.72 



.73 



.74 



.75 



.9 



Chiroptera 

Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera 

Cetacea and Sirenia 

Archaeoceti, Odontoceti, Mysticeti, Trichechiformes, 
Desmostyliformes 

Paenimgulata 

Pantodonta, Dinocerata, Pyrotheria, Proboscidea, Embrithopoda, 
Hyracoidea 

For Sirenia, see 569.5 

Mesaxonia, Paraxonia, Fenmgulata 

Perissodactyla 

Hippomoq)ha and Ceratomorpha 

Artiodact)'la 

Suiformes, Tylopoda, Ruminantia 

Carnivora 

Creodonta, Fissipeda, Pinnipedia 

Protungulata 

Condylarthra, Litopterna, Notoungulata, Astrapotheria, 
Tubulidentata 

Primates 

Prosimii and Anthropoidea 
For Hominidae, see 569.9 

Hominidae (Man) 



581 



Decimal Classification 



570 Anthropological and biological sciences 
[571] Prehistoric archeology 

Class in 913 

572 Human races ( Ethnology ) 

Origin, distribution, physical characteristics of races 
Class cultural anthropology [formerly 572] in 390 
For ethnopsychology, see 155.82-155.84 

.2 Racial origins and differences 

For specific races, see 572.8; causes of racial differences, 572.3 

.3 Causes of racial differences 

E£Fects of migrations, environmental influences, genetic sports 

[.4] Original home of man 

Class in 398.23 

.7 Primitive races 

For specific races, see 572.8 

.8 Specific races 

Divide hke 420-490, e.g., Semitic races 572.892 

.9 Races in specific countries 

Add area notations 3-9 to 572.9 

573 Somatology (Physical anthropology) 

For ethnology, see 572 

Tables, formulas, specifications 
Class statistical tables in 312.6 

Organic evolution of man [formerly also 573,3] 

Human genetics [formerly 575.1] 

Heredity and environment as factors in evolution 
Divide like 575.1, e.g., factors affecting heredity 573.213 
For variation in man, see 573.22 

582 



.0212 



J2 

21 



Anthropological and biological sciences 



573.22 



.3 



.4 
.5 



J6 



.7 



574 



.09 



Variation in man [formerly 575.2] 

Divide like 575.2, e.g., mutations 573.229 2 

Prehistoric man 

Time, place, antiquity 

Class organic evolution of man [formerly 573.3] in 573.2 

Environmental effects on physique 
Pigmentation 



573.6-573.8 Anthropometry 

Structures and features 

Divide like 611, e.g., comparative studies of hair 573.678 
For craniology, see 573.7 

Craniology 
Abnormal dimensions 

Dwarfs, midgets, giants 

Biology 

For botaniccd sciences, see 580; zoological sciences, 590; special 
biological fields and techniques, 575-579 

Historical treatment 

Class regional and geographical treatment in 574.9 

SUMMARY 





574.1 


Physiology 




.2 


Pathology 




.3 


Maturation 




.4 


Morphology and descriptive anatomy 




J 


Ecology 




.6 


Economic biology 




Jt 


Histology and cytology 




.9 


Regional and geographical treatment 


.1 


Physiology 




.11 


Circulation 




.12 


Respiration 




.13 


Nutrition and metabolism 


.14 


Secretion and excretion 






583 



Decimal Classification 



574.16 


Reproduction 


► 


574.162-574.165 Asexual reproduction 


.162 


Parthenogenesis 


.163 


Alternation of generations (Metagenesis) 


.165 


Vegetative generation 


.166 


Sexual reproduction 




For alternation of generations, see 574.163 


.166 2 


Conjugation 


.166 7 


Heraiaphroditism [formerly 574.167] 


[.167] 


Hermaphroditism 




Class in 574.166 7 


.17 


Histogenesis 




Microscopic study of germ cells 



.18 



.19 
.191 



.1913 
.191 32 
.191 33 
.191.34 
.191 35 
.191 36 
.1914 
.1915 
.191 51 
.191 52 



Movements 

Response to stimuli, locomotion 

Physics and chemistry of vital processes 
Biophysics 

EflFect of physical agents on living systems 
Class physics of functions in 574.11-574.18 



574.191 3 - 574.191 7 Terrestrial factors 
Mechanical factors 

Gravitational forces 

Velocity and speed 

Acceleration and deceleration 

Pressures 

Impact 
Sound vibrations 
Radiations and microwaves 

Hertzian waves 

Infrared waves 



584 



Anthropological and biological sciences 



574.191 53 


Visible light waves 




.191 54 


Ultraviolet waves 




.191 55 


Xrays 




.191 56 


Gamma rays 




.191 57 


Cosmic rays 




.1916 


Temperatures 




.1917 


Electricity 




.1919 


Space biology (Bio-astronautics) 






Divide like 574.1913-574.1917, 


e.g., gravitational ef 




fects 574.191 932 




.192 


Biochemistry 





.192 1 
.192 12 
.192 14 
.192 5 

.192 53 
.192 54 



.192 56 



.192 58 



.192 6 
.192 7 
.192 9 
.192 93 
.192 94 
.192 96 



For metabolism, see 574.13 

Chemical composition 

Fluids 

Mineral components 

Enzymes [formerly 574.193] and enzyme-catalyzed 
reactions 

Lipolytic enzymes 

Lipases, esterases, phosphatases 

Saccharolytic enzymes 

Carbohydrases, amylases, cellulases, maltases, 

emulsins 

Proteolytic enzymes 
Proteases, cathepsins 

Oxidizing and reducing enzymes 

Oxidases, dehydrogenases, zymases, catalases 

Vitamins [formerly 574.194] 
Hormones [formerly 574.194] 
Biosynthesis [formerly 574.196] 

Lipids 

Carbohydrates 

Proteins 







585 



[.194] 



[.196] 



.4 



.52 



.53 
.54 

.55 



Decimal Classification 



574.192 97 


Pigments 


.192 99 


Other substances 


[.193] 


Enzymes 




Class in 574.192 5 



Hormones and vitamins 

Class hormones in 574.192 7; vitamins in 574.192 6 

Biosynthesis 
Class in 574.192 9 

Pathology 

Anomalies, malformations, deformations, diseases 

Maturation 

Embryology and gametogenesis 
For histogenesis, see 574.17 

Morphology and descriptive anatomy 

Ecology 

Interrelation of organisms to environment and to each other 

Adaptation to environment 

Autecology, synecology, biogeochemistry 

Nutritive adaptations 

Adaptations to meteorological factors 

Communities 

Consocies, associations, clans, colonies, mutualistic and 
antagonistic symbioses 



.56 


Reproductive adaptations 


.57 


Protective adaptations 


•6 


Economic biology 


.8 


Histology and cytology 


.82 


Histology 



Study of minute structure of tissues 

586 



574.87 



.872 



.873 
.873 2 



.873 3 



.873 4 



.874 



.878 



Anthropological and biological sciences 

Cytology ( Study of cells ) 
For germ cells, see 574.17 



Morphology 

For protoplasmic structure, see 574.873; non-protoplasmic 
structure, 574.874; membranes, 574.875 

Protoplasmic structure 

Nucleus 

Chromosomes, nucleolus, chromatin, linin network, 
nuclear membrane 

Plastids 

Chromoplasts, leucoplasts 

Cytoplasm 

Centrosomes, blepharoplasts, metaplasmic bodies 

Non-protoplasmic structure 

Pigmentation, vacuoles, aleurone grains 



.875 


Membranes 


.876 


Physiology 


.8761 


Nutrition and metabolism 


.876 2 


Division 


.876 22 


Direct division (Amitosis) 


.876 23 


Indirect division (Mitosis) 



Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase stages of 
cell division 



.8764 


Other functions 




Respiration, excretion 


.876 5 


Degeneration 


.876 6 


Colonies 



Comparative cytology 

Comparison of plant cells with animal cells 

5^7 



J 

It' 



Decimal Classification 



Anthropological and biological sciences 



574.9 Regional and geographical treatment 

.909 Zonal and physiographic treatment 

Divide like area notations U-IS, e.g., desert regions 
574.909 54 

Class insular biology in 574.91, hydrographic biology in 
574.92 



.91 


Insular biology 




Add area notations 3-9 to 574.91 


.92 


Hydrographic biology 


.921-.928 


Marine biology 




Divide like 551.461-551.468, e.g., Caribbean Sea life 




574.923 



.929 



Fresh-water biology (Limnetic biology) 
Add area notations 3-9 to 574.929 



93-.99 Geographical treatment 

Add area notations 3-9 to 574.9 



575 



575-579 Special biological fields and 
techniques 

Organic evolution 

Origin of species thru historic descent with modification 

For organic evolution of man, see 573.2; of plants, 581.38; of 
animals, 591.38 



.001-.009 



.01 
.016 
.016 2 

.016 3 



Standard subdivisions 
Class theories in 575.01 

Theories 

Modem theories 

Darwinian and neo-Darwinian theories 

Theories on natural selection and survival of the fittest 

Orthogenesis 

Evolution along seemingly predetermined lines 

588 



575.016 5 



.016 6 



.1 



.11 



.12 



.13 
.131 



.132 
.133 
.134 
.137 



.21 



.22 

.28 



Mutation theories 

Theories on abrupt hereditary changes 

Lamarckian and neo-Lamarckian theories 

Theories on inheritance of acquired characteristics, and 
on hereditary effects of use and disuse of organs 

Genetics 

Heredity and variation as factors in evolution 
Class human genetics [formerly 575.1] in 573.21 
For variation, see 575.2 

Laws of heredity 

Laws of Weismann (chromosome theory), Mendel, Galton 

Hereditary characteristics 

Inheritance of similar and divergent characteristics 
Including characteristics of genes, genotypes, phenotypes 

Factors aflFecting heredity 

Artificial mutations 

Inheritable effects of radiation on chromosomes and genes 

Outbreeding 
Inbreeding 
Species interfertility 
Atavism 

Variation 

Class variation in man [formerly 575.2] in 573.22 

Physiological aspects 

Cytological and embryological aspects 

Environmental aspects 



Hybrids 



5S9 



575.29 
.292 



.293 



.7 



J 

.11 



.14 
.15 
.16 



Decimal Classification 



.162 
.163 
.164 
.165 



Abrupt deviations 

Mutations 

Inheritable abrupt deviations 

For artificial mutations, see 575.131 

Sports 

Noninheritable abrupt deviations 

Evolution thru sexual selection Iformerly 577.8] 

Evolutionary cycles 

Degeneration, extinction, regeneration of species 



•9 Origin and evolution of sexes 

576 Microbiology 



.19 



For Schizomycetes, see 589.9; Eumycophyta, 589.2; protozoa, 593.1 

General principles 

Physiology 

Divide like 581.1, e.g., anaerobic respiration 576.112 8 

Morphology and descriptive anatomy 
Ecology 

Economic microbiology 

Class a specific application of microbiology with the subject, 
e.g., fermentation in winemaking 663.2 

Beneficial microorganisms 
Food microbiology 
Industrial microbiology 
Deleterious microorganisms 

Toxic, pathogenic, obnoxious microorganisms 

Regional and geographical treatment 

Divide like 574.9, e.g., fresh-water microorganisms 576.192 9 



576.2 
.22 



.23 



A 



Anthropological and biological sciences 



Microorganisms and immunity 

Mechanisms of immunity 

Antigens and production of antibodies 

Immune reactions (Serology) 

Antigen-antibody reactions, e.g., agglutination, precipitation 

Microorganisms and pathogenicity 

Mechanisms of pathogenicity, defense measures of host organisms 



.6 


Ultramicrobes 


.62 


Rickettsiae 


.64 


Viruses 


.648 


Types of viruses 


.648 2 


Bacterial viruses (Bacteriophages) 


.648 3 


Other plant viruses 


.648 4 


Animal viruses 



577 



.01 

.011 

.013 

.4 
.6 
.7 
A 



General properties of living matter 

For physics and chemistry of vital processes, see 574.19 

Philosophy and theories 

Origin and beginnings of life 
Abiogenesis (Spontaneous generation) 

Comparison of living and nonliving substances 
Comparison of vital and physical processes 
Conditions necessary for life 
Vitalism versus mechanism 
Degeneration and death 

Sex in nature 

Sex differentiation, selection, ratios 

Class evolution thru sexual selection [formerly 577.8] in 575.5 



590 



591 



Decimal Classification 



578 



579 



Microscopes and microscopy 

Class a specific application with the subject 



.1 


Types of microscopes 


.12 


Simple iiiicroscope 


.13 


Compound microscope 


.14 


Ultrainicroscope 


.15 


Electron microscope 


.4 


Microscopy 


.46 


Photomicrography 


^ 


Slide preparation 



For slide preparation of plant tissues, see 578.8; of animal tissues, 
578.9 

.62 Fixation techniques 

Chemical and freezing-drying techniques 

.63 Microtomes and microtomy 

Frozen-section and section-cutting techniques 

.64 Stain techniques 

.65 Mounting techniques 

«8 Slide preparation of plant tissues 

Divide like 578.6, e.g., staining plant tissues 578.84 

•9 Slide preparation of animal tissues 

Divide like 578.6, e.g., fixation of animal tissues 578.92 

Collection and preservation of biological specimens 
.1 Preparing skeletons 

.2 Preserving total specimens 

Embalming, mummification, pickling 

•4 Taxidermy 

•6 Techniques of collecting and transporting 

.7 Arrangement in museums 

Ji Maintenance in museums 

59^ 



Botanical sciences 



580 Botanical sciences 

For paleobotany, see 561 



.74 



Exhibits 

For arrangement in museums, see 579.7 



.742 
.744 



Herbariums 



Botanical gardens 



581 



.09 



Botany 

Class specific classes, orders, families in 582-589 

Historical treatment 

Class regional and geographical treatment in 581.9 



581.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 
.8 
.9 



SUMMARY 

Physiology 

Pathology 

Maturation 

Morphology and descriptive anatomy 

Ecology 

Economic botany 

Histology and cytology 

Regional and geographical treatment 



.1 



.11 



Physiology 





SUMMARY 


581.11 
.12 
.13 
.14 


Circulation 

Respiration and transpiration 
Nutrition and metabolism 
Secretion and excretion 


.15 


Genetics 


.16 
.17 
.18 
.19 


Propagation 

Regeneration 

Movements 

Physics and chemistry of vital processes 



Circulation 

Absorption and translocation of water in the xylem and solutes 
in the phloem, cytoplasmic and protoplasmic movements, 
capillarity, osmosis 



593 



Decimal Classification 



581.12 



Respiration and transpiration 

Exchange and translocation of gases, catabolic processes of 
metabolism 



.121 
.124 
.128 
,129 
.13 



.132 

.133 

.133 4 
.133 42 



.133 43 



Aerobic respiration 

Intercellular respiration 

Anaerobic respiration 

Transpiration 

Nutrition and metabolism 

For catabolic processes of metabolism, see 581.12 

Digestion 

Assimilation, storage, anabolism of food 
Food synthesis 
Photosynthesis 

Sugar and starch synthesis by autotrophic plants 

Chemosynthesis 

Food synthesis by heterotrophic plants 



.133 45 


Protein synthesis 


.133 46 


Lipid synthesis 


.133 5 


Mineral metabolism 


.133 54 


Macronutrient elements 



.133 56 



.133 8 



Utilization of sulfur, phosphorus, iron, calcium, 
potassium, magnesium, sodium salts 

Micronutrient elements (Trace elements) 

Utilization of manganese, copper, zinc, boron, 
molybdenum, aluminiun, silicon, selenium compounds 

Food storage 



S94 



581.134 



Botanical sciences 



581.134-581.139 Results of nutrition 

Growth processes 

For growth movements, see 581.183 



.1341 


Growth factors 


.13415 


Environmental factors 


.134 152 


Meteorological factors 


.134 153 


Light 


.134 2 


Primary growth 




Growth initiated at apical meristems 



.134 3 



Secondary growth 

Growth initiated at lateral meristems 



.135 



Development 

General and postembryomc development 
For embryology, see 581.33 



.139 


Longevity 


.14 


Secretion and excretion 




For transpiration, see 581.129 


.15 


Genetics 




Heredity and variation 


.151 


Physiological, embryological, cytological aspects 


.152 


Environmental aspects 


.158 


Hybrids 


.159 


Abrupt deviations 


.159 2 


Mutations 




Inheritable abrupt deviations 


.159 3 


Sports 




Noninheritable abrupt deviations 



595 



Decimal Classification 



Botanical sciences 



581.16 



.183 
.183 2 



.183 3 



.184 



.185 



.19 

.191 

.192 



Propagation 

Divide like 574.16, e.g., vegetative generation 581.165 



.17 


Regeneration 


.172 


Histogenesis 




Microscopic study of germ cells 


.179 


Regeneration of parts 


.18 


Movements 


.182 


Hydration movements 



Movements in nonliving plant tissues or organs resulting 
from hydration or dehydration of cell walls, e.g., splitting of 
pods, opening of capsules 

Growth movements 
Tropisms 

Geotropism, thigmotropism, hydrotropism, chemotropism, 
aerotropism, heliotropism, thermatropism, stereotropism, 
traumatropism 

Nastic movements 

Epinastic, hyponastic, nyctinastic, photonastic, thermo- 
nastic movements 

Turgor movements 

Movements caused by reversible changes in cell volume, 
e.g., wilting, opening and closing of stomates 

Nutation and circumnutation 

Movements caused by unequal rates of growth, e.g., twining 

Physics and chemistry of vital processes 
Biophysics 

Divide like 574.191, e.g., effects of gamma rays 581.191 56 

Biochemistry 

Including its subdivisions [formerly 581.193-581.196] 
Divide like 574.192, e.g., enzymes 581.192 5 
Class food manufacture in 581.133 
For metabolism, see 574.13 



r^gi 193-.196] Subdivisions of biochemistry 

Class in 581.192 



.2 


Pathology 


.21 


Deficiency diseases 


.22 


Teratology 




Anomalies, deformations, atrophies, hypertrophies 


.23 


Parasitic diseases 




Forgalhsee5Sl21 


.232 


Diseases due to parasitic plants 


.232 2 


Bacterial diseases of plants 


.232 6 


Fungus diseases of plants 


.233 


Diseases due to parasitic animals 


.234 


Viral and rickettsial diseases 


24 


Injuries 


.27 


Galls 


.28 


Control methods 


J 


Maturation 


.32 


Gametogenesis 



.33 
.332 



.333 
.334 



.36 

.38 



Formation and maturation of sex cells 
For histogenesis, see 581.172 

Embryology 

Anatomy of embryonic parts 

Anatomy of embryonic tissues and stems, cotyledons, 
plumules, radicles, endosperms, suspensors 

Germination processes 

Seedling stages 

Development of primary roots, stems, leaves 

Production and differentiation of sexes 
Evolution 



597 



Decimal Classification 



Botanical sciences 



58L4 



.41 



A2 



A3 



.44 



.46 

[.462] 



Morphology and descriptive anatomy 

For anatomy of embryonic parts, see 581.332 

Circulatory organs 

Structure of fibrovascular bundles, xylem, phloem, cambium 
layer, veins 

Respiratory organs 

Structure of stomates, lenticels, guard cells, intercellular spaces 

Digestive organs 

For leaves, see 581.497 

Secretory and excretory organs 
For stomates and lenticels, see 581.42 

Reproductory organs 

Reproductory organs of seedless plants 
Class in 586.046 



[.463-467] Reproductory organs of flowering plants 

Class in 582.046 



.47 



.49 

.495 
.497 
.498 



Motor and integumentary organs 

Structiu'e of epidermis and surface protuberances, e.g., thorns, 
tentacles 

Topographic anatomy 



Stems 



Leaves and fronds 



Roots 



581.5 



.52 



.522 
.522 2 



.522 3 



.526 



.526 3 



.526 4 



.526 5 



Ecology 

Scope: forest ecology [formerly 634.922, 634.94] 

Adaptation to environment 

For a specific adaptive feature, see the subject, e.g., nutritive 
adaptations 581.53 

Autecology ( Individual ecology ) 
Effects of environment on plant 

Effects of soil, light, gases, liquids on plant 

Effects of plant on environment 

Modification of soil and air, prevention of erosion 



522 5 


Structural adaptation 


.522 6 


Dissemination and migration 


.524 


Synecology ( Associational ec 


.524 2 


Invasion 


.524 3 


Succession 


.524 4 


Zonation 


.524 5 


Alternation 



Formational ecology (Physiographic ecology) 

Influence of physical factors of environment on plant 
distribution and species 

Hydric formations 

Adaptation of hydrophytes in fresh and salt water, 
swamps, heaths, bogs, moors 

For xeric formations, see 581.526 5 

Mesic formations 

Adaptation of mesophytes in prairie and forest regions 

Xeric formations 

Adaptation of halophytes and xerophytes in salt marshes, 
alkaline soils, arid and semiarid regions, dunes, rocks 



598 



599 



Decimal Classification 



Botanical sciences 



581.53 
.533 
.533 3 
.533 4 

.54 

.55 



.56 
.57 
.6 



.63 

.632 

.634 

.64 



.65 
.67 
.69 



.9 



Nutritive adaptations 
Nutritive specialization 

Carnivorous and insectivorous plants 
Saprophytic plants 

Adaptations to climatic and seasonal conditions 

Communities 

Socles, consocies, clans, colonies, mutualistic and antagonistic 
symbioses 

Reproductive adaptations 

Protective adaptations 

Economic botany 

Plants beneficial and deleterious to man's needs 



581.63-581.64 Beneficial plants 
Edible and medicinal plants 
Edible plants 
Medicinal plants 

Plants used in industry 



581.65-581.69 Deleterious plants 
Weeds [formerly 632.58] 

Allergenic plants 

Deadly plants 

Histology and cytology 

Divide like 574.8, e.g., plant cytology 581.87 
For germ cells, see 581.172 

Regional and geographical treatment 

Divide like 574.9, e.g., desert plants 581.909 54 



6oo 



^ 582-589 Taxonomic botany 

In this schedule coordination and subordination are shown by 
indention, not by length of number 

If preferred, class according to a scheme oriented to the Univer- 
sal Decimal Classification the details of which appear in Dewey 
Decimal Classification, Edition 14, p. 1893-1906 

582 Spermatophyta ( Seed-bearing plants ) 

Use 582.001-582.008 for standard subdivisions 

For Angiospermae, see 583-584; Gymnospermae, 585 



.01-.03 



.04 

.041 

.042 

.043 

.044 

.046 

.046 3 

.046 4 

.046 7 

.047 

.049 



.05-.09 



582.01-582.09 General principles 
Physiology, pathology, maturation 

Divide like 581.1-581.3, e.g., embryology 582.033 

Morphology and descriptive anatomy 
Circulatory organs 
Respiratory organs 
Digestive organs 
Secretory and excretory organs 
Reproductive organs [formerly 581.463-581.467] 

Flowers and their parts 

Fruit 

Seeds 
Motor and integumentary organs 

Topographic anatomy 

Divide like 581.49, e.g., stems 582.049 5 

Other general principles 

Divide hke 581.5-581.9, e.g., mesic fonnations 582.052 64 



6oi 



582.1 



.12 



.13 



.14 



.15 



.16 



Decimal Classification 



Special groupings 

Class specific classes, orders, families in 583-585 



582.12-582.14 Herbaceous plants 
Seed plants without persistent woody tissue 

General works 

Class specific types in 582.13-582.14 

Flowering plants 

Class here comprehensive works on herbaceous and woody 
flowering plants 

For woody flowering plants, see 582.15 

Shrubs and vines 

Succulent, carpet, mat, cushion, bush herbals 



1601-.160 9 



17 



582,15-582.18 Woody plants 
General works 

Flowering and nonflowering woody plants 
Class specific types in 582.16-582.18 

Trees (Dendrology) 

Use 582.160 01 - 582.160 09 for standard subdivisions 

General principles 

Divide like 581.1-581.9, e.g., ecology of trees [formerly 
634.94] 582.160 5 

Shrubs 



.18 



Vines 



602 



Botanical sciences 



p. 583-584 Angiospermae (Flowering plants) 

Families listed under orders are based on Hutchinson, John, 
The Families of Flowering Vlants, 1926-34 
Class comprehensive works in 582.13 

583 Dicotyledones ( Dicotyledons ) 

Divide by orders as below 

If preferred, arrange alphabetically by families 



.1 



,11 



.112 



.114 



115 



,117 



.12 



.121 



Archichlamydeae 

For ApetalaCy see 583.9 

Ranales 

Ranunculaceae (crowfoot family), Cabombaceae, Ceratophyl- 
laceae (homwort family), Nymphaeaceae (water-Uly 
family) 

Dilleniales 

Crossosomataceae, Dilleniaceae 

Magnoliales 

Trochodendraceae, Cercidiphyllaceae, Magnoliaceae (magnolia 
family), Winteraceae, Schizandraceae, Himantandraceae, 
Lactoridaceae 

Anonales 

Anonaceae (custard-apple family), Eupomatiaceae 

Berberidales 

Menispermaceae, Berberidaceae (barberry family), Circaeas- 
teraceae, Lardizabalaceae, Sargentadoxaceae 

Rhoeadales 

Papaveraceae (poppy family), Fumariaceae 

Sarraceniales 

Droseraceae, Sarraceniaceae (pitcher-plant family) 



S03 



Decimal Classification 



583.123 



.13 



.135 



138 



.14 



.141 



.15 



.158 



.16 



.163 



.17 



Cruciales 

Cruciferae (mustard family) 

Capparidales 

Capparidaceae, Moringaceae, Tovariaceae 

Violales 

Resedaceae (mignonette family), Violaceae (violet family) 

Bixales 

Cochlospermaceae, Canellaceae (wild cinnamon family), 
Samydaceae, Cistaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Bixaceae ( annatto 
family ) 

Polygalales 

Trigoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Vochysiaceae (San Juan family) 

Pittosporales 

Byblidaceae, Tremandraceae, Pittosporaceae ( hedge laurel 
family ) 

Caryophyllales 

Elatinaceae (waterwort family), Molluginaceae, Ficoidaceae, 
Portulacaceae (purslane family), Caryophyllaceae (pink 
family ) 

Tamaricales 

Frankeniaceae, Fouquieraceae, Tamaricaceae ( tamarisk 

family ) 

Theales 

Ochnaceae (red ironwood family), Ancistrocladaceae, Diptero- 
carpaceae, Chlaenaceae, Theaceae (tea, camellia family), 
Medusagynaceae, Marcgraviaceae, Caryocaraceae, Actini- 
diaceae, Saurauiaceae 

Guttiferales 

Hypericaceae ( Saint-John's-wort family), Eucryphiaceae, 
Quiinaceae, Guttiferae (balsam fig family) 

Malvales 

Malvaceae ( mallow, cotton family ) 

604 



Botanical sciences 



583.19 



.21 



.214 



.24 



Tiliales 

Sterculiaceae (coco family), Bombacaceae (silk-cotton tree 
family), Scytopetalaceae, Tiliaceae (linden family), Gonysty- 
laceae 

Geraniales 

Limnanthaceae (false-mermaid family), Linaceae (flax fam- 
ily) Zygophyllaceae (lignum vitae family), Geraniaceae (gera- 
nium family), Oxalidaceae (wood-sorrel family), Tropaeolaceae 
(nasturtium family), Balsaminaceae (jewelweed family) 

Malpighiales 

Humiriaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Malpighiaceae 

Rutales 

Rutaceae (rue family), Simarubaceae (ailanthus family), 
Burseraceae ( torchwood family ) 



.25 



.26 



27 



.279 



.28 



Meliales 

Meliaceae ( mahogany family ) 

Olacales 

Opiliaceae, Olacaceae 

Celastrales 

Empetraceae (crowberry family), Cneoraceae, Pandaceae, lea- 
cinaceae, Salvadoraceae, Stackhousiaceae, Celastraceae (staff- 
tree family), Corynocarpaceae, Cyrillaceae, Aquifoliaceae 
(holly family), Hippocrateaceae 

Rhamnales 

Elaeagnaceae, Heteropyxidaceae, Ampelidaceae (grape 
family), Rhamnaceae (buckhorn family) 

Sapindales 

Akaniaceae, Sabiaceae, Staphyleaceae, Anacardiaceae (cashew, 
sumac family), Connaraceae, Didiereaceae, Melianthaceae 
(honey plant family), Aceraceae (maple family), Sapin- 
daceae (soapberry family) 



605 



Decimal Classification 



583.29 



.3 



.32 



.38 



.394 



.397 



A 



.44 



.45 



.453 



.46 



Coriariales 

Coriariaceae 

Resales 

Chailletiaceae, Calycanthaceae, Rosaceae (rose family) 

Leguminosae 

Caesalpiniaceae (senna family), Mimosaceae (mimosa family), 
Papilionaceae (pea family) 

Saxifragales 

Adoxaceae [formerly 583.53], Crassulaceae, Cephalotaceae 
( Australian pitcher-plant family ) , Saxif ragaceae ( saxifrage 
family ) 

Hamamelidales 

Bruniaceae, Stachyuraceae, Buxaceae, Platanaceae, Hamameli- 
daceae (witch-hazel family), Eucommiaceae, Myrothamnaceae 

Cunoniales 

Escalloniaceae, Grossulariaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Brunelliaceae, 
Greyiaceae, Cunoniaceae 

Myrtales 

Myrtaceae (myrtle family), Lecythidaceae (Brazil-nut family), 
Melastomaceae (meadow-beauty family), Combretaceae 
(myrobalan family), Rhizophoraceae (mangrove family) 

Lythrales 

Punicaceae (pomegranate family), Oliniaceae, Hydrocaryaceae, 
Halorrhagaceae, Callitrichiaceae, Onagraceae, Lythraceae 
(loosestrife family), Crypteroniaceae, Sonneratiaceae 

Passiflorales 

Malesherbiaceae, Passifloraceae (passionflower family), 
Achariaceae 

Loasales 

Tumeraceae, Loasaceae 

Cucurbitales 

Cucurbitaceae (gourd family), Begoniaceae (begonia family), 
Datiscaceae ( false hemp family ) , Caricaceae ( papaya family ) 

6o6 



Botanical sciences 



583.47 



.48 



.5 

.52 



.53 



.55 



.57 



.6 



.67 



.677 



Cactales 

Cactaceae ( cactus family ) 

Umbelliflorae 

Cornaceae (dogwood family), Alangiaceae, Nyssaceae (tupelo 
family), Araliaceae (ginseng family), Umbelliferae (carrot 
family) 

Metachlamydeae ( Sympetalae ) 

Rubiales 

Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family), Rubiaceae (madder 
family ) 

Valerianales 

Dipsacaceae (teasel family), Calyceraceae, Valerianaceae 

(valerian family) 

Class Adoxaceae [formerly 583.53] in 583.38 

Asterales 

Former heading: Compositae (Composites) 

Common names: chicory, lettuce, thistles, calendulas, ground- 
sels, camomiles, everlasting flowers, asters, sneezeweed, iron- 
weed, ragweed, sunflowers 

Campanales 

Campanulaceae (bluebell, bellflower family), Lobeliaceae 
(lobelia family), Goodeniaceae, Stylidiaceae 

Ericales 

Clethraceae (white-alder family), Ericaceae (heath family), 
Vacciniaceae (huckleberry, wintergreen family), Epacridaceae, 
Monotropaceae (Indian-pipe family), Diapensiaceae 
(flowering-moss family), Lennoaceae 

Primulales 

Primulaceae (primrose family), Plumbaginaceae (plumbago 
family ) 

Myrsinales 

Theophrastaceae, Myrsinaceae (marlberry family) 



607 



Decimal Classification 



583.68 



.686 



.7 



72 



74 



76 



.77 



,79 



.8 



.87 



J88 



Ebenales 

Ebenaceae ( ebony family ) , Sapotaceae ( sapodilla family ) 

Styracales 

Styracaceae (storax family), Symplocaceae (sweetleaf family)^ 
Diclidantheraceae, Lissocarpaceae 

Gentianales 

Gentianaceae ( gentian, buck-bean family ) 

Apocynales 

Asclepiadaceae ( milkweed family ) , Apocynaceae ( dogbane 
family ) 

Loganiales 

Oleaceae ( olive family ) , Loganiaceae ( Desf ontianeaceae ) 

Polemoniales 

Polemoniaceae ( phlox family ) , Hydrophyllaceae ( waterleaf 
family ) 

Boraginales 

Boraginaceae ( borage, forget-me-not family ) 

Solanales 

Convolvulaceae ( morning-glory family ) , Solanaceae 
( nightshade family ) 

Personales 

Scrophulariaceae (snapdragon family), Orobanchaceae, Lenti- 
bulariaceae (bladderwort family), Columelliaceae, Gesneriaceae 
(gloxinia, African violet, flame violet), Bignoniaceae (catalpa 
family), Pedaliaceae (Pedalium, unicorn-plant family), Acan- 
thaceae (acanthus family) 

Lamiales 

Including Globulariaceae (globe daisy family), Myoporaceae, 
Selaginaceae, Phrymaceae ( lopseed familv) 

Verbenaceae (Vervain family) 



6o8 



Botanical sciences 



583.89 
.899 



.9 

.91 



.917 



.92 



.922 



.925 



.93 



.932 



.933 



•94 



Labiatae (Mint family) 

Plantaginales 

Plantaginaceae (plantain family) 

Monochlamydeae (Apetalae) 

Chenopodiales 

Basellaceae, Phytolaccaceae (pokeweed family), Cynocramba- 
ceae (dog cabbage family), Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot fam- 
ily), Batidaceae, Amarantaceae (amaranth family) 

Polygonales 

Illecebraceae, Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) 

Podostemonales 

Podostemonaceae (riverweed family), Hydrostachyaceae 

Aristolochiales 

Aristolochiaceae. Cytinaceae, Hydnoraceae, Nepenthaceae 
( Indian pitcher-plant family) 

Piperales 

Lacistemaceae, Piperaceae (pepper family), Saururaceae 
(Hzard's-tail family), Chloranthaceae 

Laurales 

Monimiaceae, Lauraceae (laurel family), Gomortegaceae, 
Myristicaceae, Hemandiaceae 

Proteales 

Proteaceae (honeyflower family) 

Thymelaeales 

Geissolomataceae, Penaeaceae, Nyctaginaceae (four-o'clock 
family ) , Thymelaeaceae 

Santalales 

Balanophoraceae ( Cynomorium ) , Octoknemataceae, Lorantha- 
ceae (mistletoe family), Santalaceae (sandalwood family), 
Grubbiaceae, Myzodendraceae 

609 



583.95 



.96 



.962 



97 



.972 



.973 



,974 



.975 



.98 



.982 



.13 



Decimal Classification 



Botanical sciences 



Euphorbiales 

Euphorbiaceae ( spurge family ) 

Balanopsidales 

Balanopsidaceae 

Urticales 

Ulmaceae (elm family), Barbeyaceae, Moraceae (mulberry 
family), Scyphostegiaceae, Urticaceae (nettle family), 
Cannabinaceae 

Fagales 

Betulaceae (birch family), Corylaceae, Fagaceae (beech, oak 
family ) 

Leitneriales 

Leitneriaceae ( corkwood family ) 

Juglandales 

Juglandaceae (walnut family), Julianiaceae 

Myricales 

Myricaceae (bayberry family) 

Casuarinales 

Casuarinaceae (beefwood family) 

Salicales 

Salicaceae (willow family) 

Garry ales 

Garryaceae (feverbush) 



584 Monocotyledones ( Monocotyledons ) 

Divide by orders as below 

If preferred, arrange alphabetically by families 



Burmanniales 

Burmanniaceae, Thismiaceae, Corsiaceae 

6io 



584.15 



21 



.22 



.24 



.25 



.27 



.32 



.37 
.38 



.42 



Orchidales 

Orchidaceae ( orchid family ) 

Haemodorales 

Philydraceae, Haemodoraceae (bloodwort family), Hypoxidaceae, 
Velloziaceae (tree lily family), Apostasiaceae, Taccaceae 

Zingiberales 

Musaceae (banana family), Strelitziaceae, Lowiaceae, Zingibera- 
ceae (ginger family), Cannaceae (canna family), Marantaceae 
(arrowroot family) 

Bromeliales 

Bromeliaceae (pineapple family) 

Iridales 

Iridaceae (iris family) 

Amaryllidales 

Amaryllidaceae ( amarylUs family ) 

Dioscoreales 

Roxburghiaceae, Dioscoreaceae (yam family), Stenomeridaceae, 
Trichopodaceae 

Xyridales 

Xyridaceae (yellow-eyed grass family), Rapateaceae 

Liliales 

Pontederiaceae, Cyanastraceae, Smilacaceae (cat briers), Rusca- 
ceae, Liliaceae (lily family), Tecophilaeaceae, Trilhaceae (triUium 
family) 

Mayacaceae ( Mayaca family ) 

Commelinales 

Flagellariaceae, Commelinaceae (spiderwort family) 
For Mayacaceae, see 584.37 

Alstroemeriales 

Alstroemeriaceae, Petermanniaceae, Philesiaceae 

6ii 



Decimal Classification 



584.43 



.45 



.5 



.61 



.612 
.613 
.62 



Agavales 

Xanthorrhoeaceae, Agavaceae 

Jiincales 

Juncaceae ( rush family ) , Thumiaceae, Centrolepidaceae, 
Restionaceae 

Palmales 

Palmae ( palm family ) 

Pandanales 

Pandanaceae ( hala family ) 

Sparganiaceae ( Bur-reed family ) 



Typhaceae (Cattail family) 

Cyclanthales 

Cyclanthaceae 



.64 



.71 



Arales 

Araceae ( arum family ) , Lemnaceae ( duckweed family ) 

Triuridales 

Triuridaceae 



«72 Najadales 



.721 



.73 



Najadaceae ( najas family ) , Zamiicbelliaceae 

Alismatales 

Scheuchzeriaceae, Alismataceae ( water-plantain family ) , 
Petrosaviaceae 

Butomales 

Hydrocharitaceae (frogbit family), Butomaceae (water-poppy 
family) 



6l2 



Botanical sciences 



584.74 



.743 



.744 



^1 



.84 



.92 



.93 



585 



.1 



Potamogetonales 

Potamogetonaceae (pondweed family), Ruppiaceae 

Aponogetonales 

Aponogetonaceae (lattice-plant family), Zosteraceae 

Juncaginales 

Juncaginaceae (arrow-grass family), Lilaeaceae, Posidoniaceao 

Eriocaulales 

Eriocaulaceae ( pipewort family ) 

Cyperales 

Cyperaceae (sedge family) 

Craminales 

Gramineae and its tribes 

Panicoideae 

Paniceae (millet grasses), Andropogoneae (sugar cane, kafir 
com grasses), Maydeae (Indian corn grasses) 

Pooideae 

Zoysieae, Oryzeae (rice grasses), Bambuseae (bamboo family), 
Festuceae ( fescue grasses ) , Phalarideae ( canary grasses ) , 
Agrosteae (fodder grasses), Aveneae (oat grasses), Hordeeae 
(wheat, barley, rye grasses), Clilorideae (gama grasses) 

Gymnospermae ( Naked-seed plants ) 

Divide by orders as below 

If preferred, arrange alphabetically by families 

Cnetales 

Gnetaceae ( gnetum family ), Welwitschiaceae (welwitschia 
family), Ephedraceae (ephedra, Mormon tea family) 

Coniferales ( Conifers ) 

Podocarpaceae (podocarp family), Phyllocladaceae ( phyllocladus 
family), Taxaceae (yew family), Araucariaceae (araucaria family), 
Pinaceae (pine family), Taxodiaceae (bald cypress family), 
Cupressacee ( cypress family ) 

613 



Decimal Classification 



Botanical sciences 



585.7 Ginkgoales 

Ginkgoaceae ( maidenhair trees, ginkgo trees ) 

•9 Cycadales (Cycads) 

Cycadaceae, Zamiaceae (sage palm family) 

586 Cryptogamia ( Seedless plants ) 

Use 586.001-586.008 for standard subdivisions 

For Pteridophyta, see 587; Bryophyta, 588; Thallophyta, 589 

.01 -.09 General principles 

Divide like 581.1-581.9, e.g., anatomy of reproductive organs 
[formerly 581.462] 586.046 

587 Pteridophyta ( Vascular cryptogams ) 

.1 Isoetales (Quillworts) 

Isoetes 

•2 Sphenopsida 

Equisetaceae ( horsetail family ) 

Ji Filicineae 

.31 Filicales (Ferns) 

Osmundaceae ( flowering fern family ) , Schizaeaceae ( curly 
grass family), Gleicheniaceae (gleichenia family), Hymeno- 
phyllaceae (filmy fern family), Dicksoniaceae (Dicksonia fam- 
ily), Cyatheaceae (cyathea family), Polypodiaceae (polypody 
family), Marsiliaceae (water clover family), Salviniaceae 
(salvinia family) 

.33 Eusporangiated ferns 

Ophioglossales ( adder's tongue, grape, rattlesnake ferns ) , 
Marattiales 

.4 Psilopsida 

Psilotales 

.9 Lycopsida ( Club mosses) 

Lycopodiales, Selaginellales 
For IsoetaleSy see 587.1 

614 



588 Bryophyta 

,1 Sphagnales 

Sphagnaceae (peat and bog mosses) 

.2 Musci ( True mosses ) 

Bryales ( common mosses ), Andreaeales ( black mosses ) 
For Sphagnales, see 588.1 

.3 Hepaticae (Liverworts) 

Ricciaceae, Marchantiaceae (great liverworts), Jungermanniaceae 
( scale mosses ) 

.32 Anthocerotales (Homworts) 

589 Thallophyta 

.1 Lichenes (Lichens) 

Symbiotic associations of fungi and algae 

.2 Eumycophyta ( True fungi ) 

Scope: mycology 

For Lichenes, see 589.1 

.22 Basidiomycetes ( Basidium fungi ) 

.221 Lycoperdales (PufiFballs and related fungi) 

Hymenogastrales (false tubers), Nidulariales (birdVnest 
fungi), Phallales (stinkhorn fungi) 

.222 Agaricales ( Mushrooms and related fungi) 

Agaricaceae (gill fungi), Polyporaceae (pore fungi) 

.225 Uredinales (Rust fungi) 

.227 Ustilaginales ( Smut fungi ) 

.23 Ascomycetes ( Sac fungi ) 

Plectomycetes, Discomycetes, Pyrenomycetes 

Common names: yeasts, Penicillium, mildews, cup fungi, black 

rot, ergot 

For downy mildews, see 589.252 

.24 Deuteromycetes ( Imperfect fungi ) 

Moniliales ( Hypomycetales ) , Sphaeropsidales, Melanconiales 

615 






Decimal Classification 



589.25 
.252 
.26 
.28 



.29 



.3 



.41 



.43 



.44 



.45 



.47 



.48 



.62 



Phycomycetes ( Molds ) 

Peronosporales ( Downy mildews ) 
Saprolegniales ( Water molds ) 
Mucorales and other Phycomycetes 

Mucorineae (black mold), Entomorphthorales (fly fungi), 
Chytridiales (chytrids) 

Myxomycophyta ( Slime molds ) 

Stemonitaceae and Arcyriaceae 

Algae (Phycology) 

For Cyanophyta, see 589.8 

Rhodophyta (Red algae) 

Bangioideae and Florideae ( red seaweeds, sea mosses ) 

Pyrrophyta ( Dinoflagellates ) 

Desmomona dales, Prorocentrales, Gymnodiniales, Amphilo- 
thales, Kolkwitziellales, Dinophysiales, Peridiniales, 
Rhizodiniales, Dinococcales, Dinotrichales 

Euglenophyta ( Euglenoids ) 

Euglenaceae, Colaciaceae, Astasiaceae, Peranemaceae 

Phaeophy ta ( Brown algae ) 

Ectocarpales ( kelps ) , Sphacelariales, Cutleriales, Tilopteridales, 
Chordariales, Sporochnales, Desmarestiales, Dictyosiphonales, 
Laminariales, Fucales (seaweeds, rockweeds) 

Chlorophyta (Green algae) 

Conjugales, Charales, Volvocales, Chlorococcales, Ulotrichales, 
Siphonales, Cladophorales, Chaetophorales, Oedogoniales 

Chrysophyta ( Golden algae ) 

Xanthophyceae ( yellow-green algae ) and Chrysophyceae 
For Bacillariophyceae, see 589.62 

Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) 
Centrales, Pennales, phytoplankton 

For a specific phytoplankton, see the subject, e.g., 
Dinoflagellates 589.43 

6i6 



589.7 



.8 



.9 



Botanical sciences 



Schizophyta ( Fission plants ) 

For Schizomycetes, see 589.9; Eumycophyta, 589.2; Cyanophyta, 
589.8 

Cyanophyta ( Blue-green algae ) 

Chroococcaceae, Chamaesiphonaceae, Clastidiaceae, Stigonemata- 

ceae, Nostocaceae, Rivulariaceae, Scytonemataceae, 

Oscillatoriaceae 

Common names: Myxophyceae, Schizophyceae, Cyanophyceae 

Schizomycetes (Bacteriology) 

Use 589.900 1 - 589.900 8 for standard subdivisions 



.901-.909 General principles 

Divide like 581.1-581.9, e.g., anaerobic respiration 
589.901 21 



.92 



.93 



.94 



.95 



.96 



.98 



.99 



Actinomycetales 

Mycobacteriaceae, Actinomycetaceae 

Chlamydobacteriales 
Chlamydobacteriaceae 

Caulobacteriales 

Nevskiaceae, Gallionellaceae, Caulobacteriaceae, Pasteuriaceae 

Eubacteriales 

Nitrobacteriaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Pseudonomadaceae, Acetobac- 
teriaceae, Azotobacteriaceae, Micrococcaceae, Neisseriaceae, 
Parvobacteriaceae, Lactobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae. 
Bacteriaceae, Bacillaceae 

Thiobacteriales 

Rhodobacteriaceae, Beggiatoaceae, Achromatiaceae 

Myxobacteriales 

Archangiaceae, Sorangiaceae, Polyangiaceae, Myxococcaceae 

Spirochaetales 
Spirochaetaceae 



617 



Decimal Classification 



590 Zoological sciences 

For taxonomic paleozoology, see 562-569 



.74 



.742 
.744 



.09 



.1 



.11 

.12 
.13 

.14 
.15 



.16 



.17 



Exhibits 

For arrangement in museums, see 579.7 

Museums 
Zoological gardens 



591 Zoology 



Class specific classes, orders, families in 592-599 

Historical treatment 

Class regional and geographical treatment in 591.9 





SUMMARY 


591.1 


Physiology 


.2 


Pathology 


3 


Maturation 


.4 


Morphology and descriptive anatomy 


J 


Ecology 


J6 


Economic zoology 


Ji 


Histology and cytology 


S 


Regional and geographical treatment 



Physiology 

For human physiology, see 612 

Circulation 

Respiration 

Nutrition and metabolism 

Secretion and excretion 

Genetics 

Heredity and variation 

Divide like 581.15, e.g.. mutations 591.159 2 

Reproduction 

Divide like 574.16, e.g., parthenogenesis 591.162 

Histogenesis 

Microscopic study of germ cells 

6i8 



Zoological sciences 



591.18 

.19 
.191 



.192 



[.193-.196] 



Movements 

Response to external stimuli, locomotion 

Physics and chemistry of vital processes 
Biophysics 

Divide like 574.191, e.g., effects of gamma rays 591.191 56 

Biochemistry 

Including its subdivisions [formerly 591.193-591.196] 
Divide like 574.192, e.g., enzymes 591.192 5 
For metabolism, see 591.13 

Subdivisions of biochemistry 
Class in 591.192 



.2 


Pathology 


.3 


Maturation 


.32 


Gametogenesis 




Formation and maturation of sex cells 




For histogenesis, see 591.17 


.33 


Embryology 


.34 


Metamorphoses 


.36 


Production and differentiation of sexes 


.38 


Evolution 


.4 


Morphology and descriptive anatomy 




For human anatomy, see 611 


.41 


Circulatory organs 


.42 


Respiratory organs 


•43 


Digestive organs 


.44 


Secretory and excretory organs 


.46 


Reproductory organs 


.47 


Muscular, skeletal, integumentary organs 


.48 


Organs of nervous system 


.49 


Topographic anatomy 




619 



Decimal Classification 



Zoological sciences 



591.5 
,51 



.52 

.53 



.54 

.542 



.543 



.55 



.56 

.57 
.59 

.6 



.69 



Ecology 

Behavior patterns in nature 

For specific patterns, see the subject, e.g., hibernation 591.543 

Migrations 
Nutritive adaptations 

Including food chains and cycles 

Adaptations to meteorological factors 
Adaptations to climatic conditions 
Adaptations to storms, rain, drought 

Adaptations to seasonal changes 
■ Hibernation and estivation 

Communities 

Aggregations, mutualistic and antagonistic symbioses 

Reproductive adaptations 

Protective adaptations 

Communication and production of sound 

Economic zoology 

Animals beneficial and deleterious to man's needs 

Poisonous animals 

Histology and cytology 

For germ cells, see 591,17 

Regional and geographical treatment 

Divide like 574.9, e.g., animals of desert regions 591.909 54 



^ 592-599 Taxonomic zoology 

In this schedule coordination and subordination are shown by 
indention, not by length of number 

592 Invertebrates 

Use 592.001-592.008 for standard subdivisions 

For Protozoa, Parazoa, Metazoa, see 593; MoUusca and 
moUuscoidea, 594; other invertebrates, 595 

.01-.09 General principles 

Divide hke 591.1-591.9, e.g., poisonous invertebrates 592.069 

593 Protozoa, Parazoa, Metazoa 

,1 Plasmodroma and Mastigophora 

Chysomonadina, Cryptomonadina, Phytomonadina, Euglenoidina, 
Chloromonadina, Dinoflagellata, Rhizomastigina, Protomonadina, 
Polymastigina, Hypermastigina 



m 



620 



.11 


Sarcodina and Rhizopoda 


•113 


Proteoinyxa 


.115 


Mycetozoa 




Eumycetozoa, Sorophora 


.117 


Amoebina 


.118 


Testacea 


.12 


Foraminifera 


.13 


Actinopoda 


.132 


Heliozoa 


.14 


Radiolaria 


.17 


Ciliophora 


.172 


Ciliata, Protociliata, Euciliata 




Holotricha, Spirotricha, Chonotricha, Peritri 


.175 


Suctoria 


•19 


Sporozoa 




Telosporidia, Acnidosporidia, Cnidosporidia 




621 



Decimal Classification 



593.4 


Porifera (Sponges) 


.42 


Calcispongiae 




Asconosa, Syconosa 


.44 


Hyalospongiae 




Hexasterophora, Amphidiscophora 



.46 



.5 



.6 



.7 



.73 



.9 

.91 



.93 



Desmospongiae 

Camosa, Choristida, Epipolasida, Hadromerina, Poecilosclerina, 
Haplosclerina, Keratosa 

Coelenterata 

For Anthozoa, see 593.6; Hydrozoa and related orders, 593.7 

Anthozoa 

Alcyonaria, Ceriantharia, Antipitharia, Dodecacorallia 
Common names: sea anemones, corals, sea fans, sea pens 

Hydrozoa and related orders 

Hydroida, Trachylina, Milleporina, Stylasterina, Siphonophora 
Common names: jellyfish, hydras, medusas, hydroid polyps 

Scyphozoa 

Lucernariidea, Charybdeidea, Corona, Semaeostomeae, 
Rhizostomeae 

Ctenophorae 

Tentaculata, Nuda 

Common names: sea walnuts, comb jellies 

Echinodermata, Enteropneusta, Linguatula 

Crinoidea ( Sea lilies ) 

Flexibiha, Articulata, Comatulida 

Asteroidea (Starfish) 

Phanerozonea, Spinulosa, Forcipulata 



622 



Zoological sciences 



593.94 



.95 



.96 

.99 

.992 
.993 



Ophiuroidea 

Phrynophiurida, Laemophiurida, Gnathophiurida, 
Cliilophiurida 

Common names: brittle stars, basket stars 

Echinoidea 

Cidaroida, Centrechinoida, Exocycloida, Perischoechinoida, 
Echinocystoida, Perichoechinoida 

Common names: sea urchins, sand dollars 

Holothurioidea ( Sea cucumbers ) 

Dendrochirota, Elasipoda, Aspidochirota, Molpadonia, Apoda 



Enteropneusta and Linguatula 
Linguatula 
Balanoglossida 

594 Mollusca and molluscoidea 

Use 594.000 1 - 594.000 9 for standard subdivisions 

.001-.008 Standard subdivisions of Mollusca 

,01-.09 General principles of Mollusca 

Divide like 591.1-591.9, e.g., ecology of mollusks 594.05 



.1 



.19 



.32 



594.1-594.5 Specific classes, orders, families of 
Mollusca 

Pelecypoda ( Bivalve mollusks ) 

Prionodesmacea, Anomalodesmacea, Teleodesmacea 
Common names: clams, mussels, oysters, shipworms 

Crepipoda ( Polyplacophora, Amphineura) 

Eoplacophora, Aplacophora, Mesoplacophora, Isoplacophora, 
Teleoplacophora 

Scaphopoda ( Toothshells ) 

Gastropoda 

Snails, slugs, whelks 

Prosobranchia 

Archaeogastropoda, Mesogastropoda, Neogastropoda 

623 



Decimal Classification 



Zoological sciences 



594.35 



.58 
.6 



.71 



.72 
.73 
.8 



595 



Pteropoda and Sacoglossa 

Common names: sea slugs, sea lemons, sea hares 



.36 


Acoela 




Notaspidea and Nudibranchia 


.37 


Tectibranchia 


.38 


Pulinonata 




Basommatophora and Stylommatophora 


J 


Cephalopoda 


.52 


Nautiloidea (Nautilus) 


.55 


Vampyromorpha 


.56 


Octopoda 




Common names: octopuses, cuttlefish, squids, devilfish 



Decapoda 

Molluscoidea 

For PhoTonidea, see 595.176 

Bryozoa 

Common names: sea mats, moss animals 

Gymnolaemata 

Cyclostomata, Trepostomata, Cryptostomata, Ctenostoma 

Phylactolaemata 
Pterobranchia 
Brachiopoda ( Lamp shells ) 

Other invertebrates 





SUMMARY 


595.1 


Wormlike animals 


.2 
.3 


Arthropoda 

Crustacea and related classes 


.4 


Arachnida 


.5 

.6 
.7 


Onychophora 
Progoneata 
Insecta (Insects) 




624 



595.1 
.12 
.121 

.122 

.123 

.124 



.13 



.131 



.16 



.17 



.174 



Wormlike animals 

Platyhelminthes ( Flatworms ) 

Cestoidea 

Cestodaria, Cestoda ( tapeworms ) 

Trematoda ( Flukes ) 

Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, Digenea 

Turbellaria (Planarians) 

Acoela, Rhabdocoela, Alloiocoela, Tricladida, Polycladida 

Nemertea 

Anopla, Enopla 

Nematoidea ( Roundworms ) 
Phasmidia, Aphasmidia 

Nematomorpha ( Horsehair worms) 
Gordididea, Nectonematoidea 



.133 


Acanthocephala 




Eoacanthocephala, Metacanthocephala 


.135 


Chaetognatha and Entoprocta 


.14 


Annelida (Segmented worms) 




For Myzostoma, see 595.178 


.142 


Archiannelida 


.15 


Hirudinea (Leeches) 



Rhynchobdellida, Gnathobdellida, Pharyngobdellida 

Oligochaeta (Earthworms) 

Plesipora, Ophisthopora, Prosopora 

Polychaeta 

Errantia, Sedentaria, Aplacophora 

Gephyrea 

Echiuroidea, Sipunculoidea, Priapuloidea 

625 



Decimal Classification 



595.176 
.178 
.18 



3 

.32 



.33 



.34 



.35 



.36 
.37 
.371 



.372 



Phoronidea 
Myzostoma 

Aschelminthes 

Tardigrada ( water bears ) , Rotatoria (wheel animalcules), 
Gastrotricha, Echinodera 

For Nematomorpha, see 595.131; Nematoidea, 595.13 

Arthropoda 

For Crustacea and related classes, see 595.3; Progoneata, 595.6 

Crustacea and related classes 

Branchiopoda 

Anostraca, Notostraca, Conchostraca, Cladocera 

Ostracoda 

Myodocopa, Cladocopa, Podocopa, Platycopa 

Copepoda 

Eucopepoda and Branchinra 
Common names : cyclops, fish lice 

Cirripedia ( Barnacles ) 

Thoracica, Ascothoracica, Apoda, Rhizocephala 

Liptostraca 
Eumalacostraca 

Amphipoda ( Sand fleas ) 

Gammaridea, Hyperiidea, Caprellidea, Ingolfiellidea 

Isopoda 

Flabellifera, Valvifera, Asellota, Phreatoicidea, Epicaridea, 
Oniscoidea ( sow bugs, wood lice ) 



.373 


Thermosbaenacea 


.374 


Tanaidacea 


.381 


Cuinacea 



626 



Zoological sciences 



595.382 



.4 
.42 



.43 

.44 

.45 

.46 

.47 

.48 

.5 

.6 



.61 



Stomatopoda 

Common names: sea mandes, glass crabs, mantis shrimps, 
squillas, sea onions 



.383 


Mysidacea (Opossum shrimps) 


.384 


Decapoda 


.3841 


Macnira (Lobsters, crayfish) 


.384 2 


Brachyiu-a (Crabs) 


.384 3 


Natantia (Shrimps) 


.384 4 


Anomura (Hermit crabs, king crabs) 


.385 


Euphausiacea 


.39 


Chelicerata 




For Arachnida, see 595.4 


.392 


Xiphosnra (Horseshoe crabs) 


.394 


Pycnogonida (Sea spiders) 



Colossendeomorpha, Nymphonomorpha, Ascorhyncho- 
morpha, Pycnogonomorpha 

Arachnida 

Acari ( Mites, ticks ) 

Notostigmata, Holothyroidea, Parasitiformes, Trombidiformes, 
Sarcoptiformes, Tetrapodili 

Phalangida (Harvestmen, daddylonglegs) 

Araneida ( True spiders ) 

Palpigradi (Whip scorpions) 

Scorpiones (Scorpions) 

Pseudoscorpiones (Fake scorpions) 

Solifugae (Weasel spiders) 
Onychophora 
Progoneata 

For Insecta, see 595.7 

Diplopoda ( Millipedes ) 
Pselaphognatha, Chilognatha 



627 



Decimal Classification 



.62 


Opisthogoneata 




Chilopoda (centipedes) 


.63 


Syiiiphyla 


.64 


Pauropoda 



.7 



.701-709 



71 



72 

721 
722 
724 
725 
726 



73 

731 
732 
733 
734 

735 

736 

737 

738 

74 

742 

744 



Insecta ( Insects ) 

Use 595.700 1 - 595.700 8 for standard subdivisions 

General principles 

Divide like 591.1-591.9, e.g., insect morphology 595.704 

Synaptera 

CoUembola ( springtails ) , Protura, Entotrophi, Thysanura 
( bristletails ) 

Orthoptera and related orders 

Dermaptera (Earwigs) 

Blattariae ( Cockroaches ) 

Phasmatodea ( Walking sticks ) 

Mantodea (Mantises) 

Orthoptera 

Common names: grasshoppers, crickets, locusts, katydids 

Thysanoptera and related orders 

Thysanoptera (Thrips) 

Corrodentia (Book lice, bark lice) 

Odonata (Dragonflies, damselflies) 

Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) 

Plecoptera (Stoneflies) 

Isoptera (Termites) 

Embioptera 

Zoraptera 
Neuroptera and related orders 

Megaloptera ( Ant lions ) 

Mecoptera ( Scorpion flies ) 

628 



Zoological sciences 



595.745 


Trichoptera (Caddis flies) 


.746 


Strepsiptera 


.747 


Neuroptera 




Common names: lacewings, snake flies, dobson flies 


.75 


Hemiptera and related orders 


.751 


Apterous insects (Lice) 


.7512 


Anoplura (True lice) 


.7514 


Mallophaga (Bird lice) 


.752 


Homoptera 




Common names: aphids, cicadas, leaf hoppers, scale insects 


.754 


Heteroptera ( True bugs ) 


.76 


Coleoptera ( Beetles ) 


.762 


Adephaga 



.764 



.765 

.767 

.768 

.769 

.77 

.771 



.774 



.775 



Caraboidea, Gyrinoidea, Cupoidea, Rhysodoidea 

Polyphaga 

Hydrophiloidea, Staphylinoidea, Cucujoidea, Cantharoidea, 
Dryopoidea, Dascylloidea, Histeroidea, Tenebrionoidea, 
Cerambycoidea, Scarabaeoidea 

Common names: burying beetles, larder beetles, leaf beetles, 
dung beetles, June beetles, rose chafers 

Elateroidea (Wireworms, click beetles) 
Mordelloidea (Ship-timber and blister beetles) 
Curculionoidea (Weevils) 
Colydioidea ( Powder-post and ladybird beetles ) 
Diptera and related orders 
Orthorrhapha 

Common names: midges, gnats, mosquitoes; crane, moth, 
horse, bee, robber flies 

Cyclorrhapha 

Common names: fruit, vinegar, house, blow, Tachina, louse 
flies 

Siphonaptera (Fleas) 

629 



Decimal Classification 



595.78 Lepidoptera 

Including Jugatae, Frenatae (moths) 

.789 Rhopalocera (Butterflies) 

.79 Hymenoptera 
.796 Formicidae (Ants) 

.798 Vespidae (True wasps) 

.799 Apidae(Bees) 

596 Chordata ( Vertebrates ) 

Use 596.001-596.008 for standard subdivisions 

For Anamnia, see 597; reptiles and birds, 598; Mammalia, 599 

.0 1-.09 General principles 

Divide like 591.1-591.9, e.g., comparative anatomy of 
vertebrates 596.04 

J2 Tunicata (Sea squirts and sea grapes) 

Ascidiacea, Larvacea, Thaliacea 

597 Anamnia ( Cyclostomes, fishes, amphibians ) 

Use 597.001-597.009 for standard subdivisions 

.01-.09 General principles of fish 

Divide like 591.1-591.9, e.g., protective adaptations of fish 
597.057 



a 

3 



.31 



.35 



Cyclostomata (Lampreys) 
Chondrichthyes 



.38 



597.31-597.35 Elasmobranchii 
Selachii (Sharks) 

Heterodontoidea, Notidanoidea, Galeoidea, Squaloidea 

Batoidea 

Common names: skates, rays, torpedoes, guitarfishes, sawfishes 

Chimaerae (Chimeras) 



630 



Zoological sciences 



597.4 
.41 
.42 
.44 

.46 

.47 
.48 



.51 

.52 



.53 



.55 



597.4-597.5 Osteichthyes 
Actinopterygii and related orders 

Amioidea (Bowfins, river dogfishes) 

Polypterini (Ganoids) 

Acipenseroidei 

Common names: sturgeons, paddlefishes, spoonbills 

Crossopterygii ( Lobe-finned fishes ) 
For Lepisosteidae, see 597.47 

Lepisosteidae ( Gars ) 
Dipnoi ( Lung fishes ) 

Teleostei 

Divide by orders as below 

If preferred, arrange alphabetically by orders 

Apodes ( Morays and true eels) 

Ostariophysi 

Cyprinoidea, Siluroidea 

Common names: carps, suckers, barbels, loaches, catfishes 

Mesichthyes 

Haplomi, Iniomi, Cyprinodontes, Synentognathi, Thoracostei, 
Salmopercae 

Common names: pikes, killifishes, top minnows, garfishes, flying 
fishes, halfbeaks, sticklebacks, pipefishes, sea horses, pirate 
perch 

Isospondyli 

Clupeoidea, Salmonoidea, Opisthoproctoidea, Osteoglossoidea, 
Stomiatoidea, Gonorhynchoidea 

Common names: herrings, salmon, arapaimas, dragonfishes, 
trout, tarpons, lantern fishes 



631 



Decimal Classification 



597.58 



.6 



.7 



.8 



598 



.1 



.11 

.112 

.119 

.12 

AS 

[.139] 
.14 



Acanthop tery gii 

Berycoidea, Zeoidea, Percoidea, Carangoidea, Scombroidea 
Trachinoidea, Blennioidea, Anacanthini, Chaetodontoidea 
Plectognathi, Heterosomata, Scorpaenoidea, Batrachoidea, 
Pediculati, Gobioidea, Anabantoidea, Mugiloidea, Polyne- 
moidea, Ammodytoidea, Echeneoidea, Xenopterygii, 
Allotriognathi, Opisthomi, Synbranchii 

Common names: snappers, John Dorys, perches, basses, gobies 
mackerels, blennies, pompanos, tunas, albacores, bonitos, 
swordfishes 

Amphibia 

For Apoda, see 597.7; Salientia, 597.8-597.9 

Apoda (Caecilians) 



597.8-597.9 Salientia 
Anura ( Frogs and toads ) 

Amphicoela, Opisthocoela, Anomocoela, Procela, Diplasiocoela 

Urodela ( Salamanders, newts, mud puppies ) 

Crytobranchoidea, Amblystomoldea, Salamandroidea, Proteidea 

Reptiles and birds 
Reptilia ( Reptiles ) 

Scope: herpetology 

For Amphibia, see 597.6 

Lepidosauria 

For Serpentes, see 598.12 

Lacertilia ( Lizards ) 

Rhynchocephalia (Tuataras) [formerly 598 A 39] 
Serpentes (Snakes) 
Chelonia (Turtles, tortoises) 

Pleurodira and Cryptodira 

Rhynchocephalia ( Tuataras ) 
Class in 598.119 

Crocodilia (Crocodiles, alligators) 

632 



Zoological sciences 



598.2 



.201 

.2013 
.207 
.207 2 
.207 23 
.207 3 
.209 



.29 
.291 



Aves (Birds) 

For specific orders of birds, see 598.3-598.9 

Philosophy and theory 

Protective measures 

Study and teaching 

Research 

Birdbanding and census taking 

Bird watching 
History of ornithology 

Class regional and geographical treatment in 598.29 



.21-28 General principles 

Divide like 591.1-591.8, e.g., bird migrations 598.252 



.292 
.292 2 
.292 3 
.292 4 
.293-.299 



Regional and geographical treatment 
Zonal and physiographic treatment 

Divide like 574.909, e.g., birds in desert regions 598.291 54 

Special groupings 

Land birds 

Shore birds 

Water birds 
Geographical treatment 

Add area notations 3-9 to 598.29 



•3 



.33 



598.3-598.9 Specific orders of birds 

Gruiformes and related orders 

Including Mesoenatides, Turnices, Grues, Heliomithes, 
Rhynocbeti, Eurypygae, Cariamae, Otides 

Common names: cranes, limpkins, rails, gallinules, coots 

Charadriiformes 

Charadrii, Lari, Alcae 

Common names: gulls, skimmers, terns, pufiBns, auks, munes, 
jacanas, oyster catchers, plovers, tumstones, woodcock, snipe, 
sandpipers, curlews, avocets, stilts, phalaropes 



633 



Decimal Classification 



Zoological sciences 



598.34 



.42 



.43 



.64 

.65 



Ciconiiformes 

Ardeae, Balaenicipites, Ciconiae, Phoenicopteri 

Common names : herons, bitterns, egrets, storks, ibises, 
spoonbills, flamingos 

Anseriformes and related orders 

Including Anhimae and Anseres 

Common names: swans, geese, ducks, mergansers, screamers 

Procellariiformes 

Common names; albatrosses, shearwaters, fulmars, petrels 

Pelecaniformes 

Phaethontes, Pelecani, Fregatae, Odontopteryges 

Common names: tropic birds, pelicans, gannets, boobies, 
cormorants, darters, snakebirds, man-o'-war birds 



.44 


Spheniscif ormes ( Penguins ) 




.442 


Gaviiformes (Loons) 




.443 


Colymbiformes (Grebes) 




^ 


Palaeognathae 




.51 


Struthionif ormes (Ostriches) 




.52 


Rheiforines (Rheas) 


- 


.53 


Casuariifonnes ( Cassowaries, ( 


3nius) 


.54 


Apterygif ormes ( Kiwis ) 




.55 


Tinamif ormes (Tinamous) 




.6 


Galliformes and Columbiformes 




.61 


Galli 





Common names: curassows, guans, grouse, quails, pheasants, 
turkeys, domestic chickens 

Opisthocomo (Hoatzins) 
Columbiformes 

Pterocletes and Columbae 

Common names : sand grouse, pigeons, doves 



598.7 



.72 



.73 
.74 



Ji 



.81 

.812 

.813 

.82 

.822 

.823 

.83 

.832 

.833 

.84 

.842 

.843 

.85 

.852 

.853 

.86 

.862 



Psittaciformes 

Common names: parrots, parakeets, macaws, lories 

Piciformes 

Galbulae and Pici 

Common names: jacamars, pufFbirds, barbets, honey guides, 

toucans, woodpeckers, flickers, piculets 

Trogonif ormes (Trogons) 
Cueuliformes 

Musophagi and Cuculi 

Common names: plantain eaters, cuckoos, roadrunners, anis 

Passerif ormes (Passerine, perching birds ) 

Divide by families as below 

If preferred, arrange alphabetically by families 

Tyrannidae ( Flycatchers ) 

Alaudidae ( Larks ) 

Hirundinidae (Swallows) 

Paridae (Titmice) 

Sittidae (Nuthatches) 

Certhiidae ( Creepers ) 

Chamaeidae (Wren-tits) 

Cinclidae (Dippers) 

Troglodytidae (Wrens) 

Mimidae (Thrashers and mockingbirds) 

Turdidae (Thrushes) 

Sylviidae ( Gnatcatchers and kinglets) 

Motacillidae (Wagtails and pipits) 

Bombycillidae (Waxwings) 

Ptilogonatidae ( Silky flycatchers ) 

Corvidae (Crows, magpies, jays) 

Laniidae (Shrikes) 



634 



635 



Decimal Classification 



598.863 Stumidae ( Starlings ) 

.87 Vireonidae (Vireos) 

.872 Parulidae ( Wood warblers ) 

.873 Ploceidae ( Weaver finches ) 

.88 Icteridae (Blackbirds) 

.882 Thraupidae (Tanagers) 

.883 Fringillidae 

Common names: grosbeaks, finches, sparrows, buntings 

.89 Coraciiformes 

Alcedines, Meropes, Coracii, Bucerotes 

Common names: kingfishers, rollers, todies, motmots, bee eaters, 
hoopoes, hornbills 

•899 Apodiformes 

Apodi and Trochili 

Common names: swifts, hummingbirds 

•9 Falconif ormes ( Birds of prey ) 

Including Cathartae and Falcones 

Common names: hawks, falcons, buzzards, vultures, ospreys, 
eagles 

.97 Strigiformes (Owls) 

.99 Caprimulgiformes 

Steatornithes and Caprimulgi 

Common names: oilbirds, frogmouths, potoos, goatsuckers 

Mammalia ( Mammals ) 

Use 599.001-599.008 for standard subdivisions 



599 



.01-09 General principles 

Divide hke 591.1-591.9, e.g., physiology of nervous system 
599.018 



636 



Zoological sciences 





SUMMARY 




599.1 


Monotremata 




2 


Marsupialia 




3 


Unguiculata and Glires 




.4 


Chiroptera (Bats) 




S 


Cetacea and Sirenia 




J6 


Paenungulata 




.7 


Mesaxonia, Paraxonia, 


Ferungulata 


A 


Primates 




.9 


Hominidae (Man) 





599.1 



.31 



.32 
.322 

.323 

.323 2 

.323 3 
.323 4 



.33 



.34 



Monotremata 

Common names: spiny anteaters, platypuses 

Marsupialia 

Common names: opossums, opossum rats, kangaroos, marsupial 
mice, wallabies, bandicoots, phalangers, koalas, wombats 

Unguiculata and Glires 

For Chiroptera, see 599.4; Primates, 599.8 

Edentata 

Xenarthra and Pholidota 

Common names: armadillos, anteaters, sloths, pangolins 

Glires 

Lagomorpha 

Common names: pikas, hares, rabbits 

Rodentia (Rodents) 

Sciuromorpha 

Common names: sewellels, squirrels, beavers 

Myomorpha 

Common names: rats, mice, lemmings 

Hystricomorpha 

Common names: porcupines, guinea pigs, cavies, agoutis, 
chinchillas, hamsters 

Insectivora 

Common names: solenodons, moles, shrews, desmans, tenrees 

Dermoptera ( Flying lemurs) 

637 



Decimal Classification 



599.4 



.51 



.53 



.55 



Chiroptera ( Bats ) 

Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera 

Cetacea and Sirenia 

Mysticeti 

Common names: baleen whales, whalebone whales, finbacks, 
humpback whales 

Odontoceti 

Common names : sperm whales, beakt whales, cowfish, 
narwhals, white whales, dolphins, porpoises 

Sirenia (Sea cows) 

Common names: manatees, dugongs 



.6 


Paenungnlata 




For Sirenia, see 599.55 


.61 


Proboscidea ( Elephants ) 


.62 


Hyracoidea 




Common names: conies, dassies, rock 


.7 


Mesaxonia, Faraxonia, Feriingulata 


.72 


Perissodactyla 


.725 


Equidae (Horses, asses, zebras) 


.727 


Tapiridae (Tapirs) 


.728 


Rhinocerotidae ( Rhinoceroses ) 


.73 


Artiodactyla 


.734 


Suiformes 



.735 
.735 5 
.735 7 



Common names: pigs, boars, wart hogs, babirussas, 
peccaries, hippopotamuses 

Ruminantia ( Ruminants ) 
Tragulida (Chevrotains) 
Cervoidea 

Common names: giraffes, okapis, deer, elk, moose, 
reindeer, caribou 



638 



599.735 8 



.736 



Zoological sciences 



Bovoidea 

Common names: antelopes, cattle, oxen, buffaloes, bison, 
elands, bongos, kudus, gazeUes, sheep, goats, musk oxen 

Tylopoda 

Common names: camels, llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos 



.74 


Carnivora 


.744 


Fissipeda (Land carnivores) 


.744 2 


Feloidea 


.744 22 


Viverridae 




Common names: civets, genets, mongooses, fossa 


.744 26 


Proteles (Aardwolves) 


.744 27 


Hyaenidae (Hyenas) 


.744 28 


Felidae (Cats) 


.7444 


Canoidea 


.744 42 


Canidae 




Common names: wolves, jackals, foxes, dogs, coyotes 



.744 43 



.744 46 
.744 47 



.745 
.746 

.747 
.748 



Procyonidae 

Common names: raccoons, coatis, kinkajous, 
bassarisks, pandas 

Ursidae (Bears) 

Mustelidae 

Common names: badgers, weasels, minks, martens, 
wolverines, skunks, otters 

Pinnipedia (Marine carnivores) 

Otariidae (Eared seals) 

Common names: fur seals, sea lions, sea bears 
Odobenidae (Wah*uses) 

Phocidae (True seals) 

Common names: earless seals, elephant seals 



639 



Decimal Classification 



599,8 



.81 



.82 



.88 

.882 



.884 



.9 



Primates 

For Hominidae, see 599.9 

Prosimii 

Lemuriformes, Lorisiformes, Tarsiiformes 

Cebidae, Callithricidae, Cercopithecidae 
Common names: monkeys, marmosets, tumarins 



599.88-599.9 Hominoidea 
Pongidae ( Apes ) 
Hylobatinae 

Common names: gibbons, siamangs 

Ponginae 

Common names : gorillas, cliimpanzees, orangutans, baboons 

Hominidae (Man) 



640 



600 



600 Technology (Applied sciences) 



[.74] 



[.78] 



601 
602 



.7 



.8 

603 

604 

605 

606 
[.4] 



607 



.3 

.34 



Museums and exhibits 
Class in 607.34 

Apparatus and instrumentation 
Class in 602.8 

Philosophy and theory 

Miscellany 

Identification marks 

Class patents and inventions in 608.7 

Apparatus, instrumentation [both formerly 600.78] , 
techniques 

Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances 

Serial publications 
Organizations 

Fairs, expositions, temporary exhibits, competitions 

Class fairs, expositions, temporary exhibits in 607.34, competitions 
in 607.39 

Study and teaching 

Industrial research (Products research) 

Add area notations 1-9 to 607.2 

Other educational aspects 

Museums and exhibits [both formerly 600.74] 

Including fairs, expositions, temporary exhibits [all formerly 
606.4] 



641 



Decimal Classification 



607.35-.38 



Collecting, review, programed teaching, use of 
equipment 

Divide like standard subdivisions 075-078, e.g., questions and 
answers 607.36 



.39 Competitions [formerly 606A] and awards 

.4-.9 In specific continents, countries, localities 

Add area notations 4-9 to 607 

608 Collections, anthologies^ patents, inventions 
.7 Patents and inventions 

Add area notations 1-9 to 608.7 

609 Historical and geographical treatment 



610 Medical sciences 

.6 Organizations and professions 

.69 Medical professions 

For nursing profession, see 610.73 



•695 



.695 2 
.695 3 
.696 
.7 
.72 



.73 



.730 69 
.730 692 



Specific medical professions 

Class medical records librarians in 362.1, medical mission- 
aries in 266.025, medical secretaries in 651.374 1 

Physicians and surgeons 
Medical technicians 
Physician-patient relationships 
Study, teaching, nursing practice 

Historical and descriptive research 
Class experimental medicine in 619 

Nursing profession 

For home nursing, see 649.8 

Personnel 

Professional nurses 



642 





Medical sciences 


610.730 693 


Practical nurses 


.730 698 


Other 




Attendants, aides, orderlies 


.732 


Private duty and special nursing 


.733 


Institutional nursing and ward management 


.734 


Red Cross and other public health nursing 




If preferred, class in 614.073 


.734 3 


Community and district nursing 




Services of visiting nurses 



611 



.734 6 Occupational health nursing (Industrial 

nursing) 

734 9 Disaster nursing 

736 Specialized nursing 

If preferred, class with the specialty, e.g., surgical nursing 

617.073 

.736 2 Pediatric nursing 

.736 5 Geriatric nursing 

736 7 Surgical and gynecological nursing 

736 77 Surgical nursing 

.736 78 Obstetrical nursing 

.736 8 Psychiatric nursing 

,736 9 Communicable disease nursing 

Human anatomy 

Use 611.001-611.009 for standard subdivisions 

,01 Abnormal, prenatal, microscopic anatomy 

For pathology, see 616.07 

.012 Teratology 

Congenital anomalies, deformities, monstrosities 



.013 



Anatomic embryology 



643 



611.018 
.0181 



.018 2 



Decimal Classification 



Cytology and histology 
Cytology (Study of cells) 



611.018 2-611.018 8 Histology 
Connective tissues 

Areolar, collagenous, elastic, reticular, adipose, pigmented 
cells, fibers, ground substances 



.018 3 



.018 4 



.018 5 



.018 6 



.018 7 



.018 8 



Cartilaginous tissues 

Hyaline, elastic, fibrous cartilage 

Osseous tissues 

Spongy and compact bone cells and tissues, red and 
yellow bone marrow (medulla), periosteum, endosteum 

Blood and lymph elements 

Blood plasma, red corpuscles (erythrocytes), white cor- 
puscles (leucocytes), platelets (thrombocytes), lymph 
plasma, lymphocytes 

Muscular tissues 

Smooth ( nonstriated, involuntary ) , skeletal ( striated, 
voluntary), cardiac (striated, involuntary) muscle tissues 

Epithelial tissues 

Serous and mucous membranes; simple squamous, col- 
umnar, stratified squamous epithelia 

Nerve tissues 

Neurons, interstitial nerve tissues ( neuroglia, neurilemma, 
satellite cells), meninges, sheaths 

611.1-611.9 Gross anatomy 



611.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.6 
.7 
.8 
.9 



SUMMARY 

Cardiovascular organs 

Respiratory organs 

Digestive organs 

Lymphatic and glandular organs 

Urogem'tal organs 

Motor and integumentary organs 

Neuroanatomy 

Regional, surgical, topographical anatomy 

644 



Medical sciences 



611.1 

.11 
.12 



Cardiovascular organs 

Pericardium 

Heart 

Ventricles, auricles, endocardium, myocardium 
For pericardium, see 611.11 





611.13-611.15 Blood ves 


.13 


Arteries 


.14 


Veins 


.15 


Capillaries 


.2 


Respiratory organs 


.21 


Nose and nasal accessory sinuses 


.22 


Larynx 




Epiglottis, glottis, laryngeal muscles 


.23 


Trachea and bronchi 


.24 


Lungs 


.25 


Thoracic pleura 


.26 


Diaphragm 


.27 


Mediastinum 


.3 


Digestive organs 


.31 


Mouth 


.313 


Tongue 


.314 


Teeth 


.315 


Palate 


.316 


Salivary glands 


.317 


Lips 


.318 


Cheeks 


.32 


Pharynx, tonsils, esophagus 


.33 


Stomach and pylorus 



645 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



611.34 



.341 



.345 
.347 



Intestines 

For rectum, see 611.35 

Small intestines 

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum 

Cecum and vermiform appendix 
Large intestines 

Colon and sigmoid flexure 
For cecum, see 611.345 



.35 


Rectum, anus, perineum 


.36 


Biliary tract 




Liver, gall bladder, bile ducts 


.37 


Pancreas and islands of Langerhans 


.38 


Peritoneum 




Mesentery, omentum, coelum 


.4 


Lymphatic and glandular organs 


.41 


Spleen 


.42 


Lymphatic system 




For lymphatic glands, see 611.46 


.43 


Thynms gland 


.44 


Thyroid and parathyroid glands 


.45 


Adrenal glands 


.46 


Lymphatic glands 


.49 


Breasts and mammary glands 


.6 


Urogenital organs 


.61 


Kidneys and ureters 


.62 


Bladder and urethra [formerly also 61 1.67] 


.63 


Testicles, prostate, scrotum 


.64 


Penis 


.65 


Ovaries and Fallopian tubes 


.66 


Uterus and cervix 




646 



611.67 



.718 



.72 



Vagina, hymen, vulva 

Class urethra [formerly 611.67] in 611.62 



.7 


Motor and integumentary organs 


.71 


Bones 


.711 


Of spinal coluiim 




611.712-611.713 Of c 


.712 


Ribs 


.713 


Sternum 


.715 


Of brainpan 


.716 


Of face 


.717 


Of upper extremity 



Scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, phalanges of the 
hands, carpal and metacarpal bones 

Of lower extremity 

Hipbone, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, phalanges of the feet, 
tarsal and metatarsal bones 

Articulations (Ligaments and joints) 



.73 


Muscles 


.731 


Of back 


.732 


Of head 


.733 


Of neck 


.734 


Of tongue 


.735 


Of chest 


.736 


Of abdomen and pelvis 


.737 


Of upper extremity 




Muscles of shoulders, anus, forearms, hands 


.738 


Of lower extremity 




Muscles of hips, buttocks, thighs, legs, feet 



647 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



611.74 


Connective tissue 




Tendons and fasciae 




For ligaments, see 611.72 


.75 


Bursae and sheaths of tendons 


.77 


Integument 




For hair and nails, see 611.78 


.78 


Hair and nails 


.8 


Neuroanatomy 


.81 


Brain 


.82 


Spinal cord 


.83 


Nerves and ganglions 


► 


611.84-611.88 Sense organs 


.84 


Eye 


.85 


Ear 


.86 


Olfactory organs 


.87 


Gustatory organs 


.88 


Tactile organs 


.9 


Regional, surgical, topographical anatomy 


.91 


Head 




For face, see 611.9? 


.92 


Face 


.93 


Neck 


.94 


Thorax 


.95 


Abdomen 




Epigastric thru lumbar regions 


.96 


Pelvic and perineal region 


.97 


Upper extremities 


.98 


Lower extremities 



612 Human physiology 

Use 612.001-612.009 for standard subdivisions 
For pathology, see 616.07 

.01 Physics and chemistry of vital functions 

.014 Biophysics 

Effects of physical agents on human system 

For physiological effects of heat and cold, see 612.59 

,014 4 Terrestrial factors 

.014 41 Mechanical factors 

Divide like 574.191 3, e.g., pressures 612.014 415 



.014 42 
.014 44 
.014 45 
.014 48 



.014 5 



.015 



.0151 



.015 2 



.015 4 



.018 



Electricity 
Visible light waves 
Sound vibrations 
Radiations and microwaves 

Divide like 574.191 5, e.g., gamma rays 612.014 486 
For visible light waves, see 612.014 44 

Space physiology (Bio-astionautics) 

Divide like 574.191 3 - 574.191 7, e.g., gravitational 
effects 612.014 532 

Biochemistry 

Class metabolism in 612.39, hormones in 612.405 

Enzymes and enzyme-catalyzed reactions 

Divide like 574.192 5, e.g., saccharolytic enzymes 
612.015 14 

Chemical composition 

Divide like 574.192 1, e.g., mineral components 
612.015 24 

Biosynthesis 

Divide like 574.192 9, e.g., pigments 612.015 47 

Tissue and organ culture 



648 



649 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



612.1 



.11 



.111 
.111 1 
.1112 
.112 
.1121 
.1122 
.112 7 
.115 



612.1-612.8 Specific systems and organs 

Functions, biophysics, biochemistry, innervation 

SUMMARY 



612.1 

A 

.S 
.7 



Circulatory and hemic systems 

Respiratory system 

Nutrition 

Lymphatic, endocrine, exocrine systems 

Body temperature 

Reproductive system and developmental periods 

Motor and integumentary systems 

Nervous system 

Circulatory and hemic systems 

Class circulation in a specific system or organ with the system or 
organ 

For lymphatic system, see 612.42 





SUMMARY 


612.11 


Blood 


.12 


Chemical components of blood 


.13 


Blood vessels and circulation 


.14 


Blood pressure and sphygmomanometry 


.17 


Heart 


.18 


Vasomotors 



Blood 



For spleen, see 612.41; bone marrow, 612,491; chemical com- 
ponents of blood, 612.12 

Red corpuscles (Erythrocytes) 

Biochemistry 

Counting techniques 
White corpuscles ( Leucocytes ) 

Biochemistry 

Biophysics 

Coimting techniques 

Coagulation products 

Composition and properties of blood plasma, fibrin, fibrino- 
plastin, thrombin 

Class platelets [formerly 612.115] in 612.117 



612.117 

.118 
.1181 



.118 2 
.118 22 

.118 25 
.12 

.13 

.133 

.134 

.135 

.14 

.17 

.171 



.173 



.178 



•18 



Other components 

Platelets [formerly 612.115] and hemoconia 

Physical and biological properties 

Physical properties 

Osmotic pressure, viscosity, density, specific gravity, 
cryoscopic methods of study 

Biological properties 
Immunity 

Production of antibodies, and immune reactions 

Blood types and typing 
Chemical components of blood 

Carbohydrates, lipoids, cholesterin, mineral salts, enzymes 

Blood vessels and circulation 
For vasomotors, see 612.18 

Arteries and arterial circulation 

Veins and venous circulation 

Capillaries and capillary circulation 
Blood pressure and sphygmomanometry 
Heart 

Biophysics 

Contraction and dilation of heart cavities, valvular activity, 
recording methods 

For blood pressure, see 612.14 

Biochemistry 

Chemical composition and metabolism 

Innervation 

Nerve distribution and stimidation of heart 

Vasomotors 

Nerves causing dilation (vasodilators) and constriction (vaso- 
constrictors) of blood vessels 



650 



65^ 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



612.2 
21 

.215 



.22 



.26 
.28 



.3 



.31 

.311 
.312 
.313 
.315 
.32 



.33 
.34 
.35 



.36 



Respiratory system 
Biophysics 

Respiratory movements, rhythm, sounds and similar phenomena 

Of Specific organs 

Nose and pharynx, bronchi, trachea, pleura, lungs, pulmo- 
nary muscles 

Biochemistry 

Gas exchange and metabolism 
For catabolism, see 612.26 

Tissue respiration and catabolism 

Innervation 

Nerve distribution and stimulation of respiratory apparatus 

Nutrition 

Sum total of processes of ingestion, digestion, assimilation of food 
to build and maintain tissue, and to release energy ' 



612.31-612.38 Physiology of digestive system 
Mouth and esophagus 

Teeth 

Tongue and tonsils 

Salivary glands and saliva 

Esophagus 
Stomach and gastric juice 



612.33-612.36 Intestinal digestion 
Small intestines and intestinal secretions 
Pancreas and pancreatic secretions 
Biliary tract 

Liver, gall bladder, bile and bile ducts 

Large intestines and defecation 



652 



612.38 



.39 



.391 

.392 
.392 3 
.392 4 
.392 6 

.396 
.397 
.398 
.399 

A 



Absorption 

Transfer of digested food from alimentary canal into blood 

stream 

Class absorption in a specific part of the alimentary canal with 

the part 

MetaboHsm 

Assimilation of digested food into tissue (anabolism) and con- 
version into energy (catabolism) 

For energy metabolism, see 612.57; catabolism, 612.26; hor- 
mones in the body, 612.405 

Hunger and thirst mechanisms 

Mineral metabolism 
Water 

Sulfur, phosphorus, iron, trace elements 
Sodium, potassium, calcium salts 

Carbohydrate metabolism 
Fat and lipoid metabolism 
Protein metabolism 
Vitamins in the body 

Lymphatic, endocrine, exocrine systems 

Use 612.400 1 - 612.400 9 for standard subdivisions 
Class glands of a specific system with the system 



.405 


Hormones in the body 


.41 


Spleen 




For red corpuscles, see 612.111 


.42 


Lymphatic system 




Lymph, lymph glands and ducts 


.43 


Thymus gland 


.44 


Thyroid and parathyroid glands 


.45 


Adrenal glands 




653 



Decimal Classification 



612.46 


Urinary system 


.461 


Chemical properties of nrine 




Chemical composition, reactivity, analysis 


.463 


Kidneys 


.467 


Ureters, bladder, uretlira 


.49 


Other endocrine glands 


.491 


Bone marrow 




For red corpuscles, see 612.111 


.492 


Pituitary and pineal glands 


.5 


Body temperature 




Heat production, radiation, regulation, measurement 


.55 


Disturbances in heat regulation 


•57 


Energy metabolism ( Basal metabolism ) 


.59 


Physiological effects of heat and cold 


.591 


High temperatures 


.592 


Low temoeratures 



.6 



.61 
.62 
.63 



.64 



.6401 



.646 



Reproductive system and developmental periods 

Use 612.600 1 - 612.600 9 for standard subdivisions 

Male reproductive system 
Female reproductive system 
Pregnancy 

For embryology, see 612.64 

Embryology 

Use 612.640 01 - 612.640 09 for standard subdivisions 

Development of specific systems and organs 

Divide like 611, e.g., development of eye 612.640 184 

Development of embryo 

Intra-uterine development from conception thru three 
months 



654 



Medical sciences 



612.647 



[.648] 

.65 
.652 

.654 
.66 



.741 

.743 
.744 



Development of fetus 

Intra-uterine development from end of embryonic period to 
birth 

Development of newborn 
Class in 612.652 

Child development 

Development of newborn [formerly 612.648] 
First month of postnatal development 

Development from infancy to puberty 
Adult development 





For aging, see 612.67 


.661 


Adolescent development 


.662 


Menstruation 


.663 


Period of mature development 


.664 


Mammary glands and lactation 


.665 


Climacteric development 




Male and female climacteric changes 


.67 


Aging (Physical gerontology) 


.68 


Longevity factors 


.7 


Motor and integumentary systems 


.74 


Muscles 



.75 



Class muscles of a specific system or organ with the system or 
organ 

Biophysics 

Contractions, elasticity, tonus, irritability 

Innervation 

Biochemistry 

Muscular metabolism, chemical composition, fatigue 
products 

Bones, joints, connective tissues 

655 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



61276 

78 

79 



791 

792 
7921 
792 7 
798 
799 

.801 



^1 



.811 

.8115 

.8116 

.813 

.816 

.819 



Locomotion, exercise, rest 
Voice and speech 

Larynx and mouth, nose, lips, palate as organs of speech 

Integument, hair, nails 



612791-612798 Skin 
Biophysics 

Contractions, tonus, inritability, absorbency, resistivity 

Biochemistry 

Glands and glandular secretions 

Pigmentation 
Innervation 
Nails and hair 
Nervous system 

Innervation principles 



612.81-612.89 Parts of the nervous system 

SUMMARY 

612.81 Nerves and nerve fibers 

.82 Brain 

.83 Spinal cord 

.84 Eye 

.85 Ear 

.86 Olfactory organs 

.87 Gustatory organs 

.88 Tactile and proprioceptive organs 

.89 Autonomic nervous system 

Nerves and nerve fibers 

Class specific nerves with the part innervated 

For autonomic nervous system, see 612.89 

Types of nerves by function 

Motor nerves 

Sensory nerves 
Electrophysiology 
Irritability 

Cranial and spinal nerves 

656 



612.82 
.821 



.822 
.824 
.825 



.825 2 
.825 5 
.826 



Brain 



Sleep 

Metabolism, circulation, chemical changes in brain during 
sleep phenomena 

Biochemistry and biophysics 
Circulation 

Cerebrum 

Cerebral hemispheres, convolutions, cortex 

For cerebral commissures and peduncles, see 612.826 

LocaUzation of motor functions 
Localization of sensory functions 

Brain stem 

Thalamus, cerebral commissures and peduncles, geniculate 
bodies, corpora quadrigemina, pons VarioUi 
For medulla oblongata, see 612.828 



.827 


Cerebellum 


.828 


Medulla oblongata 


.83 


Spinal cord 




612.84-612.88 Sense organs 


.84 


Eye 


.841 


Fibrous tunics 




Cornea, conjunctiva, anterior chamber, sclera 


.842 


* 

Uvea 




Iris, choroid, ciliary body 


.843 


Optic nerve and retina 


.844 


Eyeball 




Crystalline lens, aqueous humor, vitreous humor 


.846 


Movements (Ocular muscular mechanism) 


.847 


Eyelids and tear ducts 




Palpebral and lacrimal mechanism 




657 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 






612.85 Ear 

.851 External ear 

.854 Middle ear 

Tympanic membrane, eustachian tube, ossicles, mastoid 
processes 

.858 Internal ear 

Cochlea, labyrinth, semicircular canals, vestibule 

.86 Olfactory organs 

•87 Gustatory organs 

.88 Tactile and proprioceptive organs 

.89 Autonomic nervous system 

. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems 

General and personal hygiene 

Health and its preservation 
For public health, see 614 

.07 Study and teaching 

Including health education [formerly also 371.76] 

SUMMARY 

613.1 Environment and health 

.2 Food and health 

.3 Beverages and health 

.4 Care of person 

.5 Housing and health 

.6 Health and well-being under unusual conditions 

.7 Rest, exercise, physical fitness 

.8 Addictions and health 

.9 Factors relating to heredity, sex, age 

.1 Environment and health 



613 



For housing and health, see 613.5 

•11 Climate 

For seasonal changes, see 613.13 

[.110 911] Arctic hygiene 

Do not use; class in 613.111 

658 



[613.110 913] 

.111 
.113 
.119 
.12 

.13 

.14 

.18 

.19 

.192 

.193 

.194 

.2 



.24 
.25 
.26 

.28 
^ 

.31 

.36 
.37 
.38 
.4 

.41 
.48 



Tropical hygiene 

Do not use; class in 613.113 

Arctic hygiene 
Tropical hygiene 
Acclimation 
Health resort areas 

Regions exempt from specific diseases 

Seasonal changes 

Humidity 

Indoor temperatures and air conditioning 

Air and Ught 

Fresh air and breathing exercises 

Sun bathing 
Nudism 

Food and health 

Food programs for general well-being and improved appearance 
For beverages and health, see 613.3 

Programs for gaining weight 
Programs for losing weight 
Vegetarian diets 
High-protein diets 
Beverages and health 
For alcohol, see 613.81 

Water 

Iced beverages 

Hot beverages 

Carbonated and minerahzed waters 

Care of person 

Cleanliness and comfort 



Baths and bathing 
Clothing 



659 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



613.5 

.6 

.62 

.66 
.67 

.68 

.69 



.7 

.71 

.78 
.79 



.81 

.83 
.84 
.85 

.92 

.93 

.94 

.942 

.943 



.95 
.952 



Housing and health 

Health and well-being under unusual conditions 

Industrial hygiene [formerly 331.82] 

Self-defense 

Military and camp hygiene 

Shipboard hygiene 

Survival instructions 

Survival after accidents, disasters, other unfavorable circum- 
stances 

Rest, exercise, physical fitness 

Including physical education [formerly 371.73] 

Exercise 

Correct posture 

Relaxation, rest, sleep 

Addictions and health 

Habit-forming stimulants and narcotics as factors deleterious to 
health 

Alcohol 
Narcotics 
Stimulants 
Tobacco 
Factors relating to heredity, sex, age 
Inherited mental disorders 
Inherited physical disorders 
Eugenic practices 

Sterilization 

Birth control 

Natural (rhythm), chemical, mechanical methods of con- 
traception 

Sex hygiene 
For men 




.97 



.972 
.973 

.977 



614 



.07 

.073 



.09 



.1 



.11 
.12 



For boys 
For women 
For girls 
Hygiene for specific age groups 

For a specific aspect, see the subject, e.g., baths and bathing 
613.41 

Infants and children 
Adolescents 
Middle-aged and aged 

Public health 

Class laws, regulations, legal aspects in 340, public administration as- 
pects in 350.77 [both formerly 614] 

For forensic medicine, see 340.6; medical social work, 362.1; 
toxicology, 615.9 

Study, teaching, nursing practice 

Red Cross and other public health nursing 
(Optional; prefer 610.734) 

Historical and geographical treatment 
Add area notations 1-9 to 614.09 



I 



614,1-614.8 Specific public health measures 

SUMMARY 

614.1 Registration and certification 

•2 Licensure and registration 

«3 Adulteration and contamination controls 

.4 Control of disease 

J Control of specific diseases 

•6 Disposal of the dead 

,7 Sanitation and environmental comfort 

•8 Accidents and their prevention 

Registration and certification 

For vital statistics, see 312.1—312.4 

Birth certification 
Death certification 



*> 



66o 



66i 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



614.14 Reports on causes of death 

.15 Morbidity reports 

.17 Premarital examinations and certification 

•2 Licensure and registration 

Of physicians, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, other medical spe- 
cialists 

[.25] Medical economics 

Class comprehensive works in 338.47, collecting of medical ac- 
counts in 658.883, compensation of physicians in 331.2 

•3 Adulteration and contamination controls 

Safeguarding pubhc health by inspecting, standardizing, certifying, 
labeling common commodities 

Use 614.300 1 - 614.300 9 for standard subdivisions 
.301-.309 Standard subdivisions of food and drug control 



.31 



614.31-614.34 Protection from food adulteration 

Food 

Fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry, fish, shellfish in all forms 
For dairy products, see 614.32; beverages, 614.34 



.32 


Dairy products 


.33 


Food additives 




Permissible and prohibited additives 


.34 


Beverages and their bases 


.35 


Drugs and cosmetics 


.351 


Officinal drugs 


.352 


Magistral drugs 


.353 


Patent medicines 


.354 


Cosmetics 


.36 


Tobacco and tobacco products 


.37 


Other commodities 



614.4 



Control of disease 

For corUrol of specific diseases, see 614.5 

.42 Geographical distribution of disease ( Medical 

geography) 

.422 Regional treatment 

Divide like area notation 1, e.g., diseases in the tropics 
614.422 3 

.423-.429 Geographical treatment 

Add area notations 3-9 to 614.42 



.43 



.432 
.432 2 
.432 3 
.432 4 
.432 9 
.433 
.434 
.438 
.439 
.44 



.45 



.46 



Disease carriers (Vectors) 

Transmission of disease by animal carriers and their control 
Class control of diseases transmitted by animals in 614.56 

Insects 

Flies 

Mosquitoes 

Lice and fleas 

Other insects 
Ticks and other arachnids 
Birds 
Rodents 

Other disease carriers 
Preventive medicine 

Pubhc measures for preventing disease 

For specific control measures, see 614.45-614.48 



614.45-614.48 Specific control measures 

Isolation 

Prevention of spread of disease in homes, hospitals, schools, 
public places thru isolation 

Quarantine 

Maritime, land, air quarantine regulations 



662 



663 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



'T 



-h: 






614.47 



.48 
.49 



.5 



.51 
,511 
.512 
.514 

.516 
.517 
.518 



.52 
.521 
.522 
.523 



Immunization 

Public measures for preventing disease thru protective inocu- 
lation 



Disinfection, fumigation, sterilization 

Epidemiology 

History and control of epidemics 
Add area notations 1-9 to 614.49 

Control of specific diseases 

SUMMARY 



614.51 

.52 
.53 
.54 
.55 
.56 
.58 
.59 



Bacillary intoxications, enteric and influenzal 

diseases 

Eruptive fevers (Exanthemata) 

Protozoan infections 

Other communicable diseases 

Parasitic diseases 

Zoogenous diseases 

Mental hygiene 

Other noncommunicable diseases 



614,51-614.56 Control of specific infectious diseases 
Bacillary intoxications, enteric and influenzal diseases 
Typhoid fever (Enteric fever) 
Diphtheria 
Cholera 

Asian, Indian, epidemic, mahgnant, pestilential cholera 

Amoebic and bacillary dysentery 

Epidemic diarrhea 

Influenzas 

Spanish and Asian influenza, other acute influenzalike dis- 
eases in epidemic form 

Eruptive fevers (Exanthemata) 

Smallpox (Variola major) and attenuated forms 
Scarlet fever ( Scarlatina ) 
Measles (Rubeola) 

664 




.53 

.54 

.541 

.542 
.543 
.544 
.545 
.546 
.547 
.547 2 
.547 8 
[.548] 

.549 
.55 



.56 



.561 



German measles (Rubella, roetheln) 
Chicken pox (Varicella) 
Rickettsial infections 

Divide like 616.922, e.g., typhus 614.526 2 

Protozoan infections 

Divide like 616.936, e.g., malarial fevers 614.532 

Other communicable diseases 

For parasitic diseases, see 614.55; zoogenous diseases, 614.56 

Yellow fever 
Pulmonary tuberculosis 
Whooping cough (Pertussis) 
Mumps (Epidemic parotitis) 
Puerperal septicemia and pyemia 
Leprosy (Hansen's disease) 
Venereal diseases 

Syphilis 

Gonorrhea [formerly 614.548] 

Gonorrhea 

Class in 614.547 8 

Poliomyelitis 

Parasitic diseases 

Divide like 616.96, e.g., control of schistosomiasis 614.553 

For protozoan infections, see 614.53; amoebic dysentery, 
614.516; zoogenous diseases, 614.56 

Zoogenous diseases 

For protozoan infections, see 614.53; yellow fever, 614.541 

Anthrax (Charbon) 

Woolsorters' disease, splenic fever 



.562 


Trichinosis 


.563 


Rabies (Hydrophobia) 




665 



M 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



614.564 



'"•'i 



.565 
.566 



.58 



.582 
.582 2 



.582 3 



.582 4 



Glanders (Equinia) 
Including farcy 

Undulant fever ( Brucellosis ) 
Parrot fever (Psittacosis) 



614.58-614.59 Noncommunicable diseases 
Mental hygiene [formerly 131.3] 

Measures to preserve mental health and prevent mental illness 

Factors aflFecting mental health 
Mental factors 

Anxiety, fear, insecurity 

Physical factors 

Fatigue, illness, disablement 

Social and environmental factors 

Housing, neighborhoods, war, personal relationships 



.583 
.583 2 


614.583-614.585 Programs for specific grou 
Programs for specific age groups 
Infants 


.583 3 


Children 


.583 4 


Adolescents 


.583 5 


Mature adults 


.583 6 


Middle-aged and aged 


.584 


Programs for specific occupational groups 

Divide like 920.1-928.9, e.g., mental health 
teachers 614.584 37 


.585 


Programs on basis of marital status 


.585 2 
.585 3 


Married people 
Parents 


.585 32 


Fathers 


.585 33 


Mothers 



614.585 4 

.585 5 

.589 



.59 

.591-.598 



.71 

.712 



.715 
.716 



Bachelors 
Spinsters 
Geographical treatment 

Add area notations 1-9 to 614.589 

Other noncommunicable diseases 
Diseases of regions, systems, organs 

Divide like 616.1-616.8, e.g., prevention and control of heart 
disease 614.591 2 

For mental hygiene, see 614.58; cancer, 614.599 9 



.599 


Other programs 


.599 2 


Maternal and infant welfare 


.599 6 


Dentistry 




Including fluoridation of water supply [formerly 614.772] 


.599 7 


Ophthalmology 


.599 8 


Otology 


.599 9 


Cancer 


.6 


Disposal of the dead 


.61 


Interment and cemeteries 


.62 


Cremation and crematories 


.63 


Transportation of the dead 


.64 


Embalming, undertaking, post-mortem plastic 




surgery 


.68 


Morgues 


.7 


Sanitation and environmental comfort 



666 



61471-614.77 Sanitary control of air and ground 
Prevention and correction of pollution thru regulation 

Air pollution 

By smoke, fumes, gases 

Contamination by particulates in suspension and their 
atmospheric combination, e.g., smog 

By radioactive substances 

By microbes 

667 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 






Ki 



p.i 



til 






614.76 



.77 
.772 



.776 

.78 

.79 



.791 



.792 



.794 
.796 
.797 
.799 

.8 



.81 
.82 
.83 
.831 



.832 
.836 



Wastes and oflFensive materials 

Regulation of sewage and garbage disposal, dumps and dump- 
ing, storage and transportation of malodorous materials 

Soil and water pollution 
Water and water supply 

Class fluoridation [formerly 614.772] in 614.599 6 

Soil 

Noise control 

Public buildings and assembly places 

Sanitary regulation of operations, operating personnel, main- 
tenance of premises and equipment 

Eating places 

Restaurants, lunchrooms, milk bars, cafeterias, roadside 

stands 

Dwelling places 

Hotels, inns, motels, tourist houses, boarding houses 

Public comfort stations 
Swimming pools and bathing beaches 
Barbershops and beauty shops 
Public carriers 

Accidents and their prevention 

Safety thru regulation, inspection, other protective measures 

By drowning 
By gas suffocation 

By machinery and hazardous materials 
Flammable materials 

Gasolines, natural and synthetic gases, matches, other similar 
materials 

Explosives and fireworks 
Electrical equipment and appliances 

668 



614.838 


Machinery 


.839 


Radioactive materials 


.84 


By fire 


.841 


Fire prevention 


.843 


Fire extinction 




For specific mediums of fire extinction, see 614.844-614.846 


► 


614 811 614.846 Specific mediums of fire extmction 


.844 


Thru automatic sprinkling devices 


.845 


With chemical extinguishers 


.846 


With water 



.847 



.85 

.86 

.862 

.863 

.864 

.869 

.87 

.875 



.877 
.88 



Safety measures 

Regulation of fire escapes, exits from public buildings, fire- 
resistant construction 

For fire prevention, see 614.841 

In industry [formerly 331.823] 

In traveling 
On highways 

On railroads and streetcars 
On water 
In the air and in space 

Under other conditions 

Catastrophic events of natural origin 

Safety measures and rescue operations connected with hur- 
ricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods. 
snowstorms 

Sports activities 

First aid 

Nonprofessional emergency treatment to accident victims be- 
fore regular medical or surgical care can be given 



669 



Decimal Classification 



615 



I 



U 



.1 



.11 



.12 



.13 



.14 



.19 



Therapeutics and pharmacology 

Class therapies applied to specific diseases in 616 

SUMMARY 



615.1 


General pharmacology and materia medica 


a 


Mineral drugs 


^ 


Organic drugs 


A 


Practical pharmacy 


J 


Therapeutics 


.6 


Methods of medication 


.7 


Pharmacodynamics 


S 


Physical and other therapies 


.9 


Toxicology 



615.1-615.3 Pharmacology and pharmacy 

For practical pharmacy, see 615.4; toxicology, 615.9 

General pharmacology and materia medica 

For specific groups and kinds of pharmaceuticals, see 615.2-615.3 

Pharmacopeias 

Add area notations 4-9 to 615.11 

Dispensatories 

Add area notations 4-9 to 615.12 

Formularies ( Collected prescriptions ) 
Add area notations 3-9 to 615.13 

Posology 

Prescription writing, dosage determination, incompatibilities 

Pharmaceutical chemistry 

Manufacture, preparation, analysis of drugs, medicinals, bio- 
logical products 

Including comprehensive works on synthetic drugs [formerly 
615.2] 

Use 615.190 01 - 615.190 09 for standard subdivisions 

Class specific groups and kinds of synthetic drugs in 615.2-615.3 



6jo 



615.190 1 
.190 15 
.190 18 
.191 



.2 



.31 



.32 



.321 



Medical sciences 



Analysis 

Chemical analysis 
Assay methods 
Manufacture and preparation 



615.2-615.3 Specific groups and kinds of 
pharmaceuticals 

Pharmaceutical chemistry and general therapeutics of naturally- 
occurring and synthetic products 

Class physiological and therapeutic action of drugs in 615.7 

Mineral drugs 

Divide like 546.2-546.7, e.g., calomel 615.266 3 

If preferred, arrange specific mineral drugs alphabetically 

Class comprehensive works on synthetic drugs [formerly 615.2] in 
615.19 

Organic drugs 

Divide by kind and source as below 

If preferred, arrange specific organic drugs alphabetically 

Synthetic drugs 

Divide like 547.01-547.09, e.g., sulfonamides 615.316 7 
Class synthetic vitamins in 615.328 

Drugs of vegetable origin 
For enzymes, see 615.35 

Pharmacognosy 

Crude drugs and simples, alkaloids, herbals 

For drugs derived from specific plants, see 615.323— 
615.327 



.323-.327 



,328 



Drugs derived from specific plants 

Divide like 583-587, e.g., digitalis 615.323 8 

For drugs derived from thallophytes, see 615.329 

Vitamins 

For fish-liver oUs, see 615.34 

671 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



\ 
^ 



615.329 

.34 

.35 



.36 



.362 
.363 
.364 



.365 
.366 
.367 
.369 
.37 



.372 
.373 
.375 

.39 



.406 5 



Drugs derived from thallophytes 
Divide like 589, e.g., ergot 615.329 23 

Fish-liver oils 

Enzymes 

Pepsin, diastase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain 

Drugs derived from organs of lower mammals 
Hormonal and endocrine drugs 
For enzymes, see 615.35 

Thyroid and parathyroid extracts 

Anterior pituitary hormones 

Adrenal hormones 

ACTH, cortisone, adrenalin 

Insulin 

Sex hormones 

Liver extracts 

Extracts and secretions of other organs 

Blood serums 

Drugs used to produce immunity 

Vaccines, bacterins, sero-bacterins 

Toxins and toxoids 

Antitoxins, toxin-antitoxins, convalescent 
serums 

Human blood products 

For convalescent serums, see 615.375 

Practical pharmacy 

Preparing prescriptions and dispensing drugs 

Business organizations 

Class economics of pharmacy [formerly 615.406 5] in 
338.47 



615.42 



.43 

.45 

.49 

.5 

.53 

.531 

.532 

.533 

.534 

.535 

.537 

.54 

.542 

.547 

.6 

.61 

.62 

.63 



.64 
,65 



.650 7 

.66 

.67 



Solutions and extracts 

Decoctions, infusions, tinctures, elixirs, sirups, glycerites, 
collodions 

Pills, capsules, tablets, troches, powders 
Ointments and emulsions 
Other preparations 
Therapeutics 

Systems of medicine 

Allopathy 

Homeopathy 

Osteopathy 

Chiropractic 

Naturopathy 

Eclectic and botanic medicine 
Age and therapeutics 

Pediatric therapeutics 

Geriatric therapeutics 

Methods of medication 

Oral medication 

Rectal medication 

Parenteral medication 

Subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, intra- 
arterial injections 

For blood and blood plasma transfusions, see 615.65 

Inhalatory medication 

Blood and blood plasma transfusions 

Use 615.650 01 - 615.650 09 for standard subdivisions 

Blood and blood plasma banks 
Medication thru serous and mucous membranes 
External medication 

For hydrotherapy and balneotherapy, see 615.853 



6^2 



673 



M 






Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



i. 



h' 



615.7 



.71 

.711 
.716 
.718 

.72 



.73 
.731 
.732 
.733 

.734 
.735 
.739 

.74 



.75 

.76 
.761 



.766 

.77 
.778 



.779 



Pharmacodynamics 

Physiological and therapeutic action of drugs 
For toxicology, see 615.9 

Drugs affecting cardiovascular system 
Heart stimulants 
Heart depressants 
Drugs affecting blood and blood-forming organs 

Drugs affecting respiratory system 
Expectorants, errhines, cough remedies 

Drugs affecting digestive system and metabolism 
Emetics 

Cathartics, laxatives, purgatives 
Anthelmintics 
Digestants 
Demulcents 
Drugs affecting metabolism 

Drugs affecting secretion 

For diuretics and antidiuretics, see 615.761 

Antipyretics (Febrifuges) 

Drugs affecting urogenital system 
Drugs affecting urinary system 
Diuretics and antidiuretics 

Drugs affecting reproductive system 

Drugs affecting motor and integumentary systems 



Skin 



Astringents, counterirritants, emollients, deodorants, 

aritiseptics, disinfectants 



Nails and hair 



615.78 



Drugs affecting nervous system 
For antipyretics, see 615.75 



I 



674 



.781 


Anesthetics 


.782 


Hypnotics 




Nerve depressants, narcotics, sedatives 


.783 


Analgesics 


.784 


Antispasmodics 


.785 


Stinmlants 


.788 


Psychotrophic drugs 


.788 2 


Tranquilizers 


.788 3 


Hallucinogenic drugs 


A 


Physical and other therapies 


.82 


Therapeutic manipulations and exercises 


.822 


Mechanotherapy 


.824 


Medical gymnastics 


.83 


Other physical therapies 




For hydrotherapy and balneotherapy, see 615.853; 
electrotherapy and radiotherapy, 615.84 


.831 


Phototherapy 


.8314 


Heliotherapy 


.8315 


Ultraviolet-ray therapy 


.8319 


Other phototherapies 


.832 


Thermotherapy 


.832 2 


Infrared-ray therapy 


.832 3 


Diathermy (Thermopenetration) [formerly 615.845 3] 


.832 5 


Fever therapy 


.832 9 


Cryotherapy (Hypothermia) 


.834 


Climatotherapy 


.836 


Aerotherapeutics 




Oxygen and carbon dioxide therapies, pneumatotherapy 


.837 


Music therapy 



675 



]! 



.f 



Decimal Classification 






615.84 
.842 



.842 2 
.842 3 

.842 4 
.845 

[.845 3] 

.85 
.851 



.8512 

,8515 

.8516 

.852 

.853 

.854 

.856 



.88 

.882 
.886 
£9 



Electrotherapy and radiotherapy 

Actinotherapy 

For phototherapy, see 615.831 

X-ray therapy 
Radium therapy 

Radioactive isotope therapy 
Electrotherapy 

Diathermy (Thermopenetration) 
Class in 615.832 3 

Other therapies 
Mental therapies 

For faith healing, see 615.852 

Suggestion therapy (Hypnotherapy) 
Occupational and recreational therapies 
Bibho- and educational therapies 
Faith healing ( Hierotherapy ) 
Hydrotherapy and balneotherapy 
Dietotherapy and vitamin therapy 

Spurious therapies 

Quackery, e.g., Perkinism 



615.88-615.89 Empirical and historical remedies 
For pharmaceutical chemistry, see 615.19 

Home remedies 

Folk medicine [formerly 615.89] 

Patent medicines 
Primitive, ancient, medieval remedies 

Class folk medicine {formerly 615.89] in 615.882 



676 



Medical sciences 



615.9 



.902 
.907 
.91 



.92 



.921 



.922 



[.923-.924] 



.925 



[.926-.929] 



[.93] 



.94 



.942 



.945 



Toxicology 

Source, composition, physiological effects, tests, antidotes of poisons 
Use 615.900 1 - 615.900 9 for standard subdivisions 

Industrial toxicology 

Detection of poisons and poisoning 

Gaseous poisons 

Asphyxiating and lethal gases 

Mineral (Inorganic) poisons 
For gaseous poisons, see 615.91 

Acids 

Class specific acids in 615.925 

Alkalis 

Class specific alkalis in 615.925 

Nonmetallic poisons 
Class in 615.925 

Saline and specific mineral poisons 

Metallic [formerly 615.926-615.929] and nonmetallic 
[formerly 615.829-615.924] poisons 

Divide like 546.2-546.7, e.g., mercurial poisons 615.925 663 

Metallic poisons 
Class in 615.925 

Vegetable poisons 
Class in 615.952 

Animal poisons 

Class vegetable poisons [formerly 615.94] in 615.952 

Venoms 

Snake, scorpion, spider, bee, other venoms 

Poisonous food animals 

Poisonous mussels, fish, mammalian organs 

677 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



61 5.95 Organic poisons 

Divide by kind as below 

If preferred, arrange alphabetically 

For gaseous poisons, see 615.91; animal poisons, 615.94 

.951 Synthetic and manufactured poisons 

Divide like 547.01-547.09, e.g., ethers 547.951 35 

.952 Vegetable [formerly 615.93, 615.94] and 

vegetable-derived poisons 

Divide like 583-589, e.g., opium 615.952 312 



616 



Medicine 

Use 610.1-610.9 for standard subdivisions 
For specialized medicine, see 617-618 

.01 Medical microbiology 

m 

Pathogenic microorganisms and their relation to disease 

.014 Bacteria 

Divide like 589.9, e.g., Enterobacteriaceae 616.014 5 



.015 


Fungi 


.016 


Protozoa 


.019 


Ultramicrobes 


.019 2 


Rickettsiae 


.019 4 


Viruses 



.02 



.024 



.026 



Special texts 

For psychosomatic medicine, see 616.08 

Domestic medicine 

Treatment of minor ailments without direction of physician 

Clinical and internal medicine 



616.07 



.072 



.075 



[.09] 



Pathology 

Pathological physiology and anatomy 

Symptomatology (Semiology) 
Manifestation of diseases 

Aches and pains, fevers, infections, necrosis (gangrene), 
atrophies, hypertrophies, edemas 

For interpretation of symptoms, see 616.075 

Diagnoses 

Interpretation of symptoms 
Including differential diagnosis 



.075 4 


Physical diagnosis 


.075 5 


Clinical diagnosis 




616.075 6-616.075 9 Laboratory diagnosis 


.075 6 


Chemical diagnosis 


.075 61 


Blood analysis 


.075 63 


Analysis of gastroenteric contents 


.075 66 


Urinalysis 


.075 7 


Radioscopic diagnosis 


.075 72 


X-ray and fluoroscopic examinations 


.075 75 


Radioisotope scanning 


.075 8 


Microscopy in diagnosis 


.075 81 


Bacteriological examinations 


.075 82 


Cytological examinations 


.075 83 


Histological examinations 




For autopsies, see 616.075 9 


.075 9 


Autopsies (Post-mortem examinations) 


.08 


Psychosomatic medicine 



.092 



Historical and geographical treatment 
Do not use; class in 610.9 

Case histories 



i 

•I- 



678 



679 



Decimal Classification 



616.1 



.11 
.12 

.122 



616.1-616.9 Specific diseases 

Add to each subdivision identified by * as follows: 

001-009 Standard subdivisions 
01-02 Microbiology and special texts 

Divide like 616.01-616,02, e.g., domestic medicine 

024 
06 Specific therapies 

061 Chemotherapy 

062-069 Other therapies 

Divide like 615.82-615.89, e.g.. X-ray therapy 
064 22 
07-09 Other general aspects 

Divide like 616.07-616.09, e.g., case histories 092 



616.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 

.5 
.6 

.7 
.8 

.9 



SUMMARY 

Diseases of cardiovascular system 

Diseases of respiratory system 

Diseases of digestive tract 

Diseases of blood-forming, lymphatic, endocrine 

systems 

Diseases of integument, hair, nails (Dermatology) 

Diseases of urogenital system 

Diseases of musculoskeletal system 

Diseases of nervous system ( Neurology and 

psychiatry ) 

Other diseases 



616.1-616.8 Diseases of specific systems and organs 

For malignant neoplasms, see 616.994; tuberculosis, 616.995 

^Diseases of cardiovascular system 

SUMMARY 



616.11 


Of cardiac membranes 


.12 


Of heart 


.13 


Of blood vessels 


.14 


Of veins and capillaries 


.15 


Of blood 



*Of cardiac membranes 
*Of heart 

Acquired and congenital heart diseases 

*Angina pectoris 



* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



68o 



Medical sciences 



616.123 
.124 
.125 

.126 
.127 

.128 
.13 

.131 



.132 



.133 

.135 

.136 

.14 

.142 

.143 

.145 

.148 

.15 



* Coronary occlusion and failure 

* Myocarditis 

•Valvular diseases 

Diseases of the mitral, tricuspid, pulmonary valves 

♦Necrosis and other degenerative diseases 

* Rheumatic heart diseases 

•Arrhythmia 

*0f blood vessels 

For diseases of veins and capillaries, see 616.14 

•Peripheral vascular diseases 

For cerebral vascular diseases, see 616.81 

•Hypertension 

Arterial and essential hypertension 

Class arteriosclerosis [formerly 616.132] in 616.136 

•Arterial aneurysms 

•Arterial embolisms and thromboses 

•Arteriosclerosis [formerly 616.132] 

•Of veins and capillaries 

•Phlebitis and thrombophlebitis 

•Varicose veins ( Varix ) 

•Venous embolisms and thromboses 

•Telangiectasis, telangitis, other capillary 
diseases 

•Of blood 

Divide by kind as below 

If preferred, arrange alphabetically by disease 
For bacterial blood diseases, see 616.94 



.152 •Anemias 

.153 •Polycythemias 

* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



68i 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



616.154 


*AgranuIocytoses 


.155 


*Leukeniias 




If preferred, class in 616.994 


.156 


•Reticuloses 


.157 


•Hemorrhagic diseases 


.159 


Other 


.2 


Diseases of respiratory system 




Use 616.200 1 - 616.200 9 for standard si 


.201 


* Croup 


202 


*Hay fever 


.203 


•Influenzas 


.204 


•Whooping cough ( Pertussis ) 


.205 


•Common cold (Coryza, rhinitis) 


21 


•Otorhinolaryngology 



.212 



22 



.23 



Comprehensive works on diseases of ear, eye, nose, larynx 

For otology, see 617.81-617.88; ophthalmology, 617.7; 
laryngology, 616.22 

•Rhinology 

Diseases of nose, nasopharynx, accessory sinuses 
For common cold, see 616.205 

•Laryngology 

Diseases of larynx, glottis, vocal cords, epiglottis 

•Diseases of trachea and bronchi 
Trachitis, bronchitis, bronchiectasis 
For bronchopneumonia, see 616.241 



.24 •Diseases of lungs 

.241 •Pneumonias 

Lobar, broncho-, pleural, lipoid, virus pneumonias 
For necropneumonia, see 616.245 
* Add as instructed under 616,1-616.9 



682 



616.244 

.245 
.246 

.248 
25 

27 

.3 



.31 



.312 

313 

.314 

.32 

.33 

.332 



•Pneumoconiosis 

Silicosis, cholicosis, pulmonary abscesses 

* Necropneumonia 
•Pulmonary tuberculosis 
If preferred, class in 616.995 

•Emphysema 
•Diseases of pleura 

For pleural pneumonia, see 616.241 

•Diseases of mediastinum 
•Diseases of digestive tract 





SUMMARY 


616.31 


Of mouth and throat 


.32 


Of pharynx and esophagus 


.33 


Of stomach 


.34 


Of intestines 


.35 


Of rectum and anus (Proctology) 


.36 


Of biliary tract 


.37 


Of pancreas 


.38 


Of peritoneum 


.39 


Nutritional and metabolic diseases 



•Of mouth and throat 

For laryngology, see 616.22; dentistry, 617.6; diseases of 
pharynx, 616,32 

•Trench mouth (Vincent's angina) 

•Mumps (Epidemic parotitis) 

•Diseases of tonsils 
•Of pharynx and esophagus 
•Of stomach 

•Functional disorders 

Dyspepsia, disorders of secretion, gastric indigestion 



.333 •Gastritis 

.334 •Gastric ulcers 

* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



683 






i 



Decimal Clossification 



616.339 



.34 

.342 



.343 



.343 3 
.343 4 

.344 

.35 

.36 
.362 
.362 3 
.362 4 
.362 5 
.365 
.37 



.38 
.39 



* Other diseases 

Merycism, gastroenteritis, gastrotosis, other disorders 

*0f intestines 

* Functional disorders 

Diarrhea, constipation, obstructions 

*Peptic ulcers 

For gastric ulcers, see 616.334 

•Duodenal ulcers 
*Gastrojejunal ulcers 

*Enteritis 

Ileitis, colitis, Crohn's disease, duodenitis, jejunitis 

*Of rectum and anus (Proctology) 
* Of biliary tract 

* Liver disorders 

•Hepatitis 
•Cirrhosis 
•Hepatitic jaundice 
*Gall bladder and bile duct disorders 

*0f pancreas 

For diabetes mellitus, see 616.462 

*Of peritoneum 

*Nutritional and metabolic diseases 
For endocrinology, see 616.43-616.48 



.392 
.393 
.394 
.395 

* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



616.392-616.396 Deficiency diseases 
•Beriberi 



•Pellagra 

•Scurvy 

•Rickets 



684 



Medical sciences 



616.396 



.398 



.399 



.4 

.41 



.42 



.43 
.44 

.442 
.443 
.444 

.445 
.45 



.46 

.462 
.466 



Other deficiency diseases and states 
Emaciation, fatty degeneration 

For multiple deficiency states, see 616.399 

•Obesity 

Nutritional and endocrinal obesity 

Other nutritional and metaboUc diseases 
Cout, multiple deficiency states 

♦Diseases of blood-forming, lymphatic, endocrine systems 

♦Of blood-forming system 

Spleen and bone marrow disorders 
For anemias, see 616.152 

•Of lymphatic system 

Hodgkin's disease, lymphatitis, lymphomatosis 
If preferred, class Hodgkin's disease in 616.994 

616.43-616.48 Of endocrine system (Endocrinology) 

For gynecology, see 618.1; diseases of urogenital system, 616.6; 
obesity, 616.398 

•Of thymus gland 

•Of thyroid and parathyroid glands 

•Goiter 

• Hyperthyroidism 

•Hypothyroidism 

•Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism 

♦Of adrenal glands 

Hyperadrenalism, hypoadrenalism, Addison's disease 

•Of pancreatic internal secretion (Of islands of 
Langerhans) 

•Diabetes mellitus 

•Hypoglycemia 



* Add as instructed under 616.1—616.9 



685 



Decimal Classification 



616.47 



.48 



.49 



.51 



.52 

.521 

.522 

.523 

.524 

.526 

.53 



.54 



.544 



*0f pituitary glands 

Acromegaly, gigantism, dwarfism, Simmonds' disease 

Of Other glands 

Hyperpinealism, polyglandular disorders 

*Of breast 

Class diseases of female breast in 618.19 

^Diseases of integument, hair, nails (Dermatology) 

*Papular eruptions (Urticaria) 
For allergies, see 616.97 

*Vesicular and pustular eruptions 

*Eczema (Herpes) 

*Shingles (Herpes zoster) 

*Boils and carbimcles (Furuncles) 

*Impetigo 

*Psoriasis 
*Diseases of sebaceous glands 
Acne, blackheads, wens, seborrhea 

*Skin hypertrophies, scalp diseases, related disorders 
For pigmentary changes, see 616.55 



* 



Skin hypertrophies 

Corns, callosities, warts (verrucae), kerotosis, ichthyosis, 
scleroderma, xeroderma 



.545 



.546 



*Skin ulcerations 

Trophic, decubitus, indolent, phagedenic ulcers 

*Diseases of scalp, hair and hair follicles 

Baldness ( alopecia ) , hair whiteness ( leucotricliia ) , 
excessive hairiness ( hypertrichosis ) 



.547 *Diseases of the nails 

• Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



686 



Medical sciences 



616.55 



.56 



.57 
.58 



.61 

.612 
.613 
.62 



.622 



*Pigmentary changes 
Albinism, nevi, moles 

* Diseases of sweat glands 

Heat rash, prickly heat, anhidrosis 

•Parasitic skin diseases 

Other skin disorders 

Chilblains, frostbite, chapping 

^Diseases of urogenital system 

For gynecology, see 618.1 



616.61-616.63 Urology 
*0f kidneys and ureters 

*Brights disease (Nephritis) 
•Pyelitis, pyelocystitis, pyelonephritis 

*Of bladder and urethra 

For diseases of male urethra, see 616.64 

*Kidney stones (Urinary calculi) 
Renal and vesical calculi 



.623 


•Cystitis 


.624 


*Uretliritis 


.63 


•Urinary manifestations 


.633 


•Pyuria 


.635 


•Uremia 




616.64-616.69 Diseases of male genital organs 


.64 


•Of male urethra 


.65 


•Of prostate 


.66 


•Of penis 


.67 


•Of scrotum 


.68 


•Of testicles and accessory organs 



• Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



687 



Decimal Classification 



616.69 


•Functional disorders of male genital organs 


.692 


•Impotence and sterility 


.693 


♦Climacteric disorders 


.699 


Other functional disorders 


.7 


*Diseases of musculoskeletal system 


.71 


*0f bones 




For diseases of spine, see 616.73; rickets, 616.395 


.712 


•Osteitis 




Osteitis deformans, osteochronditis, periostitis 


.715 


•Osteomyelitis 


.72 


•Of joints 




Hypertropic and rheumatoid arthritis 




For gout, see 616.399 


.73 


* 

*Of spine 


.74 


*Of muscles 


.742 


*Muscular rheumatism 




For rheumatic fever, see 616.991 


.743 


* Myositis 


.744 


♦Myasthenia gravis 


.748 


•Progressive muscular dystrophy 


.749 


Other muscular atrophies 


.75 


♦Of tendons and fasciae 


.76 


*Of bursae and sheaths of tendons 


77 


*0f connective tissue (Collagen diseases) 



Ji Diseases of nervous system ( Neurology and psychiatry) 

Use 616.800 1 - 616.800 9 for standard subdivisions 

.801-.809 Standard subdivisions of neurology 

* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



688 





Medical sciences 




SUMMARY 


616.81-.84 


Neurology 


.85-.86 


Psychoneuroses 


.87 


Diseases of cranial and spinal nerves 


.88 


Diseases of autonomic system 


.89 


Psychiatry 



616.81 



.82 
.83 



616.81-616.84 Neurology 

For diseases of cranial and spinal nerves, see 616.87; of 
autonomic nervous system, 616.88 

♦Cerebrovascular diseases 

Cerebral hemorrhages, aneurysms, embolisms, thromboses 

♦Meningeal diseases 
Other organic diseases of central nervous system 

For chorea, see 616.851; epilepsy, 616.853; senile dementias, 
616.898 3 



.832 


♦Encephalitis 


.833 


♦Parkinson's disease (Paralysis agitans; 


.834 


♦Multiple sclerosis 


.835 


♦Poliomyelitis 


.836 


♦Cerebral palsy 


.837 


♦Paraplegia 


.838 


♦Locomotor ataxia (Tabes dorsalis) 


.84 


Symptoms of neurological diseases 


.841 


Dizziness (Vertigo) 


.842 


Paralysis 


[.843] 


Asthenic reactions 




Class in 616.852 8 


.844 


Spinal irritation 


.845 


Convulsions 


.849 


Other symptoms 



Enuresis, pain, coma, reflex and sleep disturbances 



Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



689 



Decimal Classification 



616.85 
.851 

.852 



.852 1 
.852 2 

.852 3 

.852 8 



.853 
.855 
.855 2 



.855 4 



.856 



616.85-616.86 Psychoneuroses 
Class comprehensive works in 616.85 

•General works 
Chorea 
♦Hysteria and related disorders 

For speech and language disorders, see 616.855 

•War neuroses (Combat fatigue) 
•Obsessive-compulsive neuroses 
Phobias and anxiety neuroses 

•Dissociative reactions 

Amnesias, fugues, multiple personahties 

•Asthenic reactions [formerly 616.843] 

Chronic fatigue and depression, formerly known as 
neurasthenia 

♦Epilepsy 

♦speech and language disorders 

•Neurological language disorders (Aphasias) 

Diminution or loss of faculty of language in any of its 
forms due to cerebral lesions, e.g., agraphia, agnosia, 
apraxia 

•Psychoneurotic speech disorders 
Stammering and stuttering 

♦Cutaneous sensory disorders 

Anesthesia, paresthesia, hypesthesia, hyperesthesia 



.857 ♦Migraine 

,858 Disorders of personality, character, intellect 

.858 2 •Psychopathic and immature personalities 

• Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 





Medical sciences 


- 




► 


616.858 3-616.858 4 Character neuroses 


616.858 3 


Sexual aberrations, manias, perversions 


.858 32 


Frigidity and impotence 


.858 33 


Nymphomania and satyromania 


.858 34 


Homosexuality 


.858 35 


Sadism and masochism 


.858 39 


Other disorders 


.858 4 


Other character neuroses 


.858 42 


Kleptomania 


.858 43 


Pyromania 


.858 44 


Homicidal and suicidal compulsions 


.858 45 


Compulsive lying and defrauding 



.858 8 

.858 82 
.858 822 
.858 823 
.858 824 
.858 825 
.858 84 
.858 842 
.858 843 
.858 844 
.858 845 
.858 848 



Mental deficiency 

Feeble-mindedness and mental retardation 

In terms of measurable intellect 

Idiots 

Imbeciles 

Morons 

Borderline feeble-minded 
In terms of deformity, injury, disease 

Mongohsm 

Hydrocephahsm 

Microcephalism 

Amaurotic idiocy 

Cretinism and myxedemism 



.86 *Psychonem"Otic addictions and intoxications 

.861 * Alcoholism 

.862 ♦Metallic intoxication 

.863-.865 Other addictions 

Divide like 613.83-613.85, e.g., narcotics addiction 616.863 
Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



I 



690 



691 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



i 



\ 



616.87 



.88 



.89 



.890 073 

[.890 6] 

.891 

.8912 
.8913 
.8915 
.8916 

.8917 
.8918 



.892 
.895 



.897 
.898 
,898 2 
.898 3 



♦Diseases of cranial and spinal nerves 

Neuritis and neuralgias, e.g., polyneuritis, sciatica, neuritis of 
peripheral nerves, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgias 

For herpes zoster, see 616.522 

♦Diseases of autonomic ( sympathetic and 
parasympathetic) system 

♦Psychiatry 

Functional diseases (psychoses) of nervous system 

For psychoncuroses, see 616.85; puerperal psychoses, 618.76 

Psychiatiic nursing 

(Optional; prefer 610.736 8) 

Specific therapies 

Do not use; class in 616.891 

Specific therapies 

For psychosurgery, see 617.481 

Shock therapy 

Physical therapies 

Group therapy and psychodrama 

Mental therapies 

Divide like 615.851, e.g., bibliotherapy 616.891 66 

Psychoanalysis [formerly 131.34] 
Chemotherapy 



616.892-616.898 Specific psychoses 
♦General paresis ( NeurosyphiHs ) 

♦Manic-depressive psychoses 

Neurotic-depressive reactions, manic and circular types, 
involutional psychoses 

•Paranoia and paranoid conditions 
Schizophrenia and senile dementias 
•Schizophrenia (Dementia praecox) 
•Senile dementias 



* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



616.9 



Other diseases 

Use 616.900 1 - 616.900 9 for standard subdivisions 



.901 -.906 

.907 
.907 3 

.908-.909 



616.91 
.92 
.93 

.94 
.95 
.96 
.97 
.98 
.99 



616.901-616.909 Standard subdivisions of 
communicable diseases 

Philosophy, miscellany, dictionaries, serial 
publications, organizations 

Study and teaching 

Communicable disease nursing 
(Optional; prefer 610.736 9) 

Other standard subdivisions 

SUMMARY 

Eruptive fevers ( Exanthemata ) 

Bacterial, viral and rickettsial diseases 

Bacillary intoxications, enteric and protozoan 

infections 

Bacterial blood diseases 

Venereal and zoogenous diseases 

Parasitic diseases (Medical parasitology) 

Allergies and anaphylaxis 

Diseases due to physical and climatic conditions 

Other diseases 



.91 

.912 

.913 



616.91-616.96 Communicable diseases 

Class communicable diseases predominantly afiecting a specific 
part of the body with the part affected, e.g., mumps 616.313 

For leprosy, see 616.998 

*Eruptive fevers (Exanthemata) 
*Smallpox (Variola major) 



692 



*Attenuated forms of smallpox 

Human vaccinia ("cow-pox"), parasmallpox (alastrim, 
amaas), Cuban itch, Kaffir milkpox 

.914 *Chickenpox (Varicella) 

.915 *Measles (Rubeola) 

.916 *German measles (Rubella) 

.917 * Scarlet fever (Scarlatina) 

* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 

693 



Decimal Classification 



616.92 



.921 
.922 
.922 2 



.922 3 



.922 4 

.922 5 
.922 6 



.923 
.923 2 
.923 9 
.924 



.924 2 



.924 4 

.925 
.926 



♦Bacterial, viral and rickettsial diseases 
For bacterial blood diseases, see 616.94 

•Dengue fever 
♦Rickettsial infections 

•Typhus group 

Classic epidemic (louse-borne) typhus, murine (flea- 
borne) typhus, Brill's disease 

•Spotted-fever group 

Rickettsialpox, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, bouton- 
neuse fever, other tick-bite spotted fevers 

•Scrub typhus (Tsutsugamushi disease) 
Japanese river fever 

•Q fever 
Other rickettsial infections 

Trench fever, Bullis fever, North Queensland tick typhus 

*Pasteurella infections 

*Bubonic plague 

•Tularemia 
*Tick-borne viral infections 

Fof lymphocytic choriomeningitis, see 616.925 

•Tick fever (Colorado tick fever) 

American mountain fever, nonexanthematous tick fever 

•Relapsing fevers 

Including bacterial and spirochetal relapsing fevers 

♦Lymphocytic choriomeningitis 

*Fevers 

For a specific fever, see the subject, e.g., scarlet fever 
616.917 



* Add as instructed imder 616.1-616.9 



694 



Medical sciences 



616.927 


.927 2 


.927 4 


.927 9 


.928 


.93 


.931 


.9313 


.9315 


.9318 



.932 



.933 



.935 

.935 3 
.935 5 

,936 



.936 2 
.936 3 



.936 4 



♦Eberthella and salmonella infections 

•Typhoid fever (Enteric fever) 

•Paratyphoid fever 
Other salmonella infections 
*Yellow fever 

Bacillary intoxications, enteric and protozoan infections 
*Bacillary intoxications 
•Diphtheria 
•Botulism 
•Lockjaw (Tetanus) 



616.932-616.935 Enteric infections 
For typhoid fever, see 616.927 2 
•Asian cholera 

Pestilential cholera 

♦European cholera 

Sporadic cholera and cholera morbus 

♦Dysenteries 

•Amoebic dysentery (Amoebiasis) 
•Bacillary dysentery (Shigella infections) 

♦Protozoan infections 

For amoebic dysentery, see 616.935 3 

•Malarial fevers 
•Trypanosomiasis 

Gambian and Rhodesian trypanosomiasis, Chagas' 
disease, African sleeping sickness 



•Leishmaniasis 

Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), cutaneous leishmania- 
sis (oriental sores), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (forest 
yaws) 

* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



695 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



616.94 


*Bacterial blood diseases 


.942 


*Erysipelas 


.944 


*Septicemia and pyemia 


.95 


Venereal and zoogenous diseases 




For lockjaw, see 616.931 8; tularemia, 616.923 9 


.951 


*Venereal diseases 


.9513 


* Syphilis 




For neurosyphilis, see 616.892 


.9515 


*Gonorrhea [formerly 616.952^ 


.9518 


Other venereal diseases [formerly 616.952 



[.952] 

[.952 3] 

.953 
.954 
.956 



.957 
.958 
.96 



.962 



Chancroid, lymphadenoma inguinale, lymphogranuloma 
venereum 

Gonorrhea 

Class in 616.951 5 

Other venereal diseases 
Class in 616.951 8 

*Rabies (Hydrophobia) 
•Glanders (Equinia) 
* Anthrax (Charbon) 

Woolsorters' disease, splenic fever 

*Undulant fever (Brucellosis) 
*Parrot fever (Psittacosis) 
Tarasitic diseases (Medical parasitology) 

For parasitic skin diseases, see 616.57; protozoan infections, 
616.936 

*Diseases due to endoparasites 

For diseases due to worms, see 616.963-616.965 



• Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



616.963 
.964 

.965 

.965 2 

.965 4 



.968 



.969 



.97 

.973 
.975 

.977 



.98 



.980 2 
.980 21 
.980 213 
.980 214 



616.963-616.965 Diseases due to worms 
(Helminthology) 

♦Diseases due to flukes (Trematoda) 

Schistosomiasis, bilharziasis, distomatosis 
♦Diseases due to tapeworms (Cestoda) 

Tapeworm infestations, hyatid diseases (echinococcosis) 

♦Diseases due to roundworms (Nematoda) 

*To filariae 

Filariasis, elephantiasis, wuchereriasis, onchocerciasis 

To other nematodes 

Trichinosis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, hookworm 
infestations 

♦Diseases due to ectoparasites (Medical entomology) 

For a specific entomological disease, see the disease, e.g., 
Colorado tick fever 616.924 2 

♦Diseases due to fungi (Medical mycology) 

616.97-616.99 Other general diseases 
^Allergies and anaphylaxis 
For hay fever, see 616.202 

♦Contact allergies 
♦Food and drug allergies 

♦Physical allergies 

Supersensitivity to physical agents, e.g., heat, sunlight, cold, 
humidity 

Diseases due to physical and climatic conditions 
Use 616.980 01 - 616.980 09 for standard subdivisions 
Class treatment of a specific disease with the subject 
Medical aspects of speciaUzed services 
Aerospace medicine 
Aviation medicine 
Space medicine 






Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



696 



697 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



Submarine medicine 
Military medicine 
Naval medicine 
Medical climatology and meteorology 

Divide like area notation 1, e.g., tropical diseases 616.988 3 

Diseases due to physical conditions 
*To motion 
*To altitude 

*To compression and decompression 
*To radioactivity 
Other diseases 

*Rheumatic fever 

For muscular rheumatisTn, see 616.742 



616.980 22 


.980 23 


.980 24 


.988 


.989 


.989 2 


.989 3 


.989 4 


.989 7 


.99 


.991 



.992 



.993 
.994 



.995 



'^ 



Neoplasms and neoplastic diseases (Oncology) 
For specific kinds of neoplasms, see 616.993-616.994 



616.993-616.994 Specific kinds of neoplasms 
*Benign neoplasms 

*Malignant neoplasms 

Medical, radiological, surgical treatment of cancers, 
carcinomas, sarcomas 

(Optional: leukemias and Hodgkin's disease; prefer 616.155 
and 616.42 respectively) 

Divide like 611.1-611.9, e.g., cancer of the stomach 
616.994 33 

*Tuberculosis 

(Optional: pulmonary tuberculosis; prefer 616.246) 

Divide like 611.1-611.9, e.g., tuberculosis of the bones 
616.995 71 



.998 *Leprosy (Hansen's disease) 

• Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



^ 617-618 Specialized medicine 

For malignant neoplasms, see 616.994 

617 Surgery 

Treatment of disease by manual and instrumental operations 
Use 617.001-617.008 for standard subdivisions 

.01 Complications and sequelae 

.02 Special texts 
.024 Minor surgery 

.025 Major surgery 

.026 Emergency surgery 

.07 Surgical pathology 

.072 Symptomatology (Semiology) 

For interpretation of symptoms, see 617.075 

.073 Surgical nursing 

(Optional; prefer 610.736 77) 

.075 Diagnoses 

Interpretation of symptoms 

Divide like 616.075, e.g., X-ray diagnosis 617.075 72 

.09 Historical and geographical treatment 



617.1-617.9 Systematic surgery 

Add to each subdivision identified by * as follows: 

001-008 Standard subdivisions 

01-09 General aspects 

Divide like 617.01-617.09, e.g., emer- 
gency surgery 026 



698 



699 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



617.1 



.102 
.102 7 
.102 8 

.11 



SUMMARY 



617.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 
.7 
.8 
.9 



Wounds and injuries 

Results of injuries 

Orthopedic surgery 

Surgical operations by systems 

Regional surgery 

Dentistry 

Opthalmology 

Otology and audiology 

Techniques and other surgical specialties 

Wounds and injuries 

Use 617.100 1 - 617.100 9 for standard subdivisions 

Special texts 

Athletic wounds and injuries 
Crash wounds and injuries 

Injuries resulting from traffic accidents 

*Burns and scalds 

For high-energy injuries, see 617.12 



.12 


* High-energy injuries 


.122 


*Froin electricity 


.124 


*Froin ionizing radiation 


.13 


•Abrasions and contusions 


,14 


*Wounds 




For abrasions and contusions, ^ee 617.13 


.143 


•Lacerated, incised, punctured wounds 


.145 


•Gunshot wounds 


.146 


•Removal of foreign bodies from wounds 


.15 


Fractures 




Divide like 611,71, e.g., fracture of the femur 617.158 


.16 


•Dislocations 


.17 


•Sprains and strains 


.18 


•Asphyxiation 




Choking, hanging, strangulation, suffocation, drowning 


* Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 




yoo 



617.19 
JZ 
.21 
.22 
.3 



.307 

.37 



.4 

.41 
.412 

.413 
.414 
.43 



•Blast injuries 
Results of injuries 

Traumatic and surgical shock 
Inflammation, infection, fever 

*Orthopedic surgery 

Correction of acquired and congenital deformities, and treatment 
of chronic diseases of skeletal system 

Use 617.300 1 - 617.300 9 for standard subdivisions 
Class chronic diseases of skeletal system in 617.47 
For fractures, see 617.15 

Orthopedic appliances 

•Deformities 

For deformities of the extremities, see 617.39 



.371 


*Head and neck 


.374 


*Chest 


.375 


•Spine 


.376 


*Hip and pelvis 


.39 


♦Deformities of the extremities 




For amputations, see 617.57-617.58 


.397 


* Upper extremities 


.398 


*Lower extremities 



For podiatry, see 617.585 

Surgical operations by systems 

For respiratory system, see 617.54 

•Cardiovascular system 

•Heart 

•Arteries 

•Veins 

•Digestive system 

For treatment of a specific organ, see the organ, e.g., of stomach 



617.553 
* Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 



701 



:■'( 



617.44 



.46 



.461 
.462 
.463 

.47 



Decimal Classification 



*Endocrine glands 

For treatment of a specific gland, see the gland, e.g., thy- 
raid gland 617.539 5 

•Urogenital system 

For gynecology and obstetrics, see 618.1-618.8 

*Kidneys, suprarenal glands, ureters 
*Bladder and urethra 
*Male genital organs 

* Motor and integumentary systems 
For amputations, see 617.57-617.58 



617.5 



.51 



Medical sciences 


Regional surgery 






SUMMARY 


617.51 


Head and neck 


^ 


Face 


J3 


Throat and neck 


M 


Thorax and respiratory system 


M 


Abdominal and pelvic cavities 


SI 


Upper extremities 


.58 


Lower extremities 



.514 



•Head and neck 

For surgery of neck, see 617.539; o/ face, 617.52 



*SkuU 

Class skull fractures in 617.155 



Ui 



.471 


*Bones 


.472 


•Joints 




For treatment of jaws, see 617.522 


.473 


•Muscles 


.474 


•Tendons 


.475 


•Bursae 


.477 


•Skin 




For plastic surgery, see 617.95 


.48 


•Nervous system 


.481 


•Brain 




Neurosurgery, psychosurgery, topectomy 



.52 



•482 * Spinal cord 

.483 •Nerves 

* Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 



.522 



.523 



.53 



532 



Tace 

For ophthalmology, see 617.7; otology, 617.81-617.88; plastic 
surgery, 617.95 

•Oral surgery 

Treatment of lips, tongue, palate, jaws 
For dental surgery, see 617.64 

•Nose 

Scope: comprrfiensive works on nose and throat [formerly 
617.53] 

For throat, see 617.53 

Throat and neck 

Class comprehensive works on nose and throat [formerly 
617.53] in 617.523 



■pharynx and tonsils 

Including adenoidectomies 



.533 •Larynx, vocal cords, epiglottis, trachea 

.539 •Neck 

.539 5 *Thyroid and parathyroid glands 

* Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 



702 



703 



Decimal Classification 



617.54 



.55 

.551 
.553 
.554 
.544 1 



.554 5 

.554 7 



[.554 8] 

.555 
.556 



*Thorax and respiratory system 

For surgery of heart, see 617.412; of nose and throat, 617.523 



.542 


*Lungs 


.543 


*Thoracic pleura 


.544 


*Bronchi 


.545 


*Mediastinum 


.546 


* Thymus gland 


.547 


* Diaphragm 


.548 


*Esophagus 


,549 


*Breast 




Class surgery of the female breast in 618.19 



*Abdominal and pelvic cavities 
For urogenital system, see 617.46 
* Spleen 

*Stomach and pylorus 
^Intestines 

*Small intestines 

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum 

•Cecum and vermifonn appendix 
*Large intestines 

Colon [formerly 617.554 8] and sigmoid flexure 
For cecum, see 617.554 5 

Colon 

Class in 617.554 7 

*Rectum, anus, perineum 
*Biliary tract 

Liver, gall bladder, bile ducts 



.557 *Pancreas and islands of Langerhans 

* Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 



704 



Medical sciences 



617.558 



.559 



.601 
.6018 
.63 
.632 

.634 



.64 
.643 

.645 



*Peritoneum 

Mesentery, omentum, coeluni 

*Abdominal hernias 



617.57-617.58 Extremities 

Amputations, excisions, restorative surgery, artificial limbs 
For fractures, see 617.15 



.57 


•Upper extremities 


.58 


*Lower extremities 


.582 


•Thigh and knee 


.584 


*Leg and ankle 


.585 


♦Foot ( Podiatry ) 



Dentistry 

Use 617.600 1 - 617.600 9 for standard subdivisions 

Oral hygiene and preventive dentistry 
Asepsis and antisepsis 
*Dental diseases 

*0f gums and tooth sockets (Periodontics) 

Alveolar abscesses, pyorrhea, gingivitis, periodontitis 

*0f tooth tissues 

Diseases of dental pulp, dentine, cementum, enamel 
For cavities, see 617.67 



617.64-617.67 Dental surgery 
Dental surgery for young people 
* Orthodontics 

Treatment of disorders of occlusion and dentition 

*Pedodontics 

For orthodontics, see 617.643 



.66 *Extractions (Exodontics) 

* Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 



I\ 



n 



i^ 



617.67 
.672 
.675 



.69 
.692 
.695 
.7 

[.707] 

.71 



.712 



.713 

.719 



Decimal Classification 



.719 07 
.72 

.73 
.74 



.741 
.742 
.746 



* Cavities 

Preparation and treatment 
Fillings and inlays 

Amalgam, metallic, cement, porcelain, plastic fillings and 
inlays 

Prosthetic dentistry 

Dentures, crowns, bridges 
Materials 
*OphthalmoIogy 

Treatment of ocular diseases and correction of refractive errors 

Pathology 

Do not use; class in 617.71 

Pathology and surgery 

Class pathology and surgery of a specific part of the eye with 
the part 

*Loss of function 

Blindness and partial bhndness 

•Wounds and injuries 
•Diseases of cornea and sclera 

Use 617.719 001 - 617.719 009 for standard subdivisions 

Eye banks 
•Diseases of uvea 

Diseases of iris, choroid, ciliary body 

•Diseases of retina and optic nerve 
•Diseases of eyeball 

For diseases of cornea and sclera, see 617.719 

•Glaucoma 

•Diseases of crystalline lens 

•Diseases of vitreous body 



• Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 



617.75 
.752 

.752 2 
.752 3 



,755 

.756 
.759 
.76 
.762 

.762 2 

.764 

.77 

.771 

.772 

.773 

.78 

.79 

.8 



.81 



Medical sciences 



Optometry 

Optical work 

Setting and adjusting lenses, mechanical work of opticians 

Spectacles 
Contact lenses 



617.755-617.759 Functional disorders of vision 
Disorders of refraction and accommodation 
Myopia, hypennetropia, astigmatism, presbyopia 

Aniseikonia 
Color blindness 
Diseases of ocular muscular and lacrimal mechanisms 
•Of ocular neuromuscular mechanism 
Strabismus, binocular imbalance, diplopia 

Orthoptics 
•Of lacrimal glands and ducts 
Diseases of conjunctiva and eyeUds 
•Of eyelids 
•Trachoma 

Conjunctivitis other than trachoma 
•Diseases of orbit 
Prosthetic ophthalmology 
*OtoIogy and audiology 



617.81-617.88 Otology 
•Diseases of external ear 

For diseases of specific parts of external ear, see 617.82-617.83 



706 



► 617.82-617.83 Diseases of specific parts of external ear 

.82 •Auricle 

Class plastic surgery of external ear in617.9585 
.83 •Auditory canal 

* Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 

707 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



t 

I 

i 



617.84 



.85 
.86 
.87 

.88 



.89 



.9 



.91 



.910 1 
.917 
.917 2 
.917 8 



.919 

.93 

.95 



.950 7 



*Diseases of middle ear 

For diseases of specific parts of middle ear, see 617.85-617.87 



617.85-617.87 Diseases of specific parts of middle ear 
* Tympanic membrane 
*Eustachian tubes 
*Mastoid processes 

*Diseases of internal ear 

Diseases of cochlea, labyrinth, semicircular canals, vestibule 

Audiology 

Correction of impaired hearing thru fitting and adjusting 
hearing devices 

Techniques and other surgical specialties 



617.91-617.96 Techniques 

Operative surgery 

Use 617.910 01 - 617.910 09 for standard subdivisions 
For anesthesiology, see 617.96 

Asepsis and antisepsis 
Operating room 

Preparation of operating room 
Surgical instruments and apparatus 
For surgical dressings, see 617.93 

Preoperative and postoperative care 

Surgical dressings 

Elastic surgery (Cosmetic and restorative surgery) 
Use 617.950 01 - 617.950 09 for standard subdivisions 
Divide like 611.1-611.9, e.g., otoplasty 617.958 5 



Tissue banks 

For eye banks, see 617.719 07 
• Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 

708 



617.96 



.962 



.964 



.966 



.97 
.98 
.99 



Anesthesiology 

Methods and techniques of inducing anesthesia, and manage- 
ment of accidents and complications resulting from it 

Including anesthesiology in obstetrics [formerly 618.45, 
618.895] 

General anesthesia 

Inhalation, rectal, intravenous anesthesias 

Regional anesthesia 

Spinal, saddle-block, caudal anesthesias 

Local anesthesia 



617.97-617.99 Surgical specialties 
For surgery of a specific area, see the area, e.g., brain 617.481 

*Geriatric surgery 
*Pediatric surgery 
•Military surgery 



618 Other branches of specialized medicine 

Add to each subdivision identified by * as instructed under 
616.1-616.9 



618.1-618,8 Gynecology and obstetrics 

Medical and surgical treatment 





SUMMARY 


618.1 


Gynecology 


^ 


Obstetrics 


^ 


Diseases of pregnancy 


.4 


Normal labor ( Parturition ) 


^ 


Complicated labor ( Dystocia ) 


.6 


Normal puerperium 


.7 


Puerperal diseases 


Ji 


Obstetrical surgery 



* Add as instructed under 617.1-617.9 



709 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



.107 3 

.11 
.12 
.13 
.14 

.142 



.143 
.144 



.145 

.145 3 

.145 8 

.15 

.16 

.17 

.172 



.173 
.175 
.178 



618.1 ^Gynecology 



Class malignant neoplasms of genital tract in 616.994 65 

Gynecological nursing 

(Optional; prefer 610.736 7) 

•Diseases of ovaries 
•Diseases of Fallopian tubes 
•Periuterine diseases 
•Diseases of uterus and cervix 
•Infections 

Cervicitis, endometritis, pyometra 
For leucorrhea, see 618.173 

•Erosions 
•Malformations 

Atrophies, hypertrophies, prolapse of uterus 

Surgical therapeutics 
Hysterectomies 
Dilation and curettage 
•Diseases of vagina 
•Diseases of vulva 
•Functional and systemic disorders 
•Menstruation disorders 

Amenorrhea, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, oligomenorrhea 

•Leucorrhea 
•Menopause disorders 
•Sterility 

Scope: comprehensive works on male and female sterility 
For male sterility, see 616.692 



.19 *Diseases of breast 

* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



618.2 



*Obstetrics 

For diseases, disorders, management of pregnancy, parturition, 
puerperium, see 618.3-618.8 



[.207 2] 



.207 3 



.32 



.33 



.39 
.392 



Symptomatology 

Do not use; class in 618.22 

Obstetrical nursing 

(Optional; prefer 610.736 78) 



.207 5] 


Diagnosis 




Do not use; class in 618.22 


.22 


Symptomatology and diagnosis 


.24 


Prenatal care 


.25 


•Multiple pregnancy 



618.3-618.8 Diseases, disorders, management of 
pregnancy, parturition, puerperium 

•3 *Diseases of pregnancy 

.31 Extrauterine pregnancy (Ectopic pregnancy) 

Tubal, ovarian, cervical, abdominal pregnancies 



.397 



Fetal abnormalities 

Fetal degeneration and calcification 

Abortion 

Delivery prior to the fourth month of pregnancy 

Prematurity 
Miscarriage 

Delivery during the fourth to sixth month of pregnancy 



Premature delivery 

Delivery after the sixth month and before full term 
* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



710 



711 



Decimal Classification 



Medical sciences 



I 



618.4 



.42 



.45 



.51 



.53 

.54 
.56 
.58 
.6 



.7 

J71 

73 

.74 

75 

.76 

.77 

78 

.79 



Normal labor ( Parturition ) 

Mechanism and management of normal labor and childbirth 

Presentations 

Position of fetal body during labor 

Painless childbirth 

Induced amnesia, hypnotic and other psychological techniques, 
controlled relaxation 

Class anesthesiology in obstetrics [formerly 618.45] in 617.96 

Complicated labor ( Dystocia ) 

Maternal dystocia 

Difficult labor due to anomalies of expellant forces and 
mechanical obstructions 

Fetal dystocia 

DifiBcuIt labor due to size of fetus 

Uterine hemorrhage 
Placental dystocia 
Complications from umbilical cord 
Normal puerperium 

Postpartum management and care 

♦Puerperal diseases 
•Diseases of lactation 
♦Puerperal metritis and peritonitis 
•Puerperal septicemia and pyemia 
•Puerperal eclampsia 
•Puerperal psychoses 
•Hemic disorders 

Other puerperal disorders 

Maternal death 




.85 



.86 

.87 
.88 

.89 

[.895] 

•9 



.92 



Obstetrical surgery 

Version and extraction 
Embryotomy and craniotomy 

Mutilation of fetus to facilitate delivery when impossible by 
natural means 

Minor surgery 

Symphyseotomy, vaginiperineotomy, repair of lacerations of 
genital tract 

Caesarean section 

Surgical removal of placenta 

Therapeutic abortion 

For embryotomy and craniotomy, see 618.83 

Asepsis and antisepsis 

Anesthesiology in obstetrics 
Class in 617.96 

Patients by age groups 

Class surgical treatment in 617.97-617.98 

Pediatrics 

Use 618.920 001 - 618.920 009 for standard subdivisions 



* Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9 



.920 007 3 


Pediatric nursing 




(Optional; prefer 610.736 2) 


.920 01-.920 09 


General aspects 




Divide like 01-09 under 616.1-616.9 




618.920 075 


.920 1 


Newborn infants (Neonates) 


.920 11 


Premature infants 




Infants weighing less than 5j/2 pounds 


.920 12 


Full-term infants 



7x2 



7^3 



it 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



618.921-.929 



.97 



.970 73 



619 



Specific diseases 

Divide like 616.1-616.9, e.g., cardiac diseases in chfldren 
618.921 2 

•Geriatrics 

General and specific diseases of the aged and their treatment 

Geriatric nursing 

(Optional; prefer 610.736 5) 

Comparative and experimental medicine 

Study of diseases and tlieir treatment in laboratory animals 
For veterinary sciences, see 636.089 



.5 


Domestic fowl 


.7 


Dogs 


.8 


Cats 


•9 


Other mammals 


•93 


Rodents 




Laboratory rats, mice, rabbits, hamsters 


.98 


Primates 




Monkeys and apes 


* Add as 


instructed under 616.1-616.9 



620 Engineering, and allied operations and 
manufactures 



.001 


.002 


.0021 


.002 12 


.002 2 


.002 22 


.002 7 


.002 72 


.003-.007 



.008 



.009 



[.03] 



[.04] 



[•07] 



[.08] 



[.09] 



620.001-620.009 Standard subdivisions 

Philosophy and theory 

Miscellany 

Tabulated and related materials 

Specifications [formerly 620.03], tables, formulas 

Illustrations 

Designs and drawings [both formerly 620.04], 
pictures, charts 

Inventions and identification marks 

Patents [formerly 620.08] 

Dictionaries, serial publications, organizations, study 
and teaching 

Collections and anthologies 

Including collections of reports [formerly 620.09] 

Historical and geographical treatment 

Specifications 
Class in 620.002 1 

Designs and drawings 
Class in 620,002 22 

Laws and regulations 
Class in 340 

Patents 

Class in 620.002 72 

Collections of reports 
Class in 620.008 



7^4 



7^S 



Decimal Classification 



620.1 



[.101] 



[.102] 



620.1-620.4 Applied mechanics (Engineering 
mechanics ) 

For principles of flight, see 629.132; automatic control engineer^ 
ing, 629.8; air-conditioning engineering, 697.93 

Engineering materials, properties, tests 

Mechanical vibration 
Class in 620.3 

Sound and related vibrations 
Class in 620.2 



11 



112 



1121 
112 16 
112 17 

112 2 





SUMMARY 


620.11 


Engineering materials 


.12 


Wood and laminated wood 


.13 


Masonry materials 


.14 


Ceramic and allied materials 


.15 


Masonry adliesives 


.16 


Metals and their alloys 


.17 


Ferrous metals 


.18 


Nonferrous metals 


.19 


Other engineering materials 



Engineering materials 

For specific engineering materials, see 620.12-620.19 

Engineering properties 

Tests evaluating materials for engineering purposes 



620.112 1 - 620.112 7 Specific tests of strength 
For tests of strength on specific shapes and forms, see 620.112 8 

Temperature and strength 
Cryogenic eflFects 
High-temperature effects 

Deterioration, corrosion, weathering 
Rates, resistivity, protective measures 



716 



Engineering and allied operations 



620112 3 



.112 32 
.112 33 
.1124 
112 5 

1126 
1127 

.1128 
.112 81 



112 82 
112 83 

112 84 
112 85 
112 86 
112 87 

.112 88 
.1129 



Elasticity and plasticity 

Deformation, fatigue, yield point 

Class photoelasticity [formerly 620.112 3] in 620.112 9 

Elasticity and elastic limit 

Plasticity, plastic flow, creep 
Tensile, compression, shearing stresses 
Rigidity 

Impact and repeated shock 

Hardness 
Nondestructive tests 

Use of radiographic, tracer, ultrasonic methods 

Tests of strength on specific shapes and forms 
Sandwich constructions 



620.112 82-620112 83 Structural forms 
Plates, beams, bars, rods, angles 
Columns, tubes, cyhnders, pipes 

Rollers and bearings 

Springs 

Hooks, chains, rings 

Fasteners 

Rivets, bolts, screws, nails, spikes 

Wires, cables, hawsers 

Other properties 

Mechanical, thermal, optical, acoustical, electric, electro- 
magnetic, magnetic properties 

Including photoelasticity [formerly 620.112 3] 



12 



620.12-620.19 Specific engineering materials 
Engineering properties and tests 

Wood and laminated wood 



717 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



620.13 



.132 
.135 



.136 
.137 

.14 

.142 

.144 

.15 

.16 



.17 



.18 
.182 



Masonry materials 

For masonry adhesives, see 620.15; hrick, tile, terra cotta 
620.142 



Stone 
Cement 



620.136-620.137 Concretes 
Concrete and precast concrete 
Ferroconcrete and prestressed concrete 

Ceramic and allied materials 
Brick, tile, terra cotta 
Glass 

Masonry adhesives 

Metals and their alloys 

Divide like 620.112, e.g., deformation of metals 620.163 
For specific metals and their alloys, see 620.17-620.18 



620.17-620.18 Specific metals and their alloys 
Ferrous metals 

Divide like 620.112, e.g., deformation of ferrous metals 620.173 

Nonferrous metals 

Copper 

Brass, bronze, Muntz metal, phosphor bronze, gun metal, 
copper-aluminum alloys, copper-berylUum alloys, aluminum 
bronze 



.183 


Lead 


.184 


Zinc and cadmium 


.185 


Tin 


.186 


Aluminum 


.187 


Magnesium 


.188 


Nickel 




.189 3 



.189 4 
.189 5 
.189 6 



.189 9 



.19 
.191 



.192 
.194 
.195 



.196 



.197 
.199 



Other nonferrous metals 
Mercury 
Precious and rare-earth metals 

Divide like 669.2, e.g., gold 620.189 22 

Ferro-alloying metals 

Divide hke 669.73, e.g., chromitun 620.189 34 
For nickel, see 620.188 

Beryllium 

Antimony, arsenic, bismuth 

Alkali and alkaline earth metals 

Sodium, potassium, lithium, strontium, calcium, barium 

Minor metals 

Niobium, hafnium, germanium, gallium, indium, 
tellurium, thallium 

Other engineering materials 

Soils 

Class foundation soils in 624.151 

Plastics and their laminates and compounds 

Rubber 

Insulating materials 

Rock wool, corkboard, asbestos, kapok, diatomaceous earth 

Bituminous materials 

Asphalt, synthetic and rock asphalts, tar 

Textiles, fibers, ropes 
Adhesives and sealants 

For plastics and their laminates and compounds, see 
620.192; masonry adhesives, 620.15 



. 



718 



7^9 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



I 



\- If; 

4 



I** 



1: 



If 



620.2 



•21 



.22 

.23 
.28 

.3 



.31 
.32 
.37 

.39 



.7 



.8 



621 



Sound and related vibrations [formerly 620.102] 



620.21-620.23 Applied acoustics (Acoustical 
engineering ) 

Class electroacoustical devices in 621.382-621.389 

General principles 

Sound sources, radiating and vibratory systems, elements 

Architectural acoustics 
Noise and countermeasures 
Applied ultrasonics 

Mechanical vibration [formerly 620.101] 
For sound and related vibrations, see 620.2 

Generation and transmission 

Measurements 

Effects and countermeasures 

Special developments 

Fine particle technology 

Systems engineering 

Integrated, complex groupings of equipment designed to produce 
effectively single sets of optimum outputs from given sets of inputs 

Human engineering ( Biotechnology ) 

Designing for optimum man-machine and man-equipment 
relationships 

Applied physics 

Mechanical, electrical, electronic, electromagnetic, heat, light, nuclear 
engineering 

Use 621.001-621.009 for standard subdivisions 





SUMMARY 


621.1 


Steam 


a 


Power derived from liquids 


J 


Electrical, electronic, electromagnetic engineering 


A 


Heat and prime movers 


Ji 


Pneumatic and low-temperature technology 


J6 


Mechanical fans, blowers, pumps 


.7 


Factory operations 


A 


Mechanical power transmission and related 




equipment 


.9 


Tools 



621.1 



.11 



.13 

.132 



133 



.134 



621.1-621.2 Fluid-power engineering 

For aerodynamics, see 629.132 3; air compression, 621.51-621.54 

Steam 





SUMMARY 


621.11 


Engines 


.13 


Locomotives 


.14 


Tractors, rollers, and their boilers 


.15 


Portable engines and their boilers 


.16 


Stationary engines and their boilers 


.18 


Generation and transmission 


.19 


Central stations 



Engines 

Class a specific kind with the subject 

Locomotives 

Specific types 

Including Whyte nomenclature for wheel arrangement 

Boilers 

Including auxiliary parts, fuel and fuel consumption, 
feed-water treatment 

Engines 

Steam-mechanical and steam-electric engines 



i 

5 






.01-.09 Standard subdivisions of mechanical engineering 

Class thermodynamics [formerly 621.01] in 621.402 1 



720 



.134 3 


Reciprocating engines 


.134 6 


Turbines 


.135 


Running gear 




721 



'< 



I 



. 



Decimal Classification 



621.136 
.139 
.14 
.15 
.16 
.164 



.165 
.1651 

.165 2 



.165 3 

.166 



.18 



.182 
.183 
.183 6 
.183 8 



.184 
.184 1 
.184 2 



.184 5 
.184 7 



Tenders 

Other parts 
Tractors, rollers, and their boilers 
Portable engines and their boilers 
Stationary engines and their boilers 

Reciprocating engines 

Simple, compound, triple-expansion, quadruple-expansion 
engines 

Turbines 

Thermodynamics 

Specific types 

Impulse, single-stage impulse, velocity-compounded, 
pressure-compounded, reaction turbines 

Design, construction, maintenance, repair 
Other engines 

Rotary, eolipile, aerosteam, cycloidal engines 

Generation and transmission 

Class a specific application with the subject 



621.182-621.184 Generation 
Fuels and fuel consumption 
Boiler furnaces 

Mechanical stokers 
Draft appliances 

Including stacks, chimneys, flues, dampers 

Boilers 

Thermodynamics 
Specific types 

Fire-tube and water-tube boilers 

Design, construction, maintenance, repairs 
Accessories 

Gages, valves, collectors 
722 



Engineering and allied operations 



621.185 Circulation (Transmission) 

Including steam pipes, safety valves, pressure regulators, 
insulation 

.19 Central stations 

.194 Boiler operations ( Boiler-house practices ) 

.194 1 Firing and feeding 

.194 3 Feed-water treatment 

Scale prevention, purification and softening of feed water 

.197 Accessories 

.197 2 Feed- water appliances 

Heaters, economizers, accumulators 

.197 3 Traps 

Pumping, lift, boiler-feed return traps 

.1974 Separators 

.197 5 Superheaters 

.197 6 Condensers and cooling towers 

.197 7 Instrumentation 

Including calorimeters, indicators and gages for pressure 
and temperature 

•2 Power derived from liquids 

Use 621.200 1 - 621.200 9 for standard subdivisions 

.201 -.209 Standard subdivisions of hydrauhc power 



.21 



[.22-.23] 



.24 



621.21-621.27 Hydraulic power 
Waterwheels ( Water mills ) 

Including overshot and undershot wheels [formerly 621.22- 
621.23] 

For turbines, see 621.24 

Overshot and undershot wheels 

Class in 621.21 

Turbines 



723 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



: ti' 



'4 



621.25 

.254 
.26 



27 



.28 



.3 



[.300 4] 



[.300 7] 



[.300 8] 



[.300 9] 



Engines 

Pumps 

Accumulators 
Machinery and appliances 

Class a specific machine or appliance with the subject 

Rams 

Lifting, pumping, compressing rams 

Other liquid-pressure mechanisms 

Liquid-pressure measuring and control instruments, e.g., gages, 
manometers, controllers, barometers 

Electrical, electronic, electromagnetic engineering 

Use 621.300 01 - 621.300 09 for standard subdivisions 

Wiring diagrams 
Class in 621.319 2 

Laws and codes on electrical installations 

Class laws in 340, local government regulation in 352.923 

Patents 

Class in 621.302 72 

Collections of reports 
Class in 621.308 



.301 
.302 

.302 7 
.302 72 

.303-.307 



621.301-621.309 Standard subdivisions of electrical 
engineering 

Philosophy and theory 

Miscellany 

Inventions and identification marks 

Patents [/orm^r?t/ 621.300 8] 

Dictionaries, serial publications, organizations, study 
and teaching 



621.308 



.309 



.31 



.312 

.3121 

.312 13 
.312 132 
.312 133 
.312 134 
.312 136 



Collections and anthologies 

Including collections of reports [formerly 621.300 9] 

Historical and geographical treatment 

SUMMARY 

621.31 Generation, transmission, modification of electrical 
energy 

•32 Light and illumination engineering 

•33 Traction 

•35 Applied electrochemistry 

•36 Faraphotic engineering 

.37 Electrical measurements 

•38 Electronic and communication engineering 

•39 Other branches of electrical engineering 

Generation, transmission, modification of electrical 
energy 

Class electricity derived from nuclear power in 621.481, by 
chemical methods in 621.35, electric motors as prime movers in 
621.4 





SUMMARY 


621.312 


Central stations 


.313 

.314 


Dynamoelectric (Generating) machinery 
Transformers 


.315 


Condensers 


.316 
.317 


Details and parts of generators 
Control devices at central stations 


.319 


Transmission 



Central stations 

For machinery and instrumentation, see 621.313-621.317 

By purpose 

For special-purpose stations, see 621.312 2 - 621.312 6 

All-purpose stations 
Steam-driven 

Internal-combustion-engine-driven 
Hydroelectric and tidal 
Wind-driven 



724 



7^5 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



I 



'H 



621.312 137 
.312 139 



.312 2 



.312 3 

.312 6 



.313 



.313 1 

.313 2 



.313 3 



.313 4 
.313 5 



.313 6 



Fuel-cell powered 
Other types 

Including stations powered by thermoelectric, 
thermionic, magnetohydrodynamic generators 



621.312 2-621.312 6 Special-purpose stations 
For hghting 

Divide like 621.312 13, e.g., hydroelectric stations 
621.312 24 

For traction 

Transformer, converter, accumulator substations 



621.313-621.317 Machinery and instrumentation 
Dynamoelectric (Generating) machinery 
For details and parts of generators, see 621.316 

Construction, installation, maintenance, testing 
Direct-current machinery 

Dynamos, dynamotors, direct-current motors, converters 
to alternating current, compensators, boosters 

Alternating-current machinery 

For synchronous machinery, see 621.313 4 — 621.313 5; 
asynchronous machinery, 621.313 6 



621.313 4-621.313 5 Synchronous machinery 
Generators and motors 
Converters to direct current 

Phase, frequency, motor converters 
For rectifiers, see 621.313 7 

Asynchronous machinery 

Generators, phase and frequency converters 
Class commutators [formerly 621.313 6] in 621.316 
For rectifiers, see 621.313 7 



621.313 7 



.314 



.315 
.316 



.319 15 

.319 16 
.319 2 

.319 21 



Rectifiers 

Mechanical, electronic, electrolytic converters supplied 
with commutators 

Transformers 

Power, distribution, instrument transformers for converting 
alternating-current power from one voltage to another 

Condensers 

Details and parts of generators 

Commutators [formerly 621.313 6], armatures and armature 
winding, contactors, electromagnets ( field cores ) , brushes 



.317 


Control devices at central stations 


.317 2 


Sw^itchboards, panels, meters 


.317 3 


Switches and circuit breakers 


.317 4 


Rheostats 


.317 5 


Signal devices 


.317 8 


Protective devices 




Fuses, lightning arresters, relays, grounding devices 


.319 


Transmission 


.319 1 


Systems 


.319 12 


Direct-current 


.319 13 


Al terna tin g-current 



Single-phase, two-phase, polyphase current systems 

Composite current 

Direct and alternating currents combined 

Polycychc current 
Lines and circuitry 

Including wiring diagrams [formerly 621.300 4] 

Circuit characteristics 

Heat losses in lines, transient currents, induction 
capacity of parallel lines 



726 



727 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



M 



:l 






621.319 22 
.319 223 
.319 224 
.319 225 
.319 23 
.319 3 
.319 32 
.319 33 
.319 34 
.319 37 
.319 8 



Overhead lines 

Poles 

Cross arms 

Towers 
Underground lines 
Wires and cables 
Uninsulated wires 
Insulated wires 
Cables and cable laying 
Insulators and insulation 



.32 



Protective devices 

Fuses, lightning arresters, relays, grounding devices 

Light and illumination engineering 

Use 621.320 001 - 621.320 009 for standard subdivisions 

.320 01 -.320 09 Standard subdivisions of illumination engineering 

.320 1-.320 9 Standard subdivisions of electric lighting 



.321 



.3211 



.3212 
.321 3 
.3214 
.3215 
.322 

.322 5-.322 8 



621.321-621.322 Illumination 
For specific kinds of lighting, see 621.323-621.327 

General principles 

Class application to interior and exterior lighting in 621.322 

Determinative procedures 

Layouts, calculations, photometry 



621.321 2-621.321 5 Systems and methods 
Direct lighting 

Indirect and semi-indirect lighting 
Flood (Directed) lighting 
Transillumination 
Interior and exterior lighting 

For municipal lighting, see 628.93-628.95 

Interior lighting 

Divide like 725-728, e.g., lighting for libraries 
621.322 78 

728 



621.322 9 



.323 



.324 



.328 



.328 2 
.328 8 

.329 



.33 



Garden and patio lighting 



621.323-621.327 Specific kinds of lighting 

Historic forms 

Torches, candles, oil-burning devices 

Gas Hghting 



621.325-621.327 Electric lighting 

Systems, bulbs, tubes, filaments, electrodes, manufacturing 
details 

For apparatus at service end of line, see 621.328 



.325 


Arc 




For enclosed-arc, see 621.327 


.326 


Incandescent 


.327 


Luminous-tube (Enclosed-arc) 


.327 3 


Fluorescent 


.327 4 


Mercury-vapor 


.327 5 


Neon 


.327 6 


Sodium-vapor 



Apparatus at service end of line 
Including panels, insulators, switches 

Interior wiring 
Protective devices 

Fuses, lightning arresters, relays, grounding devices 

Other branches of light engineering 

Including light amplification by stimulated emission of 
radiation (lasers) 

Traction 

Electric-power transmission for railways 
Including electrification of railway systems 



7^9 



\i& 



621.35 



Decimal Classification 



Applied electrochemistry 

Generation and storage of electrical energy by chemical 
methods 



.353 



.354 



.355 
.356 
.359 



•36 



.362 



.364 
.37 



.372 



.373 



Primary batteries 
Voltaic and dry cells 

Secondary batteries ( Storage batteries ) 

For specific types of storage batteries, see 621.355-621.356 



621.355-621.356 Specific types of storage batteries 

Lead-acid batteries 

Alkaline batteries 

Fuel cells 

Direct, continuous conversion of chemical energy to 
electrical energy 

Paraphotic engineering 

Generation, transmission, detection, systems, applications of 
radiant energy adjacent to luminous spectrum 

Infrared 

Including infrared amplification by stimulated emission of 
radiation (irasers) 

For heat radiation, see 621.402 2 

Ultraviolet 
Electrical measurements 



621.372-621.374 Values and quantities 

Determination of instantaneous effective electrical values (in- 
struments), and measurement of total quantities of electricity 
over a period of time (meters) 

Units and standards 

Primary (absolute) and secondary standards of resistance, 
voltage, inductance, capacitance, frequency 

Including cahbration of electrical instruments 

Recording meters 

730 



Engineering and allied operations 
621.374 Meters and instruments 

Measurement of electric quantities 
For recording meters, see 621.373 



.374 2 Resistance measurements 

Wheatstone bridges, ohmmeters, resistance boxes, shunts 

,374 3 Potential measurements 

Electrometers, voltmeters, potentiometers, voltage 
detectors 

.374 4 Current measurements 

Voltameters, ammeters, milliammeters, coulometers, 
ampere-hour meters, galvanometers 

,374 5 Energy measurements 

Watt-hour meters, demand meters, electric supply meters 

.374 6 Power measurements 

Wattmeters, electrodynamometers, voltammeters 



.374 7 



.374 9 



.379 



.38 



Frequency meters 

Magnetic oscillographs, cathode-ray oscillographs 
For electric phasemeters, see 621.374 9 

Phasemeters 

Synchroscopes, power-factor meters 

Measurements of nonelectrical quantities 
Including telemeters 

Electronic and communication engineering 





SUMMARY 


621.381 


Electronic engineering 


.382-.383 


Wire telegraphy 


.384 


Radio- and microwave communication 


.385-.387 


Wire telephony 


.388 


Television 


.389 


Other communication devices 



731 






4i- 



I' I 






■■a; 

■:t 
■3 






h 






K '*<' 
H 



621.381 



.381 1 



.381 3 
.381 31 
.381 32 



.381 33 



.381 331 
.381 332 
.381 333 
.381 334 
.381 335 
.381 336 



.381 336 1 
.381 336 2 



Decimal Classification 



Electronic engineering 

For communication engineering, see 621.382-621.389 



621.381 1 
.3813 
.3815 
.3816 
.3317 
.3819 



SUMMARY 

Systems 

Microwave electronics 

Circuit electronics 

X-ray and gamma-ray electronics 

Miniaturization and microminiaturization 

Special developments 



Systems 

Communication, control, combined 

Microwave electronics 

Wave propagation and transmission 

Circuit functions 

Specific valves, hookups, design and analysis of 
circuits 

Specific instruments and apparatus 

Class instruments and apparatus for a specific 
function in 621.381 32 

Waveguides 
Resonators 
Klystrons 
Magnetrons 

Traveling-wave tubes 
Masers 

Microwave amplification by stimulated emission of 
radiation 

Solid-state masers 
Fluid-state masers 



621.381 5 



.381 51 

.381 512 
.381512 2 
.381 512 3 
.381512 4 
.381 512 5 
.381 512 8 
.381 513 



.381 52 
.381 522 
.381 528 
.381 53 



.381 532 
.381 533 
.381 534 
.381 535 



.381 536 
.381 536 2 
.381 536 3 
.381 536 4 
.381 536 5 
.381 537 



Engineering and allied operations 



Circuit electronics 

Short- and long-wave electronics 



73^ 



621.381 51-621.381 52 Valves 
Class valves for a specific function in 621.381 53 

Tubes 

Thermionic and cold-cathode 

Vacuum tubes 

Diodes 

Triodes 

Tetrodes 

Pentodes 

Other multielement tubes 
Low-pressure gas tubes 

Divide like 621.381 512, e.g., tetrodes 
621.381 513 4 

Semiconductor (crystal) valves 

Diodes 

Transistors 

Circuit functions 

Specific valves, hookups, design and analysis of 
circuits 

Rectification and filtering 

Oscillation 

Pulse processes 

Amplification and feedback 

Including radio amplification by stimulated 
emission of radiation ( rasers ) 

Modulation, demodulation, detection 

Amplitude 

Frequency 

Phase 

Pulse 
Switching and control 
733 



621.381 54 



Decimal Classification 



Supplementary devices and instrumentation 

Cathode-ray and electron-ray tubes, indicators, ga<Tes 
thermistors ° ' 



.381 6 
.3817 



.381 71 



.381 73 



.381 74 



.381 952 
.381 953 
.381 953 2 
.381 953 3 
.381 953 4 
.381 954 



X-ray and gamma-ray electronics 
Miniaturization and microminiaturization 



621.381 71-621.381 74 Printed circuits 
Microelements 

Modules, transistors, resistors, diodes, wafers 

Microcircuit functions 

Specific valves, hookups, design and analysis of 
circuits 

Printed wiring and potted circuits 



.381 76 


Other miniaturized devices 


.381 79 


Special developments 


[.381 8] 


Electroacoustical devices 




Class in 621.389 


.3819 


Special developments 


.381 95 


Computers [formerly 681.14] 



621.381 952-621.381 954 General principles 

Class general principles applied to specific computers in 
621.381 957-621.381 958 

Design and construction 

Component elements 

Input-output equipment 
Storage and memory systems 
Piint-out equipment 

Maintenance and repair 



.381 957 
.381 958 



621.381957-621.381958 Specific computers 
Analog computers 
Digital computers 



734 



Engineering and allied operations 



621.382 



.382 3 



.382 4 



621.382-621.389 Communication engineering 
Electrical, electroacoustical, electronic devices 



621.382-621.383 Wire telegraphy 
Codes, systems, types 



621.382 3 - 621.382 4 Systems 

Acoustic 

Hand-operated systems, e.g., simplex, duplex, 
quadruplex, multiplex 

Automatic 

Systems of Bain, Morse, Wheatstone, Delany 



.382 5 


621.382 5 - 621.382 8 Special types 

Printing 

Stockticker, teleprinter, teletype 


.382 6 
.382 7 


Writing (Telautography) 
Facsimile 


.382 8 


Submarine cable 



.383 



.384 



Specific instruments and apparatus 

Keys, transmitters, receivers, calling apparatus, relays, 
repeaters, switches, recorders 

Radio- and microwave communication 

SUMMARY 



621.384 1 

.384 2-.384 3 
.384 5-.384 6 
.384 8 



General principles 
Radiotelegraphy 
Radiotelephony 
Radar 



735 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 









► 


621.384 1-621.384 6 Radio 


621.384 1 


General principles 






SUMMARY 




621.384 11 


Wave propagation and transmission 




.384 12 


Circuitry 




.384 13 


Specific instruments and apparatus 




.384 15 


Communication systems 




.384 16 


Stations 




.384 17 


Measurements and standardization 




.384 18 


Manufacture and servicing of receiving sets 




.384 19 


Special developments 


.38411 




Wave propagation and transmission 


.384 12 




Circuitry 


.384 121 


• 


Simple circuits 


.384 122 




Coupled circuits 


.384 128 




Circuit fvmctions 



.38413 
.384 131 
.384 132 



.384 133 



.384 134 



.384 135 
.384 135 1 
.384 135 2 
.384 135 S 



Detection, amplification, control, modulation, 
frequency generation 

Specific instruments and apparatus 
Transmitters 
Vacuum tubes 

Diodes, triodes, multielement tubes 

Class tubes for a specific function with the 
function 

Supplementary instrumentation 

Condensers, microphones, inductors, resistors, 
filters, oscillographs, grounding devices 

Including devices for elimination of interference 
[formerly 621. 3Q^ 15^] 

Transistors 

Class transistors for a specific function with the 
function 

Antennas 

Transmitting 
Receiving 
Directional 
736 



621.384 136 
.384 136 1 



.384 136 6 



.384 15 



.384 151 
.384 152 

.384 153 



[.384 154] 



.384 165 
.384 166 
.384 168 

.38417 



Receivers 
Instruments 



Radio-frequency amplifiers, modulators, 
rectifiers, detectors, loud speakers 



Sets 



Crystal, radio-tube, regenerative, tuned 
radio-frequency, superheterodyne sets 

For manufacture and servicing, see 
621.384 18 



Communication systems 



621.384 151-621.384 152 Short-wave systems 
Without frequency modulation 
With frequency modulation (FM) 

Long-wave systems 

Amplitude modulation ( AM ) systems 

Devices for elimination of interference 
Class in 621.384 133 



.384 156 


Relay and satellite systems 


.384 16 


Stations 




621.384 162-621.384 164 Broadcasting stations 


.384 162 


Clear-channel 


.384 163 


Regional 


.384 164 


Local 



621.384 165 - 621.384 168 Two-way stations 
Vehicle-to-station 
Amateur (Ham) 
Portable 

Measurements and standardization 

Of impedance, frequency, wavelength, modulation, 
signal intensity 

737 



Decimal Classification 



621.384 18 


Manufacture and servicing of receiving sets 


.384 185 


Assembling 


.384 186 


Installation 


.384 187 


Repairs 


.384 19 


Special developments 


.384 191 


Direction and position finding 




Radio beacons, radio compasses, loran 


.384 196 


Telecontrol 


.384 197 


Space communication 



.384 2 



.384 3 



621.384 2 - 621.384 3 Radiotelegraphy 
Systems, stations, types 
Including radiofacsimile 

Specific instruments and apparatus 



.384 5 
.384 6 

.384 8 
.384 81 



621.384 5 - 621.384 6 Radiotelephony 
Systems, stations, types 
Specific instruments and apparatus 

Radar 

General principles 

Wave propagation and transmission, circuitry, 
reception 



.384 83 


Specific instruments and apparatus 


.384 85 


Systems 




Continuous and pulse-modulated 


.384 86 


Stations 


.384 88 


Scanning patterns 


.384 89 


Special developments 


.384 892 


Racon 


384 893 


Shoran 



738 



Engineering and allied operations 



621.385 
.385 1 
.385 3 

.385 4 

.385 41 
.385 43 



.385 5 
.385 6 
.385 7 

.385 8 



.386 

.386 2 



.386 3 



.386 7 

.386 9 
.386 92 
.386 93 



621.385-621.387 Wire telephony 
Analysis, systems, stations 
Network analysis 

Intercommunication systems (Interphone systems) 
Systems without central stations 

Stations 

For private exchanges, see 621.385 8 

Substations 

Central stations 



621.385 5 - 621.385 6 Manual switchboard systems 
Multiple switchboard systems 
Trunking systems (Transfer systems) 
Automatic and semiautomatic switchbord systems 
Including direct-distant-dialing systems 

Private exchanges 

Private automatic exchanges (PAX) and private board 
exchanges (PBX) 



621.386-621.387 Instruments, apparatus, transmission 

Terminal instruments and apparatus 

Transmitters 

Including handsets containing transmitters and receivers 
in one housing 

Receivers 

For handsets containing transmitters and receivers in one 
housing, see 621.386 2 



621.386 7-621.386 9 Specific types 
Manual, automatic, dial 
Recording telephones (Mechanical telephones) 
Telephonographs, telegraphones 

Other 

Pay stations 
Private stations 
739 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



I 



621.387 



.387 3 
.387 4 



.387 5 



.387 6 



.387 7 



.387 8 
.387 82 
.387 83 
.387 9 
.387 94 



.387 96 



.388 



.388 02 
.388 04 
.3881 



Central station equipment and transmission 



.388 3 

.388 31-.388 33 



I 



o21. 387 3-621.387 6 Manual switchboards 

Multiple switchboards 

Trunk (Transfer) switchboards 

Switchboards for transferring lines from one central 
station to another 

Switchboard components 

Including parts and accessories of manual and automatic 
telephone switchboards 

Power equipment 

Including auxihary generators, batteries 

Semiautomatic and automatic switchboards 
For switchboaTd components, see 621.387 5 

Transmission 

Long-distance 

Local 
Other central station equipment 

Protective devices 

Fuses, lightning arresters, relays, grounding devices 

Meters and counters 

Television 

Use 621.388 001 - 621.388 009 for standard subdivisions 

Black-and-white television 
Color television 
General principles 

Wave propagation and transmission, circuitry, optics 

Instruments and apparatus 

Transmitters, valves, supplementary 
instrumentation 

Divide Uke 621.384 131 - 621.384 133, e.g., filters 
621.388 33 

740 



621.388 34 

.388 35-.388 36 



.388 5 

.388 6 
.388 7 



.388 8 



.388 9 



.389 



.389 2 



.389 3 
.389 32 



.389 33 



.389 4 
.389 5 
.389 52 
.389 53 



Cameras and components 

Antennas and receivers 

Divide like 621.384 135 - 621.384 136, e.g., television 
sets 621.388 366 

Communication systems 

Including relay and satellite systems 

Stations 

Measurements and standardization 

Of impedance, frequency, wavelength, modulation, 

signal intensity 

Manufacture and servicing of receiving sets 
Divide hke 621.384 18, e.g., repairs 621.388 87 

Special developments 

Including space communication 

Other communication devices 

Including electroacoustical devices [foTTuerly also 
621.381 8] 

Public-address and related systems 

Including sound reinforcing, electric megaphone, inter- 
communicating, announce, paging, call systems 

Sound recording and reproducing systems [formerly 
also 681 M] 

Records and recorders 

Cylinder, disc, wire, tape, film records and recorders 

Reproducers 

Phonographs, radiophonographs, high-fidelity and 

stereophonic systems 

Language translators 
Underwater devices 

Projectors and hydrophones 

Sonar 



741 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



621.39 



.392 



.393 
.394 
.396 



.402 



.402 1 

.402 2 



.402 3 
.402 4 
.402 5 



.402 8 



Other branches of electrical engineering 

General principles, circuitry, apparatus and appliances, 
applications 

Class generation and transmission of electricity regardless of 
method or purpose in 621.31 

Thermoelectricity 

Electricity produced by direct action of heat 

Rural electrification 
Household electrification 
Conduction and induction heating 

Including arc, resistance, electromagnetic, dielectric 
furnaces 

Heat and prime movers 

Including electric motors 

Use 621.400 1 - 621.400 9 for standard subdivisions 
For steam, see 621.1 

Heat (Thermal) engineering 

For low-temperature technology, see 621.56-621.59 

Thermodynamics [/orm^r/y 621.01] 
Transmission (Heat transfer) 
Conduction, convection, radiation 

Fuels and combustion 

Insulation 

Power plants 

Heat engines and accessories 

Thermal systems 



621.41 

.42 



.43 



.433 



.433 2 



.433 5 
.434 
.435 
.436 



.4361 
.436 2 
.436 8 



621.41 
.42 
.43 
.45 

.47 
.48 
.49 



SUMMARY 

External-combustion engines 
Air engines ( Air motors ) 
Internal-combustion engines 
Wind engines 
Solar-energy engineering 
Nuclear engineering 
Central power stations 



(Hot-air engines) 



621.41-621.45 Specific prime movers 
External-combustion engines (Hot-air engines) 
Air engines ( Air motors ) 

Reciprocating air motors, rotary vane positive expansion motors, 
air-turbine engines 

For wind engines, see 621.45 
Internal-combustion engines 



621.433-621.436 Specific internal-combustion engines 
For parts and accessories, see 621.437 

Gas-turbine engines 

Scope: gas-turbine and jet engines 
For ]et engines, see 621.435 

Simple gas-turbine engines 

Continuous-combustion, intermittent-combustion, 
exhaust-driven, closed-cycle turbines 

Free-piston-turbine engines 
Spark-ignition engines 
Jet and rocket engines 

High-compression-ignition engines 
Diesel and semidiesel engines 

General principles 
Design and construction 
Operation, maintenance, repair 



742 



743 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



62] .437 



.48 



.481 



.483 

.483 2 
.483 3 
.483 32 
.483 35 
.483 36 
.483 37 
.483 4 



.483 5 
.483 7 
.483 8 



Parts and accessories 

Cylinders, carburetors, pistons, ignition devices, connecting 
rods, governors 



.438 


Special developments 


.45 


Wind engines 




Windmills, wind wheels, Flettner rotors 


A7 


Solar-energy engineering 


.471 


General principles 




Thermodynamics, radiation, heat storage 


.473 


Solar engines 


.475 


Solar batteries 


.477 


Solar furnaces 



Utilization of solar energy for attainment of high 
temperatures 

Nuclear engineering 

Fission and fusion technology 

Central stations 

Stations for generation of thermal and electric power 

Fission reactors and power plants 
Design, construction, shielding 
Materials 

Structural materials 

Fuels (Fissionable materials) 

Coolants 

Moderators 
Specific types 

Heterogeneous, homogeneous, thermal, intermediate, 
fast, breeder reactors and power plants 

Operation, control, safety measures 
By-products ( Radioactive isotopes ) 
Treatment and disposal of radioactive waste 

744 



621.484 

.489 
.49 



.51 



.53 



.54 



.55 



.56 



.563 
.564 
.567 

.57 
.58 

•59 



Fusion reactors and power plants 
Controlled thermonuclear devices 

Special developments 
Central power stations 

Class a specific type with the subject 

Pneumatic and low-temperature technology 

For fans, blowers, pumps, see 621.6 



621.51-621.54 Air compression 

Compressors 

Reciprocating, rotary, jet compressors 

Transmission 

Systems and equipment 

Special developments 

Cleaners, carriers, sandblasts, other devices 

Vacuum technology 



621.56-621.59 Low-temperature technology 
Refrigeration 

For refrigerators and freezers, see 621.57 

Heat pumps 

Refrigerants and coolants 
Systems 

Refrigerators and freezers 
Ice manufacture 
Cryogenic techniques 

Liquefaction and solidification of gases and gas mixtiu'es having 
extremely low boihng points 



745 



Decimal Classification 



621.6 


Mechanical fans, blowers, pumps 


► 


621.61-621.63 Fans and blowers 


.61 


Piston 


.62 


Rotary 


.63 


Centrifugal 




Including exhaust fans 


► 


621.64-621.69 Pumps 




For hydraulic pumps, see 621.252 


.64 


Hand 


.65 


Reciprocating (Piston and plunger) 


.66 


Rotary 


.67 


Centrifugal 




Turbopumps and axial-flow pumps 


.68 


Fire engines 


.69 


Other 


.691 


Jet ( Injectors and ejectors ) 


.692 


Vacuum 


.699 


Miscellaneous 



.7 



.75 



.78 



Including density pumps, direct-fluid-pressure displacement 
pumps, e.g., pulsometers 

Factory operations 

Class manufacture of a specific product with the subject 

Machine-shop practice 

Machining and assembling metalwork 
For machine tools, see 621.902 

Automatic factories 



746 



621.8 



Engineering and allied operations 



Mechanical power transmission and related equipment 

For pneumatic technology, see 621.5; power derived from liquids, 
621.2 







SUMMARY 




621.81 


Mechanisms 




.82 


Systems and parts 




.83 


Gears, ratchets, cams 




.84 


Valves, pistons, cocks 




.85 


Transmission by flexible connections 




.86 


Materials-handling equipment 




.87 


Cranes, derricks, elevators, and their components 




.88 


Fastenings 




.89 


Elimination of friction 


^1 


Mechanisms 


.811 


Ge 


neral princiDles 



.812 



.815 



.82 



.821 
.822 



.823 
.824 
.825 
.827 



Kinematics and dynamics in machines 

Power control devices 

Speed controllers (governors), pow^er measuring devices, 
e.g., dynamometers, timers 

Machine design 



621.82-621,84 Transmission elements 

Systems and parts 

For gears, ratchets, cams, see 621.83; valves, pistons, cocks, 
621.84 

Journals 
Bearings 

Plain, ball, roller, gas-lubricated, shding, adjustable bearings 

Shafts and shafting 

Springs 

Couplings, clutches, universal joints 

Connecting rods, cranks, eccentrics 



747 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



2i 



621.83 


Gears, ratchets, cams 


.833 


Gears and gearing 


.833 1 


Spur gears 


.833 2 


Bevel and skew bevel gears 


.833 3 


Worm and spiral gears 


.837 


Ratchet gears and gearing 


.838 


Cams 


.84 


Valves, pistons, cocks 


.85 


Transmission by flexible connections 




For materiak-handling equipment, see 621.86 


.852 


By belt 


.853 


By rope 


.854 


By wire 


•859 


By chain 


.86 


Materials-handling equipment 




For craneSy derricks, elevators and their components, see 621.87 



.862 



.863 
.864 
.865 

.867 



621.87 
.872 
.873 

.877 



.88 

.882 
.883 
.884 
.89 



.9 



Hoisting machinery 

For specific kinds of hoisting machinery, see 
621.863-621.865 



621.863-621.865 Specific kinds of hoisting machinery 
Chain hoists, mechanical and hydraulic tackles 
Windlasses, winches, capstans 
Power shovels 

Conveying machinery 
For telpherage, see 621.868 



.902 

.904 
.908 



.867 2 


Pipes and pipelines 


.867 5 


Belt conveyers 


.867 6 


Escalators 


.868 


Telpherage 




Including ski tows, chair lifts 



.91 
.912 

.914 



Cranes, derricks, elevators, and their components 
Derricks 
Cranes 

Mobile and stationary 

Elevators 

Hand-powered, belt-driven, steam, hydraulic, electric 

Fastenings 

Screvi^s, nuts, bolts 

Cotters and cotter pins 

Rivets and nails 
Elimination of friction 

Lubrication and lubricants 
For bearings, see 621.822 

Tools 

Design, maintenance, repair, operation 
Use 621.900 1 - 621.900 9 for standard subdivisions 
For special-purpose machinery, see 681.6-681.7 

Machine tools 

Power-driven metalworking machinery 

Pneumatic tools 
Hand tools 



SUMMARY 



621.91 
.92 
.93 
.94 
.95 
.96 
.97 
.98 
.99 



7^ 



Planing and milling machinery 

Abrading and grinding machinery 

Cutting and sawing machinery 

Turning machinery 

Perforating and tapping machinery 

Punching machinery 

Fastening machinery 

Pressing machinery 

Jigs, fixtures, gages 

Planing and milling machinery 
Planers, shapers, slotters 
Crushing machinery [formerly 621.922] 

749 



Decimal Classification 






621.92 
.922 



.923 
.924 
.93 



.94 

.942 
.943 
.944 

.945 
.95 

.952 
.954 
.955 
.96 



.97 

.973 

.974 

.978 

.98 

.982 

.983 

.984 

.99 



Abrading and grinding machinery 

Lapping machinery 

Cylinder and surface polishing and grinding 

Class crushing machinery [formerly 621.922] in 621.914 

Emery wheels and grindstones 
Filing machinery 
Cutting and sawing machinery 
Power shears, saws, sheers, trimmers 

Turning machinery 
Lathes 
Chucks 

Screw-cutting, gear-cutting, pipe-threading machinery 
For tapping machines, see 621.955 

Boring machinery 
Perforating and tapping machinery 

For boring machines, see 621.945; punching machines, 621.96 

Drilling machinery 
Reaming and broaching machinery 
Tapping machinery 
Punching machinery 

For die-pressing machinery, see 621.984 

Fastening machinery 

Hand hammers 

Power hammers 

Riveting machinery 
Pressing machinery 

Bending machinery 

Straightening jigs 

Die-pressing machinery 
Jigs, fixtures, gages 

For straightening jigs, see 621.983 






Engineering and allied operations 



622 Mining engineering and operations 

[.001] Statistics 

Class in 622.021 



[.007] 
[.009] 

.02 

.021 



.08 



.1 



1^ 

• X tea 



.13 



.14 



Laws and regulations 
Class in 340 

Collections of reports 
Class in 622.08 

Miscellany 

Tabulated and related materials 
Including statistics [formerly 622.001] 

Collections and anthologies 

Including collections of reports [formerly 620.009] 



622.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 
.7 
.8 



SUMMARY 

Prospecting and exploratory operations 

Underground mining 

Types of mining 

Equipment for environmental comfort in mines 

Drainage and drainage systems 

Haulage and hoisting systems 

Ore dressing 

Hazards and accidents 



Prospecting and exploratory operations 



622.12-622.15 General principles 

Class general principles applied to specific ores and deposits in 
622.18 

Surface exploration 

Geological, biogeochemical, geobotanical prospecting 

Mineral surveys 

Quabtative and quantitative measurements of mineral content 

Mine surveys 

Determination of size, depth, shape of mines 



75^ 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 






1^ 






•A 



622.15 
.152 
.153 
.154 

.159 



.18 



.31 
.32 



Geophysical exploration 
Gravitational methods 
Magnetic methods 
Electrical methods 

Self-potential, galvanic, inductive 

Other methods 

Acoustic, vibration, radioactivity, geothermal, gas-detection 



me 



thods 



For specific ores and deposits 

Divide like 553.2-553.8, e.g., for petroleum 622.182 82 



622.2-622.3 Extractive operations 

Underground mining 

Excavating, quarrying, stoping 

Class underground mining of specific ores and deposits in 





622.33-622.38 


.23 


Blasting and drilling 


.24 


Boring 


.25 


Shafts and shaft sinking 


.26 


Tunnels and tunneling 


.28 


Supporting structures and their erection 



Types of mining 

For underground mining, see 622.2 



622.31-622.32 Surface mining 
Class surface mining of specific ores and deposits in 622.33- 



622.38 



Open pit and strip mining 
Alluvial mining 

Placer, hydraulic, drift mining 



622.33 

.34 
.341 



622.33-622.38 Mining specific ores and deposits 
Carbonaceous deposits 

Divide like 553.2, e.g., anthracite coal 622.335 

Metallic ore deposits 
Ferrous ores 



.342 
.343-.349 



A 



[.41] 



.42 



.43 

.47 

.473 

.474 

.48 



.49 
.5 



622.342-622.349 Nonferrous ores 
Gold, silver, platinum 
Other 

Divide like 553.43-553.49, e.g., uranium ores 622.349 3 



.35-38 Other deposits 

Divide like 553.5-553.8, e.g., gem diamonds 622.382 



622.4-622.7 Ancillary equipment and operations 
Equipment for environmental comfort in mines 

For drainage and drainage systems, see 622.5 

Mine gases and their detection 
Class in 622.81 

Ventilation and air conditioning 
For temperature control, see 622.43 

Temperature control 
Illumination 

Portable lamps 

Electric lighting systems 

Electricity 

Class electricity applied to a specific operation with the 
operation, e.g., temperature control 622.43 

Sanitation 
Drainage and drainage systems 



m 



752 



753 



Decimal Classification 



622.6 



.65 
.66 



.75 
.751 



.752 



.77 



Haulage and hoisting systems 



622.65-622.66 Haulage systems 
For surface transportation, see 622.69 

Hand and animal haulage 

Mechanical haulage 

Gravity planes, shutde cars, conveyers, locomotives, scrapers 



622.67-622.68 Hoisting systems 



.67 


Direct- and gear-driven noists 


.68 


Elevators 




Cages, skips, buckets 


.69 


Surface transportation 




Loading, unloading, transhipment 


.7 


Ore dressing 


.73 


Crushing and grinding 


.74 


Sizing 



622.75-622.77 Ore concentration 
Removal of waste and mineral separation of milled ore 

Mechanical separation 
Gravity concentration 

Utilization of differences in specific gravity between 

minerals 

Including sink-float concentration, jigging 

Flotation 

Utilization of differences in chemical composition of min- 
erals to bring about attachment of mineral grains to air 
bubbles in water 

Electrical and magnetic separation 

Utilization of differences in magnetic permeability or surface 
electrical conductivity between different mineral varieties 

754 



Engineering and allied operations 



622.79 



A 



.81 



.86 



623 



.1 

.12 

.15 
.19 



Milling plants 

Class specific milUng-plant operations in 622.73-622.77 

Hazards and accidents 



622.81-622.84 Causes and prevention 

Explosions and gas suflFocation 

Including mine gases and their detection [formerly 622.41] 



.82 


Fires 


.83 


Earth movements 


.84 


Floods 



Rescue and relief operations 
Military and naval engineering 

Planning, structural analysis and design, construction methods, 
operations, maintenance, repairs 



623.1 

A 
.5 
JS 
.7 
S 



SUMMARY 

Fortifications (Forts and fortresses) 

Demolition operations 

Defensive operations 

Ordnance 

Ballistics and gunnery 

Transportation facilities 

Other operations 

Naval engineering 



623.1-623.7 Military engineering 

Fortifications ( Forts and fortresses ) 

Permanent 

For specific permanent fortifications, see 623.19 

Temporary 

Specific permanent fortifications 
Add area notations 3-9 to 623.19 



755 



Decimal Classijication 



Engineering and allied operations 



623.2 


Demolition operations 


.26 


Mine laying 


.262 


On land 


.263 


In water 


27 


Demolition of specific structures and systems 


.271 


Of communication facilities [formerly 623.32] 


.275 


Of roads, railroads, bridges 


.277 


Of buildings 


3 


Defensive operations 


.31 


Against invasion 



[.32] 

.34 
.36 
.37 

.371 
.372 
.374 
.375 
.38 



Including flooding, mechanical barriers, sniping 

Demolition of communication facilities 
Class in 623.271 

In trenches 

Against mines (Countermining) 
Against chemical, biological, radiological warfare 
For protective construction, see 623.38 

Conventional bombardment [formerly 623.38] 

Gas warfare 
Biological warfare 
Nuclear warfare [formerly 623.38] 
Protective construction 

Including underground shelters 

Class defenses against nuclear warfare in 623.375, against 
conventional bombardment in 623.371, air-raid warning systems 
in 623.737, blackouts in 623.77 [all formerly 623.38] 

Ordnance 

Class armored vehicles in 623.74 



623.41 



.412 

.417 

.418 

.419 

.419 3 

.419 4 

.42 



.43 



.44 

.441 
.442 
.442 4 



.442 5 



.442 6 



SUMMARY 



623.41 
.42 
.43 
.44 
.45 
.46 
.48 



756 



Artillery 

Specific pieces of artillery 

Gun mounts 

Small arms and other weapons 

Ammunition 

Accessories 

Maintenance and repairs 

Artillery 

Large-caliber, crew-served mounted firearms 
For specific pieces of artillery, see 623.42 

Field 
Coast 

Naval 
Other 

Airborne 
Space 
Specific pieces of artillery 

Guns, howitzers, mortars, guided missile launchers 
For gun mounts, see 623.43; ammunition, 623.45 

Gun mounts 

Class armored cars and tanks in 623.747 5, armored trains in 
623.633 [all formerly 623.43] 

Small arms and other weapons 

For small-arms ammunition, see 623.455 

Primitive firearms 

Automatic and shoulder weapons 

Automatic small arms 

Automatic and machine rifles, machine and submachine 
guns 

Shoulder weapons 

Rifles, muskets, carbines 

For one-man rocket launchers, see 623.442 6 

One-man rocket launchers (Bazookas) 
757 



\ 

■i 






623.443 

.444 



.445 



.45 
.451 



.4511 



.451 14 

.451 15 
.451 19 



.4513 



.4514 
.4516 



.4517 



,4518 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



Pistols and revolvers 

Side arms 

Swords, bayonets, daggers, lances, trench knives 

Chemical devices 

Flame tlirowers, mortars for smoke and gas projectiles 

Ammunition 

Projectiles 

For tactical rockets, see 623.454 3 

Low-velocity projectiles 

Fragmentation, demolition, depth bombs placed, thrown, 
propelled at low velocity 

For special-purpose projectiles, see 
623.4514-623.4519 

Rifle and hand grenades 

Mines 

Nuclear bombs 

Class guided missiles with nuclear warheads in 
623.451 9 

High- velocity projectiles 

For special-purpose prcjectileSy see 623.451 4 - 623.451 9 



623.451 4-623.451 9 Special-purpose projectiles 
Shrapnel 
Chemical 

Incendiary, gas, smoke bombs 

High-explosives (HE) 

Including torpedoes, blockbusters, 
high-explosive-antitank (HEAT) projectiles 

For bangalore torpedoes, see 623.454 5 
Armor-piercing (AP, APC, HVAP) 



623.451 9 


Guided missiles (Strategic missiles) 


.451 91 


Air-to-air 


.451 92 


Air-to-surface 


.451 93 


A ir-to-underwater 


.451 94 


Surface-to-air 




Interceptor, antimissile missiles 


.451 95 


Surface-to-surface 


.451 952 


Short range 


.451 953 


Intermediate range 


.451 954 


Long range 


.451 96 


Surface-to-imderwater 


.451 97 


Underwater 



.452 



.452 6 



.452 7 



.454 
.454 2 



.454 3 



Underwater-to-air, underwater-to-surface, 
underwater-to-underwater 

Explosives 

Chemicals for propelhng, bursting, demolition charges 

Propellants (Binning and deflagratory explosives) 

Black powder (gunpowder), smokeless powder, nitrocel- 
lulose ( guncotton ) , cordite, flashless and coated powders 

High explosives 

Nitroglycerin, dynamite, nitroguanidine, TNT (trinitro- 
toluene), ammonium picrate and chlorate, PETN 
( pentaery thrite tetranitrate ) , RDX ( cyclonite, 
hexagen), tetryl, HMTD ( hexamethylene- 
triperoxidediamine ) 

Including primary explosives, e.g., mercury fulminate, 
lead azide and picrate, diazonitrophenol 

Detonators, rockets, demolition charges 

Detonators 

Fuses, primers, firing mechanisms, boosters, percussion 
caps 

Rockets (Tactical rockets) 

Jet-propelled bombs not controlled by guidance systems 



758 



759 



\- 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



[623.454 4] 



.454 5 



.455 



.513 



.514 



.516 



[.53] 



[.54] 



Pyrotechnical signal devices 

Class in 623.731 3 
Demolition charges 

Bangalore torpedoes, shaped charges, destructors, 
demolition blocks 

For mines, see 623.451 15 

Small-arms ammunition 
Btdlets and cartridges 



.459 


Other destructive agents 


.459 2 


Poisons 




Including poisonous gases 


.459 4 


Disease-causing microbes 


.459 5 


Radiation 


.46 


Accessories 




Tools, sighting and range apparatus 


.48 


Maintenance and repairs 


.5 


Ballistics and gunnery 


.51 


Ballistics 



Motion of projectiles and conditions affecting it 

Interior [formerly 623. S3] 

Motion of projectiles within the bore and conditions 
governing it 

Exterior [formerly 623.54] 

Motion of projectiles after leaving gun tube and resistance 
encountered due to motion thru air 

Terminal [formerly 623.56] 
Effect of projectiles on targets 

Interior ballistics 
Class in 623.513 

Exterior ballistics 
Class in 623.514 

jGo 



.6 

.62 

.63 
.631 



.633 



.64 
.66 



.67 

.68 



623.55-623.59 Gunnery 
Application of ballistics to laying, aiming, firing guns 



623.55 


Firing and fire control 


.551 


On land 


.553 


At sea 


.555 


From aircraft 


.556 


From spacecraft 


[.56] 


Terminal ballistics 




Class in 623.516 


.57 


Recoil 




Of mounts and guns 


.59 


Other aspects 



Transportation facilities 

For vehicles, see 623.74 

Roads 

Railroads and their rolling stock 

Permanent way 

Earthwork and superstruchn"e 

Rolling stock 

Including armored trains [formerly 623.43] 

Docks, breakw^aters, artificial harbors 

Airports 

Divide like 629.136, e.g., airstrips 623.661 2 
Use 623.661 3 for air bases 

Temporary bridges 



Tunnels 



761 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



n 



t 



i 



623.7 



71 
72 

73 

.731 

.7312 

.7313 



.732 
.733 



Other operation! 


1 




SUMMARY 


623.71 
.72 
.73 


Sketching and map making 
Photography and photogrammetry 
Communication facilities 


.74 


Vehicles 


.75 


Sanitation 


.76 
.77 


Power and light systems 
Camouflage 



623.71-623.72 Topography 
Sketching and map making 
Photography and photogrammetry 

Communication facihties 
Visual signals 

Semaphore, heliograph, flag signals 
Pyrotechnical devices [formerly 623.454 4] 



623.732-^23.733 Wire systems 

Class wireless systems [formerly 623.732-623.733] in 623.734- 
623.735 

For air-raid warning systems, see 623.737 

Telegraphy 
Telephony 



623.734-623.735 Wireless systems [formerly 
623.732-623,733] 

For air-raid warning systems, see 623.737 



5 



.734 


Radio- and microwave communication 


.7341 


Short-wave 


.734 2 


Radiotelegraphy 


.734 5 


Radiotelephony 


.734 8 


Radar 


.735 


Television 


.737 


Air-raid warning systems [formerly 623.38] 




762 



623.74 



.741 



.742 
.743 



.744 
.746 



.746 2 
.746 3 
.746 4 
.746 5 

.746 6 

.746 7 
.746 9 
.747 
.747 2 
.747 22 
.747 23 
.747 24 



Vehicles 

Self-propelled conveyances with directional independence 
For government vessels, see 623.825-623.826 



623.741-623.746 Aircraft 
Lighter-than-air 

For specific types of lighter-than-air aircraft, see 
623.742-623.744 



623.742-623.744 Specific types of hghter-than-air 
aircraft 

Free balloons 

Airships ( Dirigible balloons ) 

Divide like 629.133 25 - 629.133 27, e.g., rigid dirigibles 
623.743 5 

Barrage balloons 
Heavier-than-air 



623.746 2-623.746 7 Manned aircraft 
Trainers 
Bombers 
Fighters 
Carriers 

Including transport and cargo aircraft 

Rescue aircraft 

Including amphibian planes and helicopters 

Reconnaissance aircraft 
Pilotless aircraft (Guided aircraft) 
Motor land vehicles 

For transporting personnel 

Jeeps and similar vehicles 

Buses 

Ambulances 



7^3 



■:i 






623.747 4 
.747 5 

,748 



.749 

.75 

.751 

.753 

.754 

.76 

.77 



.8 



.81 

.817 



.818 



.819 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



For transporting supplies 
For combat 

Armored cars and tanks [both formerly 623.43] 

Air-cushion vehicles 

Divide like 629.32, e.g., over-water vehicles 623.748 4 

Spacecraft 

Sanitation 

Water supply- 
Sewage treatment and disposal 
Garbage and refuse treatment and disposal 

Power and light systems 

Camouflage 

Including blackouts [formerly 623.38], decoy and dummy 
construction 

Naval engineering 





SUMMARY 


623.81 


Naval architecture 


.82 


Ships and boats 


.83 


Shipyards 


.84 


Hull construction 


.85 


Special systems 


.86 


Equipment and outfit 


.87 


Power plants (Marine engineering) 


.88 


Seamanship 


.89 


Navigation 



Naval architecture 
Structural theory 

Divide like 624.17, e.g., deflections 623.817 14 

For structural design in specific materials, see 623.818 

Structural design in specific materials 

Divide like 624.18, e.g., design in metal 623.818 2 

Design tests 

Including experimental model tanks for testing [formerly 
623.831] 

764 



623.82 



.820 2 
.820 3 
.8204 



.821 



.822 



.823 



Ships and boats 

Construction, maintenance, repairs 

Use 623.820 01 - 623.820 09 for standard subdivisions 

For parts and detaik of ships and boats, see 623.84-623.87 



623.820 2-623.820 4 General types 
Class specific types in 623.821-623.829 

Small craft 

Sailing craft 

Power-driven craft [formerly 623.823] 



623.821-623.829 Specific types 



SUMMARY 

Ancient and medieval 

Wind-driven 

Small and medium craft 

Merchant ships 

Government vessels 

Other power-driven vessels 

Hand-propelled and towed craft 

Ancient and medieval 



623.821 
.822 
.823 
.824 

,825-.826 
.828 
.829 



Caravels, galleys, sailing men-of-war, biremes, triremes 



623.822-623.829 Modem 

Wind-driven 

Clipper ships, racing yachts, rotor ships, sailboats 



623.823-623.828 Power-driven 

Small and medium craft 

Class comprehensive works on power-driven craft [formerly 
623.823] in 623,820 4 



.823 1 


Motorboats 


.823 13 


Outboard 


.823 14 


Inboard 


.823 15 


Inboard-outboard 




765 



Decimal Classification 



l-r. 



Mi 



:f 



hi: 






r*' 



I 



-I' 

'I 

■I- 



^1 



623.823 2 


Tugboats and towboats 


.823 4 


Ferryboats 


.824 


Merchant ships 


.824 3 


Passenger 




Lake, river, ocean liners 


.824 5 


Cargo 




Freighters, bulk carriers, tankers 


.824 8 


Factory 




Whaleboats and ship canneries 


► 


623.825-623.826 Government vessels 


.825 


Warships 


.825 2 


Battleships 


.825 3 


Cruisers 


.825 4 


Destroyers and destroyer escorts 


.825 5 


Aircraft carriers 


.825 6 


Landing craft 




Including amphibious landing craft 


.825 7 


Submarines 


.825 72 


Diesel-engine and electric-motor powered 


.825 74 


Nuclear-powered 


.826 


Other 


.826 2 


Minecraft 


.826 3 


Pohce boats and revenue cutters 


.826 4 


Transports and hospital ships 


.826 5 


Supply ships 



Engineering and allied operations 



.828 



.829 



Other power-driven vessels 

Icebreakers, trawlers, dredgers, drilling ships 

Hand-propelled and towed craft 

Canoes, lifeboats, barges, scows, rowboats, towed 
canalboats, coracles 



766 



623.83 



[.831] 



.84 

.842 
.843 
.843 2 
.843 3 
.844 
.848 

.85 



.8501 
.850 3 
.850 4 
.852 



.853 
.853 5 
.853 7 
.854 



.854 2 
.854 3 



Shipyards 

Appliances and facilities used in construction, maintenance and 
repair of ships 

Experimental model tanks for testing 
Class in 623.819 



623.84-623.87 Parts and details of ships and boats 
Hull construction 
Lofting 
Metalwork 

Welding and riveting 
Shipfitting 
Carpentry (Shipwrights' work) 

Resistant construction 

Fire-, heat-, pest-, shock-resistant construction 

Special systems 

Use 623.850 01 - 623.850 09 for standard subdivisions 
For power plants, see 623.87 

Mechanical 

Electrical [formerly 623.852] 
Electronic 
Electric lighting 

Class electrical systems [formerly 623.852] in 623.850 3 

Air conditioning and temperature controls 

Refrigeration 

Heating and air conditioning 
Water supply and sanitation 



623.854 2 - 623.854 3 Water supply 
Potable water 
Sea water 

For sanitation and fire fighting 

767 



i 



t 



Decimal Classification 



Engineering and allied operations 



-1. 

:9 



623.854 6 


Plumbing 


.856 


Communication systems [formerly 623.864] 




Wire and wireless 


.86 


Equipment and outfit 


.862 


Gear and rigging 




Rope, masts, spars, rudder, sails, cordage, anchors 


.863 


Nautical instruments 


.864 


Flares and other portable lights 




Class communication systems [formerly 623.864] in 


.865 


Lifesaving equipment 


.866 


Funiitiire 


.87 


Power plants ( Marine engineering) 


.872 


Engines 


.872 2 


Steam 


.872 3 


Other 



.872 8 
.873 



.874 
.88 



.882 



Divide like 621.433-621.437, e.g., diesel engines 
623.872 36 

Nuclear 

Engine auxiliaries 

Boilers, piping, condensers, blowers, pumps, propellers, 
shafting 

Fuels 
Seamanship 

Art and science of handling ships 

Class rules of the road [formerly 623.88] in 340 

Handling specific types of ships and boats 

Divide like 623.82, e.g., handUng warships 623.882 5 
For special aspects, see 623.888 



623.888 


Special aspects 


.888 2 


Knotting and spUcing ropes and cables 


.888 4 


ColKsion and grounding prevention 


.888 5 


Wreckage studies 




Determination of causes of accidents thru examination of 




remains 


.888 7 


Rescue techniques 


.89 


Navigation 




Selection and determination of course 




For celestial navigation, see 527 



.892 



.892 2 



.892 3 
.892 9 



.893 



.893 2 



.893 3 



.893 8 



Geonavigation 

For aids to geonavigation, see 623.893-623.894 

Piloting 

Positioning ships by visual observation of objects of 
known position 

For approach and harbor piloting, see 623.892 9 

Dead reckoning 

Pilot guides (Approach and harbor piloting) 
Add area notations 4-9 to 623.892 9 



623.893-623.894 Aids to geonavigation 
Electronic aids 



768 



623.893 2 - 623.893 3 Direction- and position-finding 
devices 

Radio aids 

Radio beacons, radio compasses, loran 

Microwave aids 

Radar, racon, shoran 

Sounding devices 

Sonar, other echo and sound ranging devices 



7^9 



Decimal Classification 



623.894 


Other aids 


.894 2-.894 4 


Markers 




Divide like 627.922-627.924, e.g., lighthouses 623.894 


.894 5 


Light lists 


.894 9 


Tide and current tables 



624 



.1 



.101 



.15 
.151 



.1513 

.1514 
.1517 



Civil engineering 

For specific branches of civil engineering, see 625-628 

SUMMARY 

624.1 Structural engineering 

.2 Bridges 

.3 Trussed and girder bridges 

.4 Tubular and box-girder bridges 

.5 Suspension bridges 

.6 Arch bridges 

.7 Compound bridges 

.8 Movable bridges 

.9 Roofs 

Structural engineering 

For superstructures, see 624.2-624.9 

Philosophy and theory 

Class structural theory in 624.17 

SUMMARY 

Foundation engineering 

Other supporting structures 

Structural theory 

Structural design in specific materials 

Tunnels 



624.15 
.16 
.17 
.18 
.19 



Foundation engineering 

Foundation soils 

Mechanics of soils supporting structures 
Including permafrost 

Tests of strength 
Content analysis 
Surveys 



770 



Engineering and allied operations 



624.152 



.153 



.154 
.156 

.157 



.1571 
.157 2 
.157 3 
.157 4 
.157 5 
.157 6 
.158 
.16 



.17 



.171 



Excavation 

Earthwork, shoring, rock excavation 

Foundation materials 

Divide Uke 620.12-620.19, e.g., iron 624.153 7 



624.154—624,158 Specific types of foundations 
Planning, structural analysis and design, construction methods 

Pile 

Floating 

Platform and cantilever foundations 

Underwater (Subaqueous) 



624.157 1 - 624.157 6 Construction methods 
Cofferdam 

Crib and open-caisson 
Pneumatic-caisson 
Freezing 

Pneumatic forcing 
Dredging 
Pier 
Other supporting structures 

Planning, structmal analysis and design, construction methods 
of piers, abutments, embankments, retaining walls 

Structural theory 

Class a specific application with the subject 

Structural analysis 

Reactions and displacements (deflections) occurring in 
loaded structures 

For loads, stresses, strains, see 624.172-624.176 



.1713 


Statical determinacy 


.1714 


Deflections 


.1715 


Moment distribution 



771 



Decimal Chssification 



624.172 



624.172-624.176 Loads, stresses, strains 

Loads 

Determination of dead and live loads, calculation of critical 
loadings 

For wind loads, see 624.175 



.175 
.176 



.177 



Wind loads 

Stresses and strains 

Produced by loads, winds, earthquakes, vibrations, impacts, 
blasts, temperature changes 

Structural design 

Determination of materials for structure and proportions of 
the structural elements 

For structural design in specific materials, see 624.18 





624.177 2-624.177 9 Structural elements 


.177 2 


Beams, girders, slabs 


.177 3 


Trusses and frames 


.177 4 


Cables 


.177 5 


Arches 


.177 6 


Shells 


.177 9 


Other elements 


.18 


Structural design in specific materials 


.182 


In metal 


.183 


In masonry, ceramic and allied materials 




Brick, cement, concretes, tile, glass 


.184 


In wood 


.189 


In other materials 


.19 


Tunnels 




Planning, sliuctural analysis and design, construction methods 


.192 


Mountain 


.193 


Underground 


.194 


Underwater 


.199 


Other 




772 



Engineering and allied operations 



624.2 



.25 

.252 
.253 

.257 
[.27] 

.28 



.32 

.33 



.35 

.37 

,372 
.375 
.378 



624.2-624.9 Superstructures 

For buildings, see 690 

Bridges 

For specific types of bridges, see 624.3-624.8 

Structural analysis and design 

Loads, sti'esses, strains 

Floor systems 

Structural elements 
Girder bridges 

Class in 624.37 

Construction methods 



624.3-624.8 Specific types of bridges 

Planning, stmctural analysis and design, construction methods 

Trussed and girder bridges 



624.32-624.35 Trussed bridges 
For trussed arch bridges, see 624.7 

Trestle 

Continuous 

Bridges consisting of beams, girders, or trusses extending 
uninterruptedly over more than two supports 

Cantilever 

Girder bridges [formerly 624.27] 
Simple girder 
Covered girder 

Plate- and lattice-girder 

For plate-girder suspension bridges, see 624.7; box-girder 
bridges, 624 A 



773 



Decimal Classification 



624.4 



,52 



.55 



.6 



Tubular and box-girder bridges 

Suspension bridges 

For plate-girder suspension bridges, see 624.7 

Primitive 

Rope bridges of hammock and basket types 

Modem 

Wire-cable, self-anchored, eyebar-chain, rope-strand cable 
suspension bridges 

Arch bridges 

Hinged and hingeless 

For trussed arch bridges, see 624.7 



.63 


Of masonry 


.67 


Of metal 


.7 


Compound bridges 




Plate-girder suspension bridges and trussed arch bridges 


A 


Movable bridges 


.82 


Bascule 


.83 


Swing 


.84 


Vertical-lift 


.86 


Transporter 


.87 


Pontoon 



.9 



.92 



,93 

,95 



Roofs 



Planning, structural design and analysis, construction methods 
For covering, maintaining, repairing roofs, see 695.1-695.7 

Pitcht and gable 

Hipt, gambrel, curb, saddle, lean-to, mansard roofs 

Flat 

Domed, vaulted, shell 



774 



Engineering and allied operations 



625 



.1 



.101 
.102 
.103 
.11 



.12 
.122 



.123 



625-628 Specific branches of civil engineering 

For vehicles, see 629.1-629.4 

Railroads and their rolling stock, roads and highways 

Planning, structural analysis and design, construction methods, 
maintenance, repairs 

SUMMARY 

625.1 Raih-oads 

.2 Railroad rolling stock 

.3 Inclined, mountain, ship railways 

.4 Rapid transit systems 

.5 Cable and aerial railways 

.6 Electric railways 

.7 Roads and highways 

.8 Artificial road surfaces 

Railroads 

Use 625.100 1 - 625.100 9 for standard subdivisions 
For special-purpose railways, see 625.3—625.6 

Standard-gage railroads 
Narrow-gage railroads 
Monoraibroads 
Surveying 

Reconnaissance, preliminary surveys, final location surveys 

Including roadway design, determination of grades, curves, 
switchbacks, right of way 



625.12-625.16 Permanent way 
For maintenance and repairs, see 625.17 

Earthwork 
Soil surveys 

Soil profiles, tests and analysis of subgrade soils 

Roadbed preparation 

Clearing and grubbing, compaction, excavation, rock cut- 
ting, earth and rock haulage, grading, formation of embank- 
ments, cuts, fills 



775 



Decimal Classification 



625.13 



.14 



.141 
.143 
.144 

.146 
.147 
.15 

.16 

.163 

.165 
.17 



.18 
.19 
.2 



.21 



Protective structures 

Including snow fences, permanent snowsheds, retaining walls 

Superstructure 

For rails and rail fastenings, see 625.15; track accessories 
625.16 

Ballast 

Ties (Sleepers) and tie plates 

Track laying 

For tracks over ice cover, see 625.147 

Monorail tracks 

Tracks over ice cover [formerly 625.892] 
Rails and rail fastenings 

Rail joints, tie pads, spikes, rail anchors 

Track accessories 

Design, construction, installation 

Turnouts and crossings 
Switches, frogs, sidings 

Signals 
Maintenance and repairs 

Including snow removal operations 

Railroad yards ( Terminal layouts ) 

Model railroads and trains 

Railroad rolling stock 

Planning, structural analysis and design, construction methods, 
maintenance, repairs 

Class roUing stock for special-purpose railways in 625.3-625.6 

For model trains, see 625.19 



625.21-625.26 For standard- and narrow-gage rail- 
roads 

Running gear 

Wheels, axles, bearings, springs 

776 



Engineering and allied operations 



625.22 



.23 



.24 



.25 



.26 



.262 
.263 
.265 
.266 

27 

.28 



625.22-625.24 Specific types of cars 

Work cars (Nonrevenue rolling stock) 

Locomotive cranes and shovels, handcars, railroad snowplows, 
ditchers, flangers, derrick cars, cabooses, wrecking cars 

Passenger cars 

Coaches, chair cars, diners, club cars, lounge cars, sleeping cars, 
baggage cars, mail cars 

Freight cars 

Refrigerator cars, automobile cars, boxcars, catde cars, tank 
cars, hoppers, gondola cars, flatcars 

Accessory equipment 
Brakes, couplings, buffers 

Locomotives 

For steam locomotives, see 621.13 

Gas-turbine 
Electric 

Air-compression powered 
Diesel and semidiesel 

Mechanical operation 
Monorail rolling stock 



625.3-625.6 Special-purpose railways 

Roadbeds, tracks and accessories, conveying apparatus, rolling 
stock 



.3 


Inclined, mountain, ship railways 


.32 


Funicular 


.33 


Rack 


.39 


Ship 


.4 


Rapid transit systems 


.42 


Underground (Subways) 


.44 


Elevated 




777 



Decimal Classification 



625.5 



•6 

.65 
.66 
.7 

.71 

72 



.73 

,732 



.733 



.734 



.735 



.74 



.75 



Cable and aerial railways 

For funicular railways, see 625,32 

Electric rail and trolley systems 

Local and light interurban surface sys